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Technical Paper

Development of a Human Body Finite Element Model with Multiple Muscles and their Controller for Estimating Occupant Motions and Impact Responses in Frontal Crash Situations

2012-10-29
2012-22-0006
A few reports suggest differences in injury outcomes between cadaver tests and real-world accidents under almost similar conditions. This study hypothesized that muscle activity could primarily cause the differences, and then developed a human body finite element (FE) model with individual muscles. Each muscle was modeled as a hybrid model of bar elements with active properties and solid elements with passive properties. The model without muscle activation was firstly validated against five series of cadaver test data on impact responses in the anterior-posterior direction. The model with muscle activation levels estimated based on electromyography (EMG) data was secondly validated against four series of volunteer test data on bracing effects for stiffness and thickness of an upper arm muscle, and braced driver's responses under a static environment and a brake deceleration.
Technical Paper

Development of a Human FE Model with 3-D Geometry of Muscles and Lateral Impact Analysis for the Arm with Muscle Activity

2009-06-09
2009-01-2266
To investigate the effect of muscle activity in pre-impact on injury outcome, we developed a human arm finite element model with muscles which consisted of solid elements and truss elements that could be used for simulating muscle stiffness change for the inputted activity and 3-D geometry of each muscle. Two series of experimental tests on muscle stiffness change and arm flexion were conducted for validation of the model. Comparisons between the simulation results and test data indicated the model validity. Lateral impact simulations for a left arm demonstrated that the muscle activity in pre-impact had significant effects on the motion and stress distribution of the arm bones.
Technical Paper

Investigation of Anteroposterior Head-Neck Responses during Severe Frontal Impacts Using a Brain-Spinal Cord Complex FE Model

2006-11-06
2006-22-0019
Injuries of the human brain and spinal cord associated with the central nervous system (CNS) are seen in automotive accidents. CNS injuries are generally categorized into severe injuries (AIS 3+). However, it is not clear how the restraint conditions affect the CNS injuries. This paper presents a newly developed three-dimensional (3D) finite element head-neck model in order to investigate the biomechanical responses of the brain-spinal cord complex. The head model consists of the scalp, skull, and a detailed description of the brain including the cerebrum, cerebellum, brainstem with distinct white and gray matter, cerebral spinal fluid (CSF), sagittal sinus, dura, pia, arachnoid, meninx, falx cerebri, and tentorium. Additionally, the neck model consists of the cervical vertebral bodies, intervertebral discs, muscles, ligaments, spinal cord with white and gray matter, cervical pia, and CSF.
Technical Paper

Ankle Skeletal Injury Predictions Using Anisotropic Inelastic Constitutive Model of Cortical Bone Taking into Account Damage Evolution

2005-11-09
2005-22-0007
The most severe ankle skeletal injury called pilon fractures can cause long term disability and impairment. Based on previous experimental studies, the pilon fractures are regarded as caused by a high-energy compressive force in the ankle joint and affected by a muscular tension force generated by emergency braking. However, quantitative injury criteria for the pilon fractures are still unknown. More accurate prediction of bone fractures in the distal tibia using a FE model of human lower leg can help us know the quantitative injury criteria. Therefore we newly proposed an anisotropic inelastic constitutive model of cortical bone including damage evolution and then implemented it to a FE code, LS-DYNA. The proposed model successfully reproduced most of anisotropy, strain rate dependency, and asymmetry of tension and compression on material and failure properties of human femoral cortical bone.
Technical Paper

A Study of Knee Joint Kinematics and Mechanics using a Human FE Model

2005-11-09
2005-22-0006
Posterior translation of the tibia with respect to the femur can stretch the posterior cruciate ligament (PCL). Fifteen millimeters of relative displacement between the femur and tibia is known as the Injury Assessment Reference Value (IARV) for the PCL injury. Since the anterior protuberance of the tibial plateau can be the first site of contact when the knee is flexed, the knee bolster is generally designed with an inclined surface so as not to directly load the projection in frontal crashes. It should be noted, however, that the initial flexion angle of the occupant knee can vary among individuals and the knee flexion angle can change due to the occupant motion. The behavior of the tibial protuberance related to the knee flexion angle has not been described yet. The instantaneous angle of the knee joint at the timing of restraining the knee should be known to manage the geometry and functions of knee restraint devices.
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