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Technical Paper

Driver Behavior Classification under Cut-In Scenarios Using Support Vector Machine Based on Naturalistic Driving Data

2019-04-02
2019-01-0136
Cut-in scenario is common in traffic and has potential collision risk. Human driver can detect other vehicle’s cut-in intention and take appropriate maneuvers to reduce collision risk. However, autonomous driving systems don’t have as good performance as human driver. Hence a deeper understanding on driving behavior is necessary. How to make decisions like human driver is an important problem for automated vehicles. In this paper, a method is proposed to classify the dangerous cut-in situations and normal ones. Dangerous cases were extracted automatically from naturalistic driving database using specific detection criteria. Among those cases, 70 valid dangerous cut-in cases were selected manually. The largest deceleration of subject vehicle is over 4 m/s2. Besides, 249 normal cut-in cases were extracted by going through video data of 2000km traveled distance. In normal driving cases, subject vehicle may brake or keep accelerating and the largest deceleration was less than 3 m/s2.
Technical Paper

Naturalistic Driving Behavior Analysis under Typical Normal Cut-In Scenarios

2019-04-02
2019-01-0124
Cut-in scenarios are common and of potential risk in China but Advanced Driver Assistant System (ADAS) doesn’t work well under such scenarios. In order to improve the acceptance of ADAS, its reactions to Cut-in scenarios should meet driver’s driving habits and expectancy. Brake is considered as an express of risk and brake tendency in normal Cut-in situations needs more investigation. Under critical Cut-in scenarios, driver tends to brake hard to eliminate collision risk when cutting in vehicle right crossing lane. However, under less critical Cut-in scenarios, namely normal Cut-in scenarios, driver brakes in some cases and takes no brake maneuver in others. The time when driver initiated to brake was defined as key time. If driver had no brake maneuver, the time when cutting-in vehicle right crossed lane was defined as key time. This paper focuses on driver’s brake tendency at key time under normal Cut-in situations.
Technical Paper

Numerical Analysis and Optimization Design of a Centrifugal Compressor’s Volute for PEM Fuel Cell Vehicle

2019-04-02
2019-01-0376
Centrifugal compressors used in polymer electrolyte membrane fuel cell systems are different from turbochargers in internal combustion engines, because they are required to work at high speed, low mass flow rate, narrow range which nears surge boundaries. In order to meet these requirements, a centrifugal compressor’s volute is designed, analyzed and optimized on its cross-section area, shape of volute tongue and tapered angle of exit. The numerical results show that surge boundary of the compressor is influenced by spiral area significantly and that volute tongue has a major impact on aerodynamic performances at high mass flow rates.
Technical Paper

Voltage and Voltage Consistency Attenuation Law of the Fuel Cell Stack Based on the Durability Cycle Condition

2019-04-02
2019-01-0386
Based on the durability cycle test of fuel cell stack and the characteristics of cyclic working conditions, this paper defines the characteristic current point and studies the attenuation rule of the fuel cell stack voltage over time under the characteristic current point. The results show that the voltage of the fuel cell stack appears to be linear downward under the characteristic current point. and the voltage attenuation rate of the fuel cell stack increases quadratically with the increase of the current density in addition to the open-circuit voltage point. Then the coefficient of variation is introduced in statistics as the index to characterize the voltage consistency attenuation of the fuel cell stack, and its variation rule is explored. The results show that the voltage consistency of vehicle fuel cell stack decreases seriously with the increase of running time under the condition of durable cycling.
Technical Paper

Drivability Evaluation Model of Engine Start Based on Principal Component Analysis and Support Vector Regression

2019-04-02
2019-01-0932
Aiming at the problem that the evaluation model had proposed by researchers to evaluate the drivability of a vehicle in the process of engine start to exist poor stability and poor accuracy. In this paper, a drivability evaluation model combined with principal component analysis and support vector regression is proposed. In this evaluation model, the principal component analysis is adapted to determine the input index of evaluation model, and the drivability evaluation model is built on the basis of support vector regression. The experimental results demonstrate that the drivability evaluation model is proposed by this paper has higher accuracy and stability than the model using the BP neural network. This method can be as well extended to other evaluation models, with higher theoretical guidance and application value in practical issues.
Technical Paper

Analysis of the Statistical Energy Consumption and Its Application to an Economic Evaluation of Plug-In Hybrid Electric Vehicles

2019-04-02
2019-01-0933
The energy consumption depends not only on the structures of vehicles but also on their operating conditions. For vehicles with the same structure, the operating conditions will vary from driver to driver. In this paper, considering the difference of operating conditions, the concept of statistical energy consumption is proposed to reveal the statistical law of actual vehicle energy consumption. In this paper, a plug-in hybrid electric vehicle (PHEV) is taken as the research object. Based on the distribution law of three vehicle use factors, i.e. vehicle mass, daily driving distance and driving aggression, Monte Carlo method is used to simulate and calculate the statistical energy consumption and statistical comprehensive energy consumption. Then, the energy consumption values that only considered the daily driving distance is calculated.
Technical Paper

Analysis of the Correlation between Driver's Visual Features and Driver Intention

2019-04-02
2019-01-1229
Driver behaviors provide abundant information and feedback for future Advanced Driver Assistance Systems (ADAS). Driver’s eye and head may present some typical movement patterns before executing driving maneuvers. It is possible to use driver’s head and eye movement information for predicting driver intention. Therefore, to determine the most important features related to driver intention has attracted widespread research interests. In this paper, a method to analyze the correlation between driver’s visual features and driver intention is proposed, aiming to determine the most representative features for driver intention prediction. Firstly, naturalistic driving experiment is conducted to collect driver’s videos during executing lane keeping and lane change maneuvers. Then, driver’s head and face visual features are extracted from those videos. By using boxplot and independent samples T-test, features which have significant correlation with driver intention are found.
Technical Paper

Study on Important Indices Related to Driver Feelings for LKA Intervention Process

2018-08-07
2018-01-1586
Lane Keeping Assistance (LKA) system is a very important part in Advanced Driver Assistance Systems (ADAS). It prevents a vehicle from departing out of the lane by exerting intervention. But an inappropriate performance during LKA intervention makes driver feel uncomfortable. The intervention of LKA can be divided into 3 parts: intervention timing, intervention process and intervention ending. Many researches have studied about the intervention timing and ending, but factors during intervention process also affect driver feelings a lot, such as yaw rate and steering wheel velocity. To increase driver’s acceptance of LKA, objective and subjective tests were designed and conducted to explore important indices which are highly correlated with the driver feelings. Different kinds of LKA controller control intervention process in different ways. Therefore, it’s very important to describe the intervention process uniformly and objectively.
Technical Paper

Analysis of Human Machine Interaction Program in Lane Keeping Assist System Based on Field Test

2018-08-07
2018-01-1632
Lane-keeping assist system (LKA) alerts the driver or intervenes in the driving when the vehicle deviates from the lane. But its effect is highly dependent on the driver’s acceptance. Distance to Lane Crossing (DTLC) and Time to Lane Crossing (TTLC) are two important factors to consider the danger level of the scenario, which are also two references for drivers to make decisions. At present, most of the functional design standards are based on these values, while they often differ for different vehicle movements. This study uses a driving robot to precisely control the test conditions and performs field tests on two advanced autonomous vehicles in National Intelligent Connected Vehicle (Shanghai) Pilot Zone. The test conditions are extended based on various test standards and the LKA performance of vehicles in the pre-experiment.
Technical Paper

Critical Driving Scenarios Extraction Optimization Method Based on China-FOT Naturalistic Driving Study Database

2018-08-07
2018-01-1628
Due to the differences in traffic situations and traffic safety laws, standards for extraction of critical driving scenarios (CDSs) vary from different countries and areas around the world. To maintain the characteristic variables under the Chinese typical CDSs, this paper uses the three-layer detection method to extract and detect CDSs in the Natural Driving Data from China-FOT project which executing under the real traffic situation in China. The first layer of detection is mainly based on the feature distributions which deviate from normal driving situations. These distributions associated with speed and longitudinal acceleration/lateral acceleration/yaw rate also quantify the critical levels classification.
Technical Paper

Driver Risk Perception Model under Critical Cut-In Scenarios

2018-08-07
2018-01-1626
In China Cut-in scenarios are quite common on both highway and urban road with heavy traffic. They have a potential risk of rear-end collision. When facing a cutting in vehicle, driver tends to brake in most case to reduce collision risk. The timing and dynamic characteristics of brake maneuver are indicators of driver subjective risk perception. Time to collision (TTC) and Time Headway (THW) demonstrate objective risk. This paper aims at building a model quantitatively revealing the relationship between drivers’ subjective risk perception and objective risk. A total of 66 valid critical Cut-in cases was extracted from China-FOT, which has a travel distance of about 130 thousand miles. It is found that under Cut-in scenarios, driver tended to brake when the cutting in vehicle right crossing line. This time point was defined as initial brake time. Brake strength and brake speed were taken to describe brake maneuver.
Technical Paper

Evaluation and Optimization of Driver Steering Override Strategy for LKAS Based on Driver’s Acceptability

2018-08-07
2018-01-1631
In order to satisfy design requirements of Lane Keeping Assistance System (LKAS), a Driver Steering Override (DSO) strategy is necessary for driver’s interaction with the assistance system. The assistance system can be overridden by the strategy in case of lane change, obstacle avoidance and other emergency situations. However, evaluation and optimization of the DSO strategy for LKAS cannot easily be completed quantitatively considering driver’s acceptability. In this research, firstly subjective and objective evaluation experiment is designed. Secondly, correlations between the subjective and the objective evaluation results are established by using regression analysis. Finally, based on the correlations established previously, the optimal performance of DSO strategy is obtained by setting the desired comprehensive evaluation ratings as the optimized goal.
Technical Paper

Effect of Clamping Load on the Performance and Contact Pressure of PEMFC Stack

2018-04-03
2018-01-1310
In the assembling process of proton exchange membrane fuel cell (PEMFC) stack, the clamping load is known to have direct effect on the contact pressure of interfaces. Compression on the membrane electrode assembly (MEA) results in change in gas diffusion layer (GDL), porosity and electrical resistance, thus affecting the performance, durability and reliability of the PEMFC stack. In this paper, the relation between clamping load and performance of PEMFC stack was obtained by experimental study, and the influence of clamping load on the contact pressure of MEAs was analyzed by finite element analysis. The performance test rig was established and the approach of polarization curve testing was introduced. Both the effect of magnitude and distribution of the bolt torques on the performance were taken into account. The finite element model was adopted to figure out the magnitude and uniformity of contact pressure of MEAs, which provides a new angle to understand the experimental results.
Technical Paper

Fault-Tolerant Ability Testing for Automotive Ethernet

2018-04-03
2018-01-0755
With the introduction of BroadR-Reach and time-sensitive networking (TSN), Ethernet has become an option for in-vehicle networks (IVNs). Although it has been used in the IT field for decades, it is a new technology for automotive, and thus requires extensive testing. Current test solutions usually target specifications rather than the in-vehicle environment, which means that some properties are still uncertain for in-vehicle usage (e.g., fault tolerance for shorted or open wires). However, these characteristics must be cleared before applying Ethernet in IVNs, because of stringent vehicular safety requirements. Because CAN is usually used for these environments, automotive Ethernet is expected to have the same or better level of fault tolerance. Both CAN and BroadR-Reach use a single pair of twisted wires for physical media; thus, the traditional fault-tolerance test method can be applied for automotive Ethernet.
Technical Paper

Emergency Steering Evasion Control by Combining the Yaw Moment with Steering Assistance

2018-04-03
2018-01-0818
The coordinated control of stability and steering systems in collision avoidance steering evasion has been widely studied in vehicle active safety area, but the studies are mainly aimed at autonomous vehicle without driver or conventional combustion engine vehicle. This paper focuses on the control of hybrid vehicle integrated with rear hub in emergency steering evasion situation, and considering the driver’s characteristics. First, the mathematics model of vehicle dynamics and driver has been given. Second, based on the planned steering evasion path, the model predictive control method is presented for achieving higher evasion path tracking accuracy under driver’s steering input. The prediction model includes an adaptive preview distance driver model and a vehicle dynamics model to predict the driver input and the vehicle trajectory.
Technical Paper

Fast Prediction of Disc Brake Squeal Uncertainty Based on Perturbation Concept

2018-04-03
2018-01-0677
It is a worldwide technical difficulty to predict brake squeal uncertainty and its propagation regularity due to key parameters’ randomcity. However, as a widely used stochastic finite element method, Monte Carlo Method costs a large amount of time in calculation. It is very important to establish a fast prediction method for brake squeal uncertainty due to key parameters. In this paper, perturbation concept was applied for disc brake squeal uncertainty prediction. Firstly, a simplified, parameterized finite element model of disc brake was established for complex eigenvalues calculation. Then sensitivity analysis of real parts and frequencies of complex eigenvalues to influence parameters was carried out based on the finite element model. A series of second order perturbation polynomial formulas were fitted from the sensitivity analysis results, which were used for calculation of uncertain complex eigenvalues.
Technical Paper

Effect of a Perforated Resonator on the Flow Performances of the Turbocharged Intake System for a Diesel Engine

2018-04-03
2018-01-0678
The flow issues of the turbocharged intake system for a diesel engine are mainly introduced in this work and the effects of a multi-chamber perforated resonator which can efficiently attenuate broadband noise and has compact structure on the flow performances of the intake system is analyzed by contrast. Based on the acoustic grid resulting from pre-processing of 3D models for finite element analysis, a computational fluid dynamics flow simulation comparative analysis between the intake systems with and without a resonator including pressure and velocity distribution is conducted with the software Star-CCM+. The simulation results indicate that the air pressure drop of the intake system with a resonator is slightly higher than that of the intake system without a resonator but it is still relatively low compared with that of the entire intake system.
Technical Paper

Comparative Dynamic Analysis of Sliding Door Based on LS-Dyna and ADAMS

2018-04-03
2018-01-0134
Nowadays, the design and development of the sliding door has been gained great attention for its easy egress and ingress. However, most studies on the kinematic and dynamic characteristics of sliding doors were based on the commercial code ADAMS, while the accuracy of flexibility in modal synthesis method and the ability of complex contact condition may not be guaranteed. Thus, a new dynamic analysis method by using the commercial code LS-Dyna was proposed in this paper to take into account the complex deformation and boundary conditions based on the finite element model. The impact force obtained from the Ls-dyna was compared with that from ADAMS when their monitoring points speed and closing time maintained the same during the sliding process. The impact force between the rollers and the guides was employed as evaluation criterion for different methods because of its effect on the roller wear and the moving smoothness in the sliding process.
Technical Paper

A Systematic Scenario Typology for Automated Vehicles Based on China-FOT

2018-04-03
2018-01-0039
To promote the development of automated vehicles (AVs), large scale of field operational tests (FOTs) were carried out around the world. Applications of naturalistic driving data should base on correlative scenarios. However, most of the existing scenario typologies, aiming at advanced driving assistance system (ADAS) and extracting discontinuous fragments from driving process, are not suitable for AVs, which need to complete continuous driving tasks. In this paper, a systematic scenario-typology consisting of four layers (from top to bottom: trip, cluster, segment and process) was first proposed. A trip refers to the whole duration from starting at initial parking space to parking at final one. The basic units ‘Process’, during which the vehicle fulfils only one driving task, are classified into parking process, long-, middle- and short-time-driving-processes. A segment consists of two neighboring long-time-driving processes and a middle or/and short one between them.
Technical Paper

Handling Improvement for Distributed Drive Electric Vehicle Based on Motion Tracking Control

2018-04-03
2018-01-0564
The integrated control system which combines the differential drive assisted steering (DDAS) and the direct yaw moment control (DYC) for the distributed drive electric vehicle (DDEV) is studied. A handling improvement algorithm for the normal cornering maneuvers is proposed based on motion tracking control. Considering the ideal assistant power character curves at different velocities, an open-loop DDAS control strategy is developed to respond the driver’s demand of steering wheel torque. The DYC strategy contains the steering angle feedforward and the yaw rate feedback. The steering angle feedforward control strategy is employed to improve yaw rate steady gain of vehicle. The maximum feedforward coefficients at different velocities are obtained from the constraint of the motor external characteristic, final feedforward coefficients are calculated according to the ideal assistant power character curve of the DDAS.
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