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Technical Paper

An Outer Loop of Trajectory and an Inner Loop of Steering Angle for Trajectory Tracking Control of Automatic Lane Change System

2019-11-04
2019-01-5029
Automatic Lane Change (ALC) function is an important step to promote the currently popular Advanced Driver Assistance Systems (ADAS) within a single lane. The key issue for ALC is accurate steering angle and trajectory tracking during the lane changing process. In this paper, an MPC controller with a receding horizon is designed to track the desired trajectory. During the tracking process, other objectives such as safety and smoothness are considered. Considering of the practical mechanism and parameter uncertainties, an SMC controller is designed to track the target steering angle. For validation, a Hardware-in-the-Loop (HIL) experiment platform is established, and experiments of different control algorithms under different conditions are carried out successively. Comparisons of the experiment results of MPC+SMC and PID+SMC schemes indicate that both the trajectory error and the steering angle error of the former combination are smaller.
Technical Paper

Proton Exchange Membrane Fuel Cell Fault Rapid Diagnosis Method Based on Electrochemical Impedance Spectroscopy and Fuzzy C-Means Algorithm

2019-11-04
2019-01-5032
Water management is a key research direction for the performance and lifetime of proton exchange membrane fuel cell (PEMFC) stacks. The paper is aimed to develop an online fault diagnosis method that distinguishes different degrees of flooding and drying within a fuel cell stack by unobservable variables. In our research, the equivalent circuit model is established and electrochemical impedance spectroscopy (EIS) is utilized. The mathematical methods are used to extract the fault features. Fuzzy C-means is used to classify the selected features and the diagnostic rules are automatically extracted from the data. Through verification, the interpretability and computational efficiency of the proposed method are achieved.
Technical Paper

Composite Steering Strategy for 4WS-4WD EV Based on Low-Speed Steering Maneuverability

2019-11-04
2019-01-5052
A composite steering control strategy, which combines four-wheel steering (4WS) and differential steering, is proposed in this paper, to optimize steering maneuverability in the conditions where the vehicle speed is below 15 Km/h, mainly for U-turning and parking conditions. A dynamic model is developed for the steering system and the tire system. Taking different steering wheel inputs into consideration, a 4WS control strategy proportional to the front wheel steering angle is quoted to improve the steering maneuverability in the low speed conditions and guarantee the manipulability by controlling the side slip of the vehicle. Based on the 4WS system, this paper explores the possibility of further improving the low-speed maneuverability of the vehicle through differential steering. And the differential steering control strategy is developed, including four hub-motor output modes. A composite steering controller is designed based on the 4WS-4WD electric vehicle platform.
Technical Paper

Parameter Identification for One-Dimension Fuel Cell Model Using GA-PSO Algorithm

2019-11-04
2019-01-5041
When studying on how to identify the proton exchange membrane fuel cell model parameters accurately and quickly, the model frequently used is a lumped parameter model. Compared to this kind of model, one-dimensional dynamic proton exchange membrane fuel cell model can correlate the physical parameters with output characteristics of fuel cell to predict the effects of design parameters, materials and environmental conditions, thus reducing the need for experimentation. However, there is little literature about parameter identification for one-dimensional dynamic models currently. In this paper, a one-dimension dynamic proton exchange membrane fuel cell model with many assumptions for reducing the complexity of calculation is realized in Matlab-Simulink environment. The model consists of five interacting subsystems.
Technical Paper

Study on Air Pressure-Flow Decoupling Control in Fuel Cell System Based on Feedforward Algorithm

2019-11-04
2019-01-5042
Proton exchange membrane fuel cell (PEMFC) system is considered to be one of the ideal replacement for conventional Internal Combustion Engines (ICE) due to its zero emission, low operating temperature and high power density. The high-pressure PEMFC system has become the future development direction because the higher gas pressure can effectively improve the performance and power density of stack. However, the high gas pressure can lead to the damage of membrane electrode assembly (MEA) and even the failure of fuel cell stack. As the air supply system is a nonlinear system, the flow and pressure have a strong coupling relation. For this problem, firstly, the mathematical model of air supply system is established in MATLAB/Simulink. Then a dual-loop control strategy is used in controller.
Technical Paper

Research on CAN FD Controller Conformance Test System

2019-11-04
2019-01-5073
The Controller Area Network with Flexible Data-Rate (CAN FD) is invented to compensate for the limited bandwidth of Controller Area Network (CAN). The technology of CAN FD bus conformance test is a prerequisite for the interconnection and normal work of different manufacturers’ CAN FD module, and is of great significance for ensuring the reliability of the CAN FD network. Firstly, the communication protocol conformance test theory is briefly analyzed and the characteristics of the CAN FD protocol are introduced in this paper. Then the test scope and test objects of CAN FD conformance test are pointed out. This paper mainly focuses on the CAN FD controller conformance test, which is belong to chip test. The controller implements the most parts of data link layer in a CAN FD module. Furthermore, the test method and the test cases are elaborated. Based on the coordinated test method, a conformance test system is designed and the hardware and software are developed for the test system.
Technical Paper

Durability Performance of Polymer Electrolyte Membrane Fuel Cells under Open-Circuit Voltage

2019-11-04
2019-01-5076
Polymer electrolyte membrane fuel cells (PEMFCs) are a good candidate for fuel cell electric vehicles (FCEVs) due to their high efficiency, high power density and zero-emission. However, the lifetime is one of the main barriers to overcome before their commercialization. The durability testing methods for PEMFCs are main include electrocatalyst cycle, catalyst support cycle, membrane electrode assembly (MEA) chemical stability, membrane mechanical cycle and so on. In addition, there is little research about MEA chemical stability test, which applies a continuous open-circuit voltage (OCV) to produce more free radicals and these will have a bad influence on PEMFCs. Based on this, the durability of PEMFC was studied under OCV operation at 30% relative humidity (RH), 90 °C and 150 kPa inlet pressure. The electrochemical performances such as in-situ cyclic voltammetry (CV), linear sweep voltage (LSV) and cell polarization were used to evaluate the durability of PEMFC.
Technical Paper

Combined Technologies for Efficiency Improvement on a 1.0 L Turbocharged GDI Engine

2019-04-02
2019-01-0233
The CO2 reduction request for automotive industry promotes the efforts on the engine thermal efficiency improvement. The goal of this research is to improve the thermal efficiency on an extremely downsized 3-cylinder 1.0 L turbocharged gasoline direct injection engine. Effects of compression ratio, exhaust gas recirculation (EGR), valve timing and viscosity of oil on fuel economy were studied. The results show that increasing compression ratio, from 9.6 to 12, can improve fuel economy at relative low load (below 12 bar BMEP), but has a negative effect at high load due to increased knock intensity. EGR can significantly reduce the pumping loss at low load, optimize combustion phase and reduce exhaust gas temperature. Therefore, the fuel consumption is reduced at all test points. The average brake thermal efficiency (BTE) benefit percentage is 3.47% with 9.6 compression ratio and 5.33 % with 12 compression ratio.
Technical Paper

Simulation Investigation of Working Process and Emissions on GDI Engine Fueled with Hydrous Ethanol Gasoline Blends

2019-04-02
2019-01-0219
Compared with ordinary gasoline, using ethanol gasoline blends as fuel of Internal Combustion Engine is beneficial for the performance of power, economy and emission of engine. However, the fuel ethanol blended in ethanol gasoline blends currently is usually anhydrous ethanol, which requires dewatering implementer in production process, and the cost is high. Therefore, the production cost can be significantly reduced by replacement of anhydrous ethanol with hydrous ethanol while exerting the advantage of ethanol gasoline blends. In this study, computation fluid dynamics (CFD) software CONVERGE is employed to establish a simulation model of an actual gasoline direct injection (GDI) engine, and investigate the effect of burning hydrous ethanol gasoline blends and different injection strategy on combustion process and emission, and the validity of the model was validated by experiments.
Technical Paper

Numerical Study of Intake Manifold Water Injection on Characteristics of Combustion and Emissions in a Heavy-Duty Natural Gas Engine

2019-04-02
2019-01-0562
The performances of heavy-duty natural gas engines have been limited by combustion temperature and NOx emissions for a long time. Recently, water injection technology has been widely considered as a technical solution in reducing fuel consumption and emissions simultaneously in both gasoline and diesel engines. This paper focuses on the impacts of intake manifold water injection on characteristics of combustion and emissions in a natural gas heavy-duty engine through numerical methods. A computational model was setup and validated with experimental data of pressure traces in a CFD software coupled with detailed chemical kinetics. The simulation was mainly carried out in low-speed and full-load conditions, and knock level was also measured and calculated by maximum amplitude of pressure oscillations (MAPO).
Technical Paper

Pressure Estimation Algorithms in Decoupled Electro-Hydraulic Brake System Considering the Friction and Pressure-Position Relationship

2019-04-02
2019-01-0438
This paper presents several pressure estimation algorithms (PEAs) for a decoupled electro-hydraulic brake system (EHB), which is driven by an electric motor + reduction gear. Most of the pressure control solutions are based on standard pressure-based feedback control, requiring a pressure signal. Although the pressure sensor can produce the pressure feedback signal, it will increase cost and enlarge installation space. The rotation angle of electric motor is available by the built-in sensor, so the pressure can be estimated by using the rotation angle. Considering the typical nonlinearities (i.e. friction, pressure-position relationship) and uncertainties (i.e. disturbance caused by friction model), the estimation-oriented model is established. The LuGre model is selected to describe the friction, and the pressure-position relationship is fitted by a quadratic polynomial.
Technical Paper

Model-Based Pitch Control for Distributed Drive Electric Vehicle

2019-04-02
2019-01-0451
On the dual-motor electric vehicle, which is driven by two electric motors mounted on the front and rear axles respectively, longitudinal dynamic control and electro-dynamic braking can be achieved by controlling the torque of front and rear axle motors respectively. Suspension displacement is related to the wheel torque, thus the pitch of vehicle body can be influenced by changing the torque distribution ratio. The pitch of the body has a great influence on the vehicle comfort, which occurs mainly during acceleration and braking progress. Traditionally active suspension is adopted to control the pitch of body. Instead, in this paper an ideal torque distribution strategy is developed to limit the pitch during acceleration and braking progress. This paper first explores the relationship between the torque distribution and the body pitch through the real vehicle test, which reveals the feasibility of the vehicle comfort promotion by optimizing the torque distribution coefficient.
Technical Paper

Real-Time Testing Technology of Powertrain System in Proton Exchange Membrane Fuel Cell Electric Vehicles: A Review

2019-04-02
2019-01-0371
The proton exchange membrane fuel cell (PEMFC) vehicle is one kind of new energy vehicle with fuel cell as power source, which has environmental friendliness, high power density and quick refueling. However, the productlization testing in powertrain system, especially for subsystems and key parts, is one of the critical technical challenges, which restricts the industry development and large-scale commercialization of fuel cell electric vehicles (FCEVs). In this paper, comprehensive testing requirement and latest testing technologies were reviewed, the development status and directions of testing technologies in FCEV powertrain system were presented. Based on comprehensive analysis, X-in-the-Loop (XiL) testing technology was proposed, and it is quite helpful to improve Real-time testing performance and functions for FCEV powertrain system. Furthermore, real-time and reliability as the two key factors for the XiL application was deeply analyzed and discussed.
Technical Paper

DC/DC Modeling and Current Harmonic Analysis in Fuel Cell Hybrid Power System

2019-04-02
2019-01-0375
Fuel cells directly convert the energy stored in hydrogen into electrical energy through an electrochemical reaction, and the only reaction product is water, which can improve the energy efficiency and reduce the pollution caused by fossil fuels. The fuel cell hybrid power system used in vehicles usually consists of a fuel cell stack and a power battery module, and the DC/DC converter is the key component to connect them together. The current ripples caused by the system have been confirmed to have detrimental effects on the fuel cell’s reliability and lifespan. In addition, it is one of the key factors that reduce the system efficiency. So, it is necessary to analyze the current ripple in the system and maintain it at a low level. In this paper, a brief review on the different kinds of converters used in vehicles has been made. Then, with the help of MATLAB/SIMULINK, a simulation model of the hybrid power system based on 4-phase interleaved parallel topology is established.
Technical Paper

Voltage and Voltage Consistency Attenuation Law of the Fuel Cell Stack Based on the Durability Cycle Condition

2019-04-02
2019-01-0386
Based on the durability cycle test of fuel cell stack and the characteristics of cyclic working conditions, this paper defines the characteristic current point and studies the attenuation rule of the fuel cell stack voltage over time under the characteristic current point. The results show that the voltage of the fuel cell stack appears to be linear downward under the characteristic current point. and the voltage attenuation rate of the fuel cell stack increases quadratically with the increase of the current density in addition to the open-circuit voltage point. Then the coefficient of variation is introduced in statistics as the index to characterize the voltage consistency attenuation of the fuel cell stack, and its variation rule is explored. The results show that the voltage consistency of vehicle fuel cell stack decreases seriously with the increase of running time under the condition of durable cycling.
Technical Paper

Genetic Algorithm-Based Parameter Optimization of Energy Management Strategy and Its Analysis for Fuel Cell Hybrid Electric Vehicles

2019-04-02
2019-01-0358
Fuel cell hybrid electric vehicles (FCHEVs) composed of fuel cells and batteries can improve the dynamic response and durability of vehicle propulsion. In addition, braking energy can be recovered by batteries. The energy management strategy (EMS) for distributing the requested power through different types of energy sources plays an important role in FCHEVs. Reasonable power split not only improves vehicle performance but also enhances fuel economy. In this paper, considering the power tracking control strategy which is widely adopted in Advanced Vehicle Simulator (ADVISOR), a constrained nonlinear programming parameter optimization model is established for minimizing fuel consumption. The principal parameters of power tracking control strategy are set as the optimized variables, with the dynamic performance index of FCHEVs being defined as the constraint condition. Then, the genetic algorithm (GA) is applied in the control strategy design for solving the optimization problem.
Technical Paper

The Emission of a Diesel Engine in Different Coolant Temperature during Cold Start at High Altitude

2019-04-02
2019-01-0730
Emissions of diesel engine have been received much more attention since the Volkswagen Emission Scandal. The Euro VI emission standard has already included cold start emissions in the legislative emission driving cycles which is one of the hardest part of emission control. High altitude performance is also considered in the latest regulations which will be stricter in the future. Heating the coolant is one of the most common method to improve the cold start performance. But researches focus on the emission of a diesel engine in different coolant temperature at high altitude which up to 4500m have not been seen. The present research investigated the effect of coolant temperature on performance and exhaust emissions (gaseous and particulate emissions) during the cold start of a diesel engine. A plateau simulation system controlled the inlet and exhaust pressure to create altitude environments from 0m to 4500m, and the coolant temperature was controlled from 20°C to 60°C.
Technical Paper

Experiment Studies of Charging Strategy for Lithium-Ion Batteries

2019-04-02
2019-01-0792
Regarding the lithium-ion batteries used in the electric vehicle, charging time and charging efficiency are the concern of the public. In this paper, a lot of experiments were conducted to investigate the common charging strategies, including the CC-CV (constant current-constant voltage) charging and the pulse current charging, for the LiFePO4 batteries, which are still widely used in commercial vehicles. Charging temperature and the charging current in the CC phase are the main influence factors to be studied for the CC-CV charging strategy, and the contribution of the CC phase and CV phase to the whole charging is analyzed from three aspects, including the time percent, charging energy efficiency and the capacity of battery at different temperatures and charging current.
Technical Paper

Experimental Investigation of the Bi-Stable Behavior in the Wake of a Notchback MIRA Model

2019-04-02
2019-01-0663
This paper reports an experimental investigation of the wake flow behind a 1/12 scale notchback MIRA model at Re = UL/ν = 6.9×105 (where U is free-stream velocity, L the length of the model and ν viscosity). Focus is placed on the flow asymmetry over the backlight and decklid. Forty pressure taps are used to map the surface pressure distribution on the backlight and decklid, while the wake topology is investigated by means of 2D Particle Image Velocimetry. The analysis of the instantaneous pressure signals over the notch configuration clearly shows that the pressure presents a bi-stable behavior in the spanwise direction, characterized by the switches between two preferred values, which is not found in the vertical direction.
Technical Paper

Optimization and Implementation of Three-Phase PMSM Current Harmonic Decomposition Technique

2019-04-02
2019-01-0604
With the development of electric vehicle (EV), permanent magnet synchronous motor (PMSM) has received more and more attention. PMSM torque ripple suppression is one of the core technologies of PMSM control. Current harmonic injection method is a commonly used torque ripple suppression method. In order to accurately control the injecting current harmonics, it is necessary to quickly and efficiently decompose the three-phase PMSM current harmonics first. In this paper, an existing instantaneous harmonic decomposition method based on multiple reference coordinates is adopted. First, the causes of the analysis error of the harmonic decomposition technique are analyzed which are divided into internal factors (e.g. analysis errors generated during the discretization of continuous functions) and external factors (e.g. sampling errors). Analysis errors will directly affect the decomposition result.
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