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Technical Paper

Performance Testing and Analysis of Multi-Channel Active Control System for Vehicle Interior Noise Using Adaptive Notch Filter

It is considered that slow convergence speed and large calculation amount of commonly used adaptive algorithm in the active control system for vehicle interior noise yield noise reduction performance and hardware requirements problems. In this paper, a 4-channel active control of vehicle interior noise based on adaptive notch filter is established, and road test is carried out to test and analyze the performance of the control system. Firstly, the general mathematic model of the multi-channel active control system based on adaptive notch filter is established. The computational complexity of the algorithm is analyzed and compared with that of the FXLMS algorithm. Secondly, a hardware-in-the-loop test bench based on multi-channel adaptive notch filter is set up, to measure the noise reduction performance of ANC system under various working conditions.
Technical Paper

Model-Based Pitch Control for Distributed Drive Electric Vehicle

On the dual-motor electric vehicle, which is driven by two electric motors mounted on the front and rear axles respectively, longitudinal dynamic control and electro-dynamic braking can be achieved by controlling the torque of front and rear axle motors respectively. Suspension displacement is related to the wheel torque, thus the pitch of vehicle body can be influenced by changing the torque distribution ratio. The pitch of the body has a great influence on the vehicle comfort, which occurs mainly during acceleration and braking progress. Traditionally active suspension is adopted to control the pitch of body. Instead, in this paper an ideal torque distribution strategy is developed to limit the pitch during acceleration and braking progress. This paper first explores the relationship between the torque distribution and the body pitch through the real vehicle test, which reveals the feasibility of the vehicle comfort promotion by optimizing the torque distribution coefficient.
Technical Paper

Emergency Steering Evasion Control by Combining the Yaw Moment with Steering Assistance

The coordinated control of stability and steering systems in collision avoidance steering evasion has been widely studied in vehicle active safety area, but the studies are mainly aimed at autonomous vehicle without driver or conventional combustion engine vehicle. This paper focuses on the control of hybrid vehicle integrated with rear hub in emergency steering evasion situation, and considering the driver’s characteristics. First, the mathematics model of vehicle dynamics and driver has been given. Second, based on the planned steering evasion path, the model predictive control method is presented for achieving higher evasion path tracking accuracy under driver’s steering input. The prediction model includes an adaptive preview distance driver model and a vehicle dynamics model to predict the driver input and the vehicle trajectory.
Technical Paper

Braking Pressure Tracking Control of a Pressure Sensor Unequipped Electro-Hydraulic Booster Based on a Nonlinear Observer

BBW (Brake-by-wire) can increase the vehicle safety performance due to high control accuracy and fast response speed. As one solution of BBW, the novel Integrated-electro-hydraulic brake system (I-EHB) is proposed, which consists of electro-hydraulic booster and hydraulic pressure control unit. The electro-hydraulic booster is activated by an electric motor that driving linear motion mechanism to directly produce the master cylinder pressure. With electro-hydraulic booster as an actuator, the hydraulic pressure control problem is a key issue. Most literatures deal with the pressure control issue based on the feedback pressure signal measured by pressure sensor. As far as the authors are aware, none of the proposed techniques takes into account the pressure sensor unequipped BBW. In this paper, there is no pressure feedback signal, but there is only position feedback signal measured by position sensor for control law design.
Technical Paper

Handling Improvement for Distributed Drive Electric Vehicle Based on Motion Tracking Control

The integrated control system which combines the differential drive assisted steering (DDAS) and the direct yaw moment control (DYC) for the distributed drive electric vehicle (DDEV) is studied. A handling improvement algorithm for the normal cornering maneuvers is proposed based on motion tracking control. Considering the ideal assistant power character curves at different velocities, an open-loop DDAS control strategy is developed to respond the driver’s demand of steering wheel torque. The DYC strategy contains the steering angle feedforward and the yaw rate feedback. The steering angle feedforward control strategy is employed to improve yaw rate steady gain of vehicle. The maximum feedforward coefficients at different velocities are obtained from the constraint of the motor external characteristic, final feedforward coefficients are calculated according to the ideal assistant power character curve of the DDAS.
Technical Paper

Study on a Fuzzy Q-Learning Approach Using the Driver Priori Knowledge for Intelligent Vehicles’ Autonomous Navigation and Control

The functional elements of decision making system are fuzzy, adaptive and self-learning for intelligent ground vehicles. As is well-known, operating environment of unmanned ground vehicles (UGVs) is complex, unknown and time-changing. And on the other hand, exact dynamic model of the vehicle is relatively difficult to gain. However, the changing of special dynamic parameters and the man-made driving laws of velocities and running direction are easily available. Therefore, this paper attempts to provide an approach based on fuzzy Q-learning algorithm for studying autonomous navigation and control system’s design, which aims to make unmanned vehicles adaptive and robust under complex and time-changing environment. The presented approach utilizes the drivers’ empirical knowledge for.
Technical Paper

Adaptive Cascade Optimum Braking Control Based on a Novel Mechatronic Booster

BBW (Brake-by-wire) can increase the electric and hybrid vehicles performance and safety. This paper proposes a novel mechatronic booster system, which includes APS (active power source), PFE (pedal feel emulator), ECU (electronic control unit). The system is easily disturbed when the system parameters and the outside conditions change. The system performance is weakened. The cascade control technique can be used to solve the problem. This paper develops an adaptive cascade optimum control (ACOC) algorithm based on the novel mechatronic booster system. The system is divided into main loop and servo loop, both of them are closed-loop system. The servo-loop system can eliminate the disturbance which exists in the servo loop. So the robustness of the cascade control system is improved than which of the general closed-loop control system. Different control object is respectively chosen. The control-oriented mathematical model is designed.
Technical Paper

Study on the Effect of Inverter Modulation Methods and Operating Condition on Common Mode EMI for Motor Drive System

There are many electronic devices in electric vehicle (EV), making its electromagnetic compatibility (EMC) serious. Motor drive system is the main interference source of EV, whose electromagnetic interference (EMI) is much worse than conventional vehicle. In this paper, the motor drive system of EV was mainly researched, and a co-simulation method was proposed: control system and motor model were established with Matlab, and the equivalent circuit model of inverter and the cable model were established with Saber. By this way, a complete motor drive system model for conductive EMI was obtained. This modeling method can not only accurately establish the EMI sources and coupling paths, but can simulate the control strategy and operating conditions.
Technical Paper

Vehicle Stability Criterion Research Based on Phase Plane Method

In this paper, a novel method is proposed to establish the vehicle yaw stability criterion based on the sideslip angle-yaw rate (β-r) phase plane method. First, nonlinear two degrees of freedom vehicle analysis model is established by adopting the Magic Formula of nonlinear tire model. Then, according to the model in the Matlab/Simulink environment, the β-r phase plane is gained. Emphatically, the effects of different driving conditions (front wheels steering angle, road adhesion coefficient and speed) on the stability boundaries of the phase plane are analyzed. Through a large number of simulation analysis, results show that there are two types of phase plane: curve stability region and diamond stability region, and the judgment method of the vehicle stability domain type under different driving conditions is solved.
Technical Paper

Functional Safety and Secure CAN in Motor Control System Design for Electric Vehicles

Permanent magnet synchronous motors (PMSM) are widely used in the electric vehicles for their high power density and high energy efficiency. And the motor control system for electric vehicles is one of the most critical safety related systems in electric vehicles, because potential failures of this system can lead to serious harm to humans’ body, so normally a high automotive safety integrity level (ASIL) will be assigned to this system. In this paper, an ASIL-C motor control system based on a multicore microcontroller is presented. At the same time, due to the increasing number of connectivity on the vehicle, secure onboard communication conformed to the AUTOSAR standard is also implemented in the system to prevent external attacks.
Journal Article

Longitudinal Vibration Analysis of Electric Wheel System in Starting Condition

Due to coupling of in-wheel motor and wheel/tire, the electric wheel system of in-wheel motor driven vehicle is different from tire suspension system of internal combustion engine vehicle both in the excitation source and structural dynamics. Therefore emerging dynamic issues of electric wheel arouse attention. Longitudinal vibration problem of electric wheel system in starting condition is studied in this paper. Vector control system of permanent magnet synchronous hub motor considering dead-time effect of the inverter is primarily built. Then coupled longitudinal-torsional vibration model of electric wheel system is established based on rigid ring model and dynamic tire/road interface. Inherent characteristics of this model are further analyzed. The vibration responses of electric wheel system are simulated by combining electromagnetic torque and the vibration model. The results indicate that abrupt changes of driving torque will cause transient vibration of electric wheel system.
Technical Paper

Path Following of Skid Steering Vehicles Based on Line-of-Sight Navigation

Path following controller of a six-wheel skid-steering vehicle is designed. The vehicle speed is controlled through engine speed control and the lateral vehicle steering is controlled through hydraulic braking on each side. Contrary to the common approaches considering non-holonomic constraints, vehicle dynamic characteristics and nonlinear characteristics of tire are considered. A hierarchical control structure is applied in this vehicle control system. The kinematic controller works out the reference yaw rate and reference vehicle speed. And a robust dynamic controller tracks the reference signal. In addition, the dynamic controller takes actuator ability into account.
Journal Article

Differential Drive Assisted Steering Control for an In-wheel Motor Electric Vehicle

For an electric vehicle driven by four in-wheel motors, the torque of each wheel can be controlled precisely and independently. A closed-loop control method of differential drive assisted steering (DDAS) has been proposed to improve vehicle steering properties based on those advantages. With consideration of acceleration requirement, a three dimensional characteristic curve that indicates the relation between torque and angle of the steering wheel at different vehicle speeds was designed as a basis of the control system. In order to deal with the saturation of motor's output torque under certain conditions, an anti-windup PI control algorithm was designed. Simulations and vehicle tests, including pivot steering test, lemniscate test and central steering test were carried out to verify the performance of the DDAS in steering portability and road feeling.
Technical Paper

Path Following Control for Skid Steering Vehicles with Vehicle Speed Adaption

In this paper we present a path following control design for a six-wheel skid-steering vehicle. Contrary to the common approaches that impose non-holonomic constraints, a dynamic vehicle model is established based on a pseudo-static tire model, which uses tire slip to determine tire forces. Our control system admits a modular structure, where a motion controller computes the reference vehicle yaw rate and reference vehicle speed and a dynamics controller tracks these signals. A robust nonlinear control law is designed to track the reference wheel speeds determined by the dynamics controller with proved stability properties. Saturated control techniques are employed in designing the reference yaw rate, which ensures the magnitude of the reference yaw rate does not violate the constraint from the ground-tire adhesion. The simulation results demonstrate the effectiveness of the proposed path following control design.
Journal Article

Adhesion Control Method Based on Fuzzy Logic Control for Four-Wheel Driven Electric Vehicle

The adhesion control is the basic technology of active safety for the four-wheel driven EV. In this paper, a novel adhesion control method based on fuzzy logic control is proposed. The control system can maximize the adhesion force without road condition information and vehicle speed signal. Also, the regulation torque to prevent wheel slip is smooth and the vehicle driving comfort is greatly improved. For implementation, only the rotating speed of the driving wheel and the motor driving torque signals are needed, while the derived information of the wheel acceleration and the skid status are used. The simulation and road test results have shown that the adhesion control method is effective for preventing slip and lock on the slippery road condition.