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Technical Paper

Correlation of Objective and Subjective Evaluation in Automotive Brake Pedal Feel

2018-10-05
2018-01-1889
In order to establish the correlation between objective and subjective evaluation of brake pedal feel for passenger cars, road tests of brake pedal feel were carried out and an evaluation method was proposed. In the road tests, subjective scores and objective measurements were obtained under the conditions of uniform and emergency braking. The objective measurements include pedal preload, low deceleration pedal force and travel, moderate deceleration pedal force and travel, brake response time and brake linearity. Using the theory of analytic hierarchy process (AHP), the design process of the evaluation method was established. Key setups including the hierarchical structure model, the judgement matrix and the score calculation method of objective measurements were described in detail. Then, the correlation between subjective and objective scores was analyzed. It can be concluded that the evaluation method is effective and it can be applied to brake pedal feel assessment and adjustment.
Technical Paper

Study on Brake Disc Dynamics under Asymmetric Thermal Loads

2018-10-05
2018-01-1901
In order to explore the generation mechanism of hot-spots on the automotive brake disc, disc tests under non-frictional thermal loads are carried out on the brake dynamometer test bench. In the tests, the oxy-acetylene flame is used as the heat source, and the distribution characteristics of the disc temperature and displacement are measured and analyzed. To confirm the mechanism of the disc deformation, a disc thermal buckling model using finite element method is established, and the key factors for the disc thermal buckling under thermal loads are further analyzed. It is found that the temperature circumferential gradient is small but the temperature radial gradient is large. The disc presents waviness deformation mode with 5th order in circumferential direction, which is the first thermal buckling mode of the disc. A method using spatial frequency spectrum has been proposed to find the critical time and load of thermal buckling.
Technical Paper

Open-Loop Characteristics Analysis and Control of High Speed On-Off Valve

2018-10-05
2018-01-1868
In the process of ABS control, the Anti-lock braking system (ABS) of the vehicle adjusts the wheel cylinder brake pressure through the hydraulic actuator so as to control the movement of the wheel. The high-speed on-off valve (HSV) is the key components of the Anti-lock braking system. HSV affects the performance of the hydraulic actuator and the valve response characteristics affects the Anti-lock braking system pressure response as well as braking effect. In this paper, the electromagnetic field theory and flow field theory of HSV are analyzed, and simulation analysis of electromagnetic field characteristics of HSV is done by ANSYS. Combined with the ANSYS analysis results, a precise physical model of HSV is constructed in AMESim. Meanwhile, the valve response characteristics are analyzed. Moreover, the influence of different wheel cylinder diameter and PWM carrier frequency on hydraulic braking force characteristics are analyzed.
Technical Paper

UWB Location Algorithm Based on BP Neural Network

2018-08-07
2018-01-1605
In order to solve the problem that in the traditional trilateral positioning algorithm, the final positioning error is large when there is a certain error in the measured three-sided distance, a UWB positioning algorithm based on Back Propagation (BP) neural network is proposed. The algorithm utilizes the fast learning characteristic and the ability of approximating any non-linear mapping of neural network, and realizes the location of the mobile label through the TOA measurement value provided by the base station and the BP neural network. By comparing the traditional trilateral positioning algorithm, the BP neural network algorithm based on four distance inputs and the BP neural network algorithm based on four distance inputs with trilateral positioning coordinates, it can be seen that the positioning error of traditional trilateral positioning algorithm is 30 cm, and the positioning error of the positioning algorithm based on the BP neural network proposed in this paper is 10 cm.
Technical Paper

Camera-Radar Data Fusion for Target Detection via Kalman Filter and Bayesian Estimation

2018-08-07
2018-01-1608
Target detection is essential to the advanced driving assistance system (ADAS) and automatic driving. And the data fusion of millimeter wave radar and camera could provide more accurate and complete information of targets and enhance the environmental perception performance. In this paper, a method of vehicle and pedestrian detection based on the data fusion of millimeter wave radar and camera is proposed to improve the target distance estimation accuracy. The first step is the targets data acquisition. A deep learning model called Single Shot MultiBox Detector (SSD) is utilized for targets detection in consecutive video frames captured by camera and further optimized for high real-time performance and accuracy. Secondly, the coordinate system of camera and radar are unified by coordinate transformation matrix. Then, the parallel Kalman filter is used to track the targets detected by radar and camera respectively.
Technical Paper

Research on Track Management of Multi-Target Tracking Based on Modified Fast Algorithm for Data Association

2018-08-07
2018-01-1619
With the development of autonomous vehicle technology, there is an increasing tendency toward the application of intelligent sensors in environment-perception system on autonomous vehicle to assist vehicle in intelligent decision making relevant to autonomous driving. As for environment-perception system, a good track management method serves as the foundation, while multi-target tracking and multi-sensor data fusion are recognized as the key. In this paper, a track management method is proposed to deal with multi-target tracking based on the target-level data of multisource environmental sensors for autonomous vehicle. The track management includes four procedures as following: track initiation; point-track association; track update; track deletion. A modified fast algorithm for data association is applied in the point-track association procedure. Afterwards Kalman filter is implemented to update the track information of target. The algorithm has got through a simulation test.
Technical Paper

A Localization System for Autonomous Driving: Global and Local Location Matching Based on Mono-SLAM

2018-08-07
2018-01-1610
The utilization of the SLAM (Simultaneous Localization and Mapping) technique was extended from the robotics to the autonomous vehicles for achieving the positioning. However, SLAM cannot obtain the global position of the vehicle but a relative one to the start. For sake of this, a fast and accurate system was proposed to obtain both the local position and the global position of vehicles based on mono-SLAM which realized the SLAM by using monocular camera with a lower cost and power consumption. Firstly, the rough latitude and longitude of current position was obtained by using common GPS without differential signal. Then, the Mono-SLAM operated on the consecutive video frames to generate the localization and local trajectory and its accuracy was further improved by utilizing the IMU information. After that, a piece of Map centered in the rough position obtained by common GPS was downloaded from the Open Street Map.
Technical Paper

System Design and Model of a 3D 79 GHz High Resolution Ultra-Wide Band Millimeter-Wave Imaging Automotive Radar

2018-08-07
2018-01-1615
Automotive radar is an important environment perception sensor for advance driving assistance system. It can detect objects around the vehicle with high accuracy and it works in all bad weathers. For traditional automotive radar, it cannot measure the objects’ height. Thus, a manhole cover on the road surface or a guideboard high above the road would be taken erroneously as a non-moving car. In such cases, the adaptive cruise system would decelerate or stop the vehicle erroneously and make the driver uncomfortable. A 3D automotive radar with two-dimensional electronic scanning can measure the targets’ height as well as the targets’ azimuth angle. This paper presents a 79 GHz ultra-wide band automotive 3D imaging radar. Due to the 4 GHz wide bandwidth, the range resolution of this radar can be as small as 3.75 cm.
Technical Paper

Modified Car Following and Lane Changing Simulations Model for Autonomous Vehicle on Highway

2018-08-07
2018-01-1647
Being one of the most simple and basic driving scenarios, highway scenario can be one of the first scenarios to achieve autonomous driving. Both car following (CF) and lane changing (LC) are the most basic and frequent maneuver during highway driving tasks, and therefore become two key issues to focus on in recent researches about autonomous vehicle (AV). Different from conventional CF and LC researches that attach much importance to the character, psychology, perception ability, and driving experience of human drivers, more timely and accurate reactions based on fast perception and communication technology as well as the automatic actuator are hypotheses for this research. Moreover, based on these hypotheses, a modified intelligent driver model (MIDM) is proposed for AVs’ following behavior to alleviate the fluctuations caused by lane changing behaviors.
Technical Paper

Swarm Intelligence Based Algorithm for Management of Autonomous Vehicles on Arterials

2018-08-07
2018-01-1646
Connected and autonomous vehicles are different from traditional vehicles. The communication between vehicles (V2V) or between vehicles and infrastructures (V2I) renders it possible to convey traffic information (e.g. signal timing or speed advisory) from signal controllers to vehicles as well as vehicles to vehicles in real time. Taking this advantage, this paper aims to developing an algorithm which enables the interconnected autonomous vehicles running efficiently on arterials. A set of driving rules determining random behavior and swarm behavior of autonomous vehicles is developed based on swarm intelligence theory. Under control of these rules, each autonomous vehicle follows the same rules, which make it select target vehicle from all the optimal individuals in detection zone according to characteristics of itself, then approach to the target by changing lane, following former car, or accelerating.
Technical Paper

Study on Lane Change Trajectory Planning Considering of Driver Characteristics

2018-08-07
2018-01-1627
Automatic lane change of intelligent vehicles is a complex process. Besides of safety, feelings of the driver and passengers during the lane change are also very important. In this paper, a lane change trajectory planner is designed to generate an ideal collision-free trajectory to satisfy the driver’s preference. Various lane changing modes, gentle lane change, general lane change, radical lane change and personalized lane change, are designed to meet the needs of different passengers on vehicles simultaneously. In this paper, the condition of the two-lane change is studied. One vehicle is in front of the ego vehicle at the same lane and one is at the rear of the ego vehicle at the target lane. A trajectory planning method is then established based on constant speed offset and sine curve, vehicle distances and speed difference, etc. The key factors which can reflect drivers’ lane change characteristics are then acquired.
Technical Paper

Targets Location for Automotive Radar Based on Compressed Sensing in Spatial Domain

2018-08-07
2018-01-1621
Millimeter wave automotive radar is one of the most important sensors in the Advanced Driver Assistance System (ADAS) and autonomous driving system, which detects the target vehicles around the ego vehicle via processing transmitted and echo signals. However, the sampling rate of classical radar signal processing methods based on Nyquist sampling theorem is too high and the resolution of range, velocity and azimuth can’t meet the requirement of highly autonomous driving, especially azimuth. In spatial domain, targets are sparse distribution in the detection range of automotive radar. To solve these problems, the algorithm for targets location based on compressed sensing for automotive radar is proposed in this paper. Besides, the feasibility of the algorithm is verified through the simulation experiments of traffic scene. The range-doppler-azimuth model can be used to estimate the distance, velocity and azimuth of the target accurately.
Technical Paper

A New Method of Target Detection Based on Autonomous Radar and Camera Data Fusion

2017-09-23
2017-01-1977
Vehicle and pedestrian detection technology is the most important part of advanced driving assistance system (ADAS) and automatic driving. The fusion of millimeter wave radar and camera is an important trend to enhance the environmental perception performance. In this paper, we propose a method of vehicle and pedestrian detection based on millimeter wave radar and camera. Moreover, the proposed method complete the detection of vehicle and pedestrian based on dynamic region generated by the radar data and sliding window. First, the radar target information is mapped to the image by means of coordinate transformation. Then by analyzing the scene, we obtain the sliding windows. Next, the sliding windows are detected by HOG features and SVM classifier in a rough detect. Then using the match function to confirm the target. Finally detecting the windows in a precision detection and merging the detecting windows. The target detection process is carried out in the following three steps.
Technical Paper

The Trajectory Planning of the Lane Change Assist Based on the Model Predictive Control with Multi-Objective

2017-09-23
2017-01-2004
The automatic lane change assist system is an intelligent driving assistance technology oriented to traffic safety, which requires trajectory planning of the lane change maneuver based on the lane change decision. A typical scene of lane change for overtaking is selected, where the front vehicle in the same lane and the rear vehicle in the left lane are deemed to be potential dangerous vehicles through the lane change. Lane change trajectory equation is first established according to the general law of steering wheel angle through lane changes. Based on the relative position, velocity and acceleration information of the dangerous vehicles and the lane change vehicle, motions of these surrounding dangerous vehicles are predicted. At the same time, a multi-objective optimization function is established based on the relative longitudinal safety boundary. The objectives are the minimum safety distance, the lane change time and the front wheel angle.
Technical Paper

Precise Steering Angle Control of Lane Change Assist System

2017-09-23
2017-01-2002
After obtaining the optimal trajectory through the lane change decision and trajectory planning, the last key technology for the automatic lane change assist system is to carry out the precise and rapid steering actuation according to the front wheel angle demand. Therefore, an automatic lane change system model including a BLDCM (brushless DC motor) model, a steering system model and a vehicle dynamics model is first established in this paper. Electromagnetic characteristics of the motor, the moment of the inertia and viscous friction etc. are considered in these models. Then, a SMC (Sliding Mode Control) algorithm for the steering system is designed to follow the steering angle input. The control torque of the steering motor is obtained through the system model according to steering angle demand. After that, the control current is calculated considering of electromagnetic characteristics of the BLDCM. Debugging and optimization of the control algorithm are done through simulations.
Journal Article

Characteristics of Lubricants on Auto-ignition under Controllable Active Thermo-Atmosphere

2016-04-05
2016-01-0889
Downsizing gasoline direct injection engine with turbo boost technology is the main trend for gasoline engine. However, with engine downsizing and ever increasing of power output, a new abnormal phenomenon, known as pre-ignition or super knock, occurs in turbocharged engines. Pre-ignition will cause very high in-cylinder pressure and high oscillations. In some circumstances, one cycle of severe pre-ignition may damage the piston or spark plug, which has a severe influence on engine performance and service life. So pre-ignition has raised lots of attention in both industry and academic society. More and more studies reveal that the auto-ignition of lubricants is the potential source for pre-ignition. The auto-ignition characteristics of different lubricants are studied. This paper focuses on the ignition delay of different lubricants in Controllable Active Thermo-Atmosphere (CATA) combustion system.
Technical Paper

Study on Fuel Economy Improvement by Low Pressure Water-Cooled EGR System on a Downsized Boosted Gasoline Engine

2016-04-05
2016-01-0678
This research was concerned with the use of Exhaust Gas Recirculation (EGR) improving the fuel economy over a wide operating range in a downsized boosted gasoline engine. The experiments were performed in a 1.3-Litre turbocharged PFI gasoline engine, equipped with a Low Pressure (LP) water-cooled EGR system. The operating conditions varied from 1500rpm to 4000rpm and BMEP from 2bar to 17bar. Meanwhile, the engine’s typical operating points in NEDC cycle were tested separately. The compression ratio was also changed from 9.5 to 10.5 to pursue a higher thermal efficiency. A pre-compressor throttle was used in the experiment working together with the EGR loop to keep enough EGR rate over a large area of the engine speed and load map. The results indicated that, combined with a higher compression ratio, the LP-EGR could help to reduce the BSFC by 9∼12% at high-load region and 3∼5% at low-load region.
Technical Paper

A New Narrowband Active Noise Control System in the Presence of Frequency Mismatch and its Application for Steady-State Blower Noise

2015-06-15
2015-01-2214
In order to reduce high-frequency harmonic noise produced by the blower in the auxiliary system of a fuel cell vehicle (FCV), a narrowband active noise control (ANC) method instead of conventional passive mufflers is adopted since the blower demands clean air condition and expects good acoustic performance. However, in ANC practical applications, the frequency difference between reference signal and actual primary signal, i.e., frequency mismatch (FM), can significantly degrade the high-frequency performance of narrowband ANC system. In this paper, a new narrowband ANC system is proposed to compensate for the performance degeneration due to the existence of FM and improve noise reduction at high frequencies. The proposed system consists of two parts: the Filtered Error Least Mean Square (FELMS) algorithm filtering the primary signals at wide frequency range other than those at the targeted frequencies, and the FM removal algorithm proposed by Yegui Xiao.
Technical Paper

Torsional Vibration Modeling of Driveline System for EV Low-Frequency Flutter

2015-06-15
2015-01-2191
In view of the problem of low-frequency (less than 10Hz, such as 0.5Hz, 1.15Hz, 8Hz in this paper) longitudinal vibration exists in a pure electric vehicle, modeling methods of drive-line torsion vibration system are conducted. Firstly, dynamometer test is performed, signals of motor speed and seat rail acceleration are obtained, the frequency characteristics of flutter is determined using the order analysis and time frequency analysis. Then four types of modeling and analysis are investigated facing the drive-line torsion vibration problem, including single model without electromagnetic stiffness, branch model without electromagnetic stiffness, single model considering electromagnetic stiffness and branch model considering electromagnetic stiffness. The results show that, modeling taking into account the electromagnetic stiffness and branches can reflect more low-frequency characteristics helps to reveal the low-frequency longitudinal flutter of the researched electric vehicle.
Technical Paper

Control Optimization of a Compound Power-Split Hybrid Transmission for Electric Drive

2015-04-14
2015-01-1214
A novel compound power-split hybrid transmission based on a modified Ravigneaux gear set is presented. The equivalent lever diagrams are used to investigate the electric operating modes for the hybrid powertrain, and then its dynamic and kinematic characteristics as well as efficiency characteristics are described in equations. A brake clutch mounted on the carrier shaft is proposed to enhance the electric driving efficiency for the hybrid transmission. Three types of electric operating mode are analyzed by the simplified combined lever diagrams and the system efficiency and torque characteristics for these electric operating modes are compared. A major influence on output torque of the hybrid transmission derived from the torque capability of motors and brake clutch is depicted.
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