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Technical Paper

Numerical Study of Ignition Core Formation and the Effects on Combustion in a Pilot Ignited NG Engine

2017-10-08
2017-01-2273
A numerical simulation was performed to investigate the pilot ignited natural gas combustion process in a direct injection natural gas engine. Various mixture distribution characteristics were compared in terms of the evolution of mixture equivalent ratio distributions and mixture concentration stratifications around top dead center (TDC). Based on above, the pilot injections were specially designed to investigate ignition core formation and its effects on natural gas combustion process. The result shows that pilot ignition sites have great impacts on pilot fuel ignition process and natural gas combustion process. The pilot ignition site on the region with rich NG/Air mixture is disadvantageous to the pilot fuel ignition due to a lack of oxygen, which is not beneficial to ignition core formation.
Journal Article

Experimental Study on High-Load Extension of Gasoline/PODE Dual-Fuel RCCI Operation Using Late Intake Valve Closing

2017-03-28
2017-01-0754
The dual-fuel Reactivity Controlled Compression Ignition (RCCI) combustion could achieve high efficiency and low emissions over a wide range of operating conditions. However, further high load extension is limited by the excessive pressure rise rate and soot emission. Polyoxymethylene dimethyl ethers (PODE), a novel diesel alternative fuel, has the capability to achieve stoichiometric smoke-free RCCI combustion due to its high oxygen content and unique molecule structure. In this study, experimental investigations on high load extension of gasoline/PODE RCCI operation were conducted using late intake valve closing (LIVC) strategy and intake boosting in a single-cylinder, heavy-duty diesel engine. The experimental results show that the upper load can be effectively extended through boosting and LIVC with gasoline/PODE stoichiometric operation.
Technical Paper

The Optimization of Intake Port using Genetic Algorithm and Artificial Neural Network for Gasoline Engines

2015-04-14
2015-01-1353
The flow performance of intake port significantly affects engine output power, fuel economy, and exhaust emissions in gasoline engines. Thus, optimal intake port geometry is desired in gasoline engines. To optimize the flow performance of intake port, a new optimization method combining genetic algorithm (GA) and artificial neural network (ANN) was proposed. First, an automatic system for generating the geometry of the tangential intake port was constructed to create various port geometries through inputting the 18 pre-defined structural parameters. Then, the effects of four critical structural parameters were investigated through numerical simulation. On the basis of the computational results, an ANN was used to model the flow performance of the intake port, and a genetic algorithm was simultaneously employed to optimize the flow performance by optimizing the four important structural parameters. Finally, the optimization results were verified through numerical simulation.
Journal Article

Numerical Study of RCCI and HCCI Combustion Processes Using Gasoline, Diesel, iso-Butanol and DTBP Cetane Improver

2015-04-14
2015-01-0850
Reactivity Controlled Compression Ignition (RCCI) has been shown to be an attractive concept to achieve clean and high efficiency combustion. RCCI can be realized by applying two fuels with different reactivities, e.g., diesel and gasoline. This motivates the idea of using a single low reactivity fuel and direct injection (DI) of the same fuel blended with a small amount of cetane improver to achieve RCCI combustion. In the current study, numerical investigation was conducted to simulate RCCI and HCCI combustion and emissions with various fuels, including gasoline/diesel, iso-butanol/diesel and iso-butanol/iso-butanol+di-tert-butyl peroxide (DTBP) cetane improver. A reduced Primary Reference Fuel (PRF)-iso-butanol-DTBP mechanism was formulated and coupled with the KIVA computational fluid dynamic (CFD) code to predict the combustion and emissions of these fuels under different operating conditions in a heavy duty diesel engine.
Technical Paper

Effects of Fuel Volatility on Combustion and Emissions over a Wide Range of EGR Rates in a Diesel Engine

2014-10-13
2014-01-2659
To investigate the effects of fuel volatility on combustion and emissions in a diesel engine, a high-volatility fuel of n-heptane was blended into diesel fuel with different volumetric fractions (0%, 40%, 70%, 100%). A wide range of EGR rates from 0% to 65% were investigated, which covered both the conventional diesel combustion and low temperature combustion. Experiments under two engine load conditions, ∼5.2 bar and ∼10.5 bar gross IMEP were performed at 1500 rpm. The injection timing was fixed at 8°CA BTDC for all test cases. Results show that even if the ignition delay and combustion duration are nearly the same for all tested fuels, the premixed combustion fractions are increased for higher volatility fuels due to the improvement on mixing process during the ignition delay period. The indicated specific fuel consumption is decreased as using high-volatility fuels. The effect of fuel volatility on soot emissions depends on engine loads.
Technical Paper

Combustion and Emission Characteristics of a HCCI Engine Fuelled with Different n-Butanol-Gasoline Blends

2014-10-13
2014-01-2668
Biobutanol, i.e. n-butanol, as a second generation bio-derived alternative fuel of internal combustion engines, can facilitate the energy diversification in transportation and reduce carbon dioxide (CO2) emissions from engines and vehicles. However, the majority of research was conducted on spark-ignition engines fuelled with n-butanol and its blend with gasoline. A few investigations were focused on the combustion and exhaust emission characteristics of homogeneous charge compression ignition (HCCI) engines fuelled with n-butanol-gasoline blends. In this study, experiments were conducted in a single cylinder four stroke port fuel injection HCCI engine with fully variable valve lift and timing mechanisms on both the intake and exhaust valves. HCCI combustion was achieved by employing the negative valve overlap (NVO) strategy while being fueled with gasoline (Bu0), n-butanol (Bu100) and their blends containing 30% n-butanol by volume (Bu30).
Technical Paper

Modeling the Spray Behaviors of Fatty Acid Methyl Esters in Biodiesel Fuels under Engine-Relevant Conditions

2014-10-13
2014-01-2736
Spray behaviors of pure biodiesel and its blend with conventional diesel have been substantially studied in the last decade. However, the studies on the spray behaviors of pure fatty acid methyl esters (FAMEs) are scarce. The primary components of most biodiesel fuels are methyl palmitate (C16:0), methyl stearate (C18:0), methyl oleate (C18:1), methyl linoleate (C18:2) and methyl linolenate (C18:3), and methyl laurate (C12:0) is also the dominant component of some biodiesels. In this study, the spray behaviors of the aforementioned six FAMEs in biodiesel fuels under engine-relevant conditions were numerically studied using the KIVA-3V code. The physical properties needed for spray modeling were predicted with most recently developed property prediction models and added into the fuel library of KIVA-3V. The transient behaviors of liquid penetrations and vaporization characteristics of these FAMEs were numerically studied under various engine-relevant conditions.
Technical Paper

Updated Prediction of the Physical Properties Needed for Modeling the Spray Behavior of Biodiesel Fuel

2014-10-13
2014-01-2750
It has been recognized that density, viscosity, surface tension, and volatility of liquid fuel are of great importance on the atomization and vaporization characteristics of biodiesel spray. This paper presents a comprehensive physical property prediction of biodiesel fuel for spray modeling with most recently developed property prediction models. The temperature-dependent properties of a soy methyl ester (SME) biodiesel were well predicted by the updated prediction methods. Then, the physical properties of the SME biodiesel were added into the KIVA-3V fuel library. By using the well predicted fuel properties, the spray behaviors of SME were successfully simulated by the KIVA-3V code under late-cycle post-injection, conventional diesel injection, and early-injection engine-relevant conditions. The simulation results agree reasonably well with the available experimental liquid penetrations under conditions of various ambient densities and temperatures.
Technical Paper

Effects of Driver Acceleration Behavior on Fuel Consumption of City Buses

2014-04-01
2014-01-0389
Approximately 50% energy is consumed during the acceleration of a city bus. Fuel consumption during acceleration is significantly affected by driving behavior. In this study, 13 characteristic parameters were selected to describe driving style based on analysis of how driving influences fuel consumption during acceleration. The 100,000 km real-world vehicle running data of six drivers on three city buses in a particular bus line in Tianjin, China were sampled using a vehicle-on-line data logger. Based on the selected characteristic parameters and collected driving data, an evaluation model of the fuel consumption level of a driver was established by adopting the method of decision tree C4.5. For two-level classification, the model has over 85% prediction accuracy. The model also has the advantages of having a few training samples and strong generalization. As an example of the model application, the fuel-saving potential of a driver under optimal operations was analyzed.
Technical Paper

Expanding the Low Load Limit of HCCI Combustion Process Using EIVO Strategy in a 4VVAS Gasoline Engine

2012-04-16
2012-01-1121
Homogeneous charge compression ignition (HCCI) technology is promising to reduce engine exhaust emissions and fuel consumption in gasoline engine. However, it is still confronted with the problem of its limited operation range. High load is limited by the tradeoff between the quantity of working charge and dilution charge. Low load is limited by the high residual gas fraction and low temperature in the cylinder. One of the highlights of HCCI combustion research at present is to expand the low load limit of HCCI combustion by developing HCCI idle operation. The main obstacle in developing HCCI idle combustion is too high residual gas fraction and low temperature to misfire in cylinder. This paper relates to a method for achieving the appropriate environment for auto-ignition at idle and the optimal tradeoff between the combustion stability and fuel consumption by employing EIVO valve strategy with an equivalent air-fuel ratio.
Technical Paper

Experimental Study on Spark Assisted Compression Ignition (SACI) Combustion with Positive Valve Overlap in a HCCI Gasoline Engine

2012-04-16
2012-01-1126
The spark-assisted compression ignition (SACI) is widely used to expend the high load limit of homogeneous charge compression ignition (HCCI), as it can reduce the high heat release rate effectively while partially maintain the advantage of high thermal efficiency and low NOx emission. But as engine load increases, the SACI combustion traditionally using negative valve overlap strategy (NVO) faces the drawback of higher pumping loss and limited intake charge availability, which lead to a restricted load expansion and a finite improvement of fuel economy. In this paper, research is focused on the SACI combustion using positive valve overlap (PVO) strategy. The characteristics of SACI combustion employing PVO strategy with external exhaust gas recirculation (eEGR) are investigated. Two types of PVO strategies are analyzed and compared to explore their advantages and defects, and the rules of adjusting SACI combustion with positive valve overlap are concluded.
Technical Paper

Study of Biodiesel Combustion in a Constant Volume Chamber with Different Ambient Temperature and Oxygen Concentration

2011-08-30
2011-01-1931
Biodiesel is a widely used biofuel in diesel engines, which is of particular interest as a renewable fuel because it possesses the similar properties as the diesel fuel. The pure soybean biodiesel was tested in an optical constant volume combustion chamber using natural flame luminosity and forward illumination light extinction (FILE) methods to explore the combustion process and soot distribution at various ambient temperatures (800 K and 1000 K) and oxygen concentrations (21%, 16%, 10.5%). Results indicated that, with a lower ambient temperature, the autoignition delay became longer for all three oxygen concentrations and more ambient air was entrained by spray jet and more fuel was burnt by premixed combustion. With less ambient oxygen concentration, the heat release rate showed not only a longer ignition delay but also longer combustion duration.
Technical Paper

Continuous Load Adjustment Strategy of a Gasoline HCCI-SI Engine Fully Controlled by Exhaust Gas

2011-04-12
2011-01-1408
Homogeneous charge compression ignition (HCCI) technology is promising to reduce engine exhaust emissions and fuel consumption. However, it is still confronted with the problem of its narrow operation range that covers only the light and medium loads. Therefore, to expand the operation range of HCCI, mode switching between HCCI combustion and transition SI combustion is necessary, which may bring additional problems to be resolved, including load fluctuation and increasing the complexity of control strategy, etc. In this paper, a continuously adjustable load strategy is proposed for gasoline engines. With the application of the strategy, engine load can be adjusted continuously by the in-cylinder residual gas fraction in the whole operation range. In this research, hybrid combustion is employed to bridge the gaps between HCCI and traditional SI and thus realize smooth transition between different load points.
Technical Paper

Spray and Combustion Characteristics of n-Butanol in a Constant Volume Combustion Chamber at Different Oxygen Concentrations

2011-04-12
2011-01-1190
A very competitive alcohol for use in diesel engines is butanol. Butanol is of particular interest as a renewable bio-fuel, as it is less hydrophilic and it possesses higher heating value, higher cetane number, lower vapor pressure, and higher miscibility than ethanol or methanol. These properties make butanol preferable to ethanol or methanol for blending with conventional diesel or gasoline fuel. In this paper, the spray and combustion characteristics of pure n-butanol fuel was experimentally investigated in a constant volume combustion chamber. The ambient temperatures were set to 1000 K, and three different oxygen concentrations were set to 21%, 16%, and 10.5%. The results indicate that the penetration length reduces with the increase of ambient oxygen concentration. The combustion pressure and heat release rate demonstrate the auto-ignition delay becomes longer with decreasing of oxygen concentrations.
Technical Paper

Investigations on Combustion Process of Low-pressure CNG Compound Direct Injection Spark-ignited Engines

2010-09-28
2010-32-0052
Natural gas is regarded as one of the most potential alternative fuels of engines because of its fruitful storage, good obtainable resources, and high octane value, etc. Compared with port fuel injection (PFI), Gasoline direct injection (GDI) has many advantages on volumetric efficiency improvement, lean-burning, emissions control, etc. A set of measuring and data acquisition system on CNG direct injection spark-ignited engines and the CNG multi-direct injection system are developed in this paper. Based on different injection modes of CNG single DI and compound DI (main injection and auxiliary-Injection), the investigations on combustion process of CNG DI engines has been conducted by the factors of in-cylinder mixture formation, air/fuel ratio, and injection timing, etc. Meanwhile, the three-dimension simulation on mixture formation and combustion principle of low-pressure CNG compound direct injection engines has also been researched.
Technical Paper

Research on Relativity of Knock Sensor Signal and Gasoline HCCI Combustion Obtained with Trapping Residual Gas

2010-04-12
2010-01-1242
A great deal of effort has been directed towards Gasoline HCCI engines, which have the potential of providing better fuel economy and emission characteristics than conventional SI engines. For stable HCCI engine operation, cycle-by-cycle based closed-loop control is needed. Such a control scheme requires an accurate and reliable sensor to monitor the combustion and provide a feedback signal. At present, the general method used to measure the combustion parameters is to monitor in-cylinder pressure with a cylinder pressure sensor. However, using in-cylinder pressure transducers is not feasible for use in mass production of HCCI engines. A good substitute to get information about combustion is the knock sensor, which is already equipped on engines on a large scale. In this paper, the knock signal from an HCCI engine equipped with 4VVAS is analyzed in detail to find the relationship between the combustion parameters and the knock sensor signal.
Technical Paper

Diesel Engine Combustion Control: Medium or Heavy EGR?

2010-04-12
2010-01-1125
Exhaust Gas Recirculation (EGR) is an important parameter for control of diesel engine combustion, especially to achieve ultra low NOx emissions. In this paper, the effects of EGR on engine emissions and engine efficiency have been investigated in a heavy-duty diesel engine while changing combustion control parameters, such as injection pressure, injection timing, boost, compression ratio, oxygenated fuel, etc. The engine was operated at 1400 rpm for a cycle fuel rate of 50mg. The results show that NOx emissions strongly depend on the EGR rate. The effects of conventional combustion parameters, such as injection pressure, injection timing, and boost, on NOx emissions become small as the EGR rate is increased. Soot emissions depend strongly on the ignition delay and EGR rate (oxygen concentration). Soot emissions can be reduced by decreasing the compression ratio, increasing the injection pressure, or burning oxygenated fuel.
Technical Paper

An Investigation of Different Ported Fuel Injection Strategies and Thermal Stratification in HCCI Engines Using Chemiluminescence Imaging

2010-04-12
2010-01-0163
The purpose of this study was to gain a better understanding of the effects of port fuel injection strategies and thermal stratification on the HCCI combustion processes. Experiments were conducted in a single-cylinder HCCI engine modified with windows in the combustion chamber for optical access. Two-dimensional images of the chemiluminescence were captured using an intensified CCD camera in order to understand the spatial distribution of the combustion. N-heptane was used as the test fuel. The experimental data consisting of the in-cylinder pressure, heat release rate, chemiluminescence images all indicate that the different port fuel injection strategies result in different charge distributions in the combustion chamber, and thus affect the auto-ignition timing, chemiluminescence intensity, and combustion processes. Under higher intake temperature conditions, the injection strategies have less effect on the combustion processes due to improved mixing.
Technical Paper

PAIRCUI- A New Pressure Accumulative, Injection Rate Controllable Unit Injector for Diesel Engine Fuel Systems

1997-05-01
971680
A pressure accumulative injection rate controllable unit injector-PAIRCUI is proposed and developed. This unit injector is powered by fuel pressure accumulation controlled by an electronic control unit and its injection rate is shaped by inner valves of the injector. Inherent advantages of an accumulator type unit injector have been carried out in this new design, including sructural simplicity, totally flexible injection timing, medium common rail pressure, tolerable pump size and flow requirement. A number of decisive features have also been realized that are significant for high efficiency and low emissions of engine combustion, including higher mean effective injection pressure(MEIP), pilot injection capability and rapid end of injection. The injection pressure is independent of engine speed, but regulated upon engine load. These characteristics are beneficial in improving engine performance and fuel consumption.
Technical Paper

Enhancement of Near Wall Mixing of an Impinging Jet by Means of a Bump on the Wall

1997-05-01
971616
It is found that a thin and rich mixture layer on a wall is formed after impingement of a gas jet of fuel on the wall. The measured thickness of the mixture layer is about 2 mm. and its dispersion rate after the end of injection is much lower, compared to that of a space gas jet. This phenomenon in a small D.I. diesel engine is known as “wall wetting” or “wall fuel accumulation” which has an important influence on engine fuel consumption and emissions. This paper presents a technique for enhancing the near wall mixing of an impinging jet by means of a bump on the wall. The development of a wall jet formed after an impingement of a gas jet has been investigated by simultaneously measuring the near wall velocity and concentration distribution. It has been found that a wall jet is stripped off the wall and ejected as a secondary jet when the wall jet encounters a bump of the wall.
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