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Technical Paper

ST-Lib: A Library for Specifying and Classifying Model Behaviors

2016-04-05
2016-01-0621
Test and verification procedures are a vital aspect of the development process for embedded control systems in the automotive domain. Formal requirements can be used in automated procedures to check whether simulation or experimental results adhere to design specifications and even to perform automatic test and formal verification of design models; however, developing formal requirements typically requires significant investment of time and effort for control software designers. We propose Signal Template Library (ST-Lib), a uniform modeling language to encapsulate a number of useful signal patterns in a formal requirement language with the goal of facilitating requirement formulation for automotive control applications. ST-Lib consists of basic modules known as signal templates. Informally, these specify a characteristic signal shape and provide numerical parameters to tune the shape.
Technical Paper

Development of a Compact Adsorption Heat Pump System for Automotive Air Conditioning System

2016-04-05
2016-01-0181
In order to reduce the energy consumption of the automotive air conditioning system, adsorption heat pump (AHP) system is one of the key technologies. We have been developing compact AHP system utilizing the exhaust heat from the engine coolant system (80-100 °C), which can meet the requirements in the automotive application. However, AHP systems have not been practically used in automotive applications because of its low volumetric power density of the adsorber. The volumetric power density of the adsorber is proportional to sorption rate, packing density and latent heat. In general, the sorption rate is determined by mass transfer resistance in primary particle of an adsorbent and heat and mass transfer resistance in packed bed. In order to improve the volumetric power density of the adsorber, it is necessary to increase the production of the sorption rate and the packing density.
Journal Article

Development of Power Control Unit for Compact-Class Vehicle

2016-04-05
2016-01-1227
Toyota Motor Corporation has developed the new compact-class hybrid vehicle (HV). This vehicle incorporates a new hybrid system for the improvement of fuel efficiency. For this system, a new Power Control Unit (PCU) is developed. The feature of the PCU is downsizing, lightweight, and high efficiency. In expectation of rapid popularization of HV, the aptitude for mass production is also improved. The PCU, which plays an important role in the new system, is our main focus in this paper. Its development is described.
Journal Article

Development of Fracture Model for Laser Screw Welding

2016-04-05
2016-01-1344
This paper describes the development of a fracture finite element (FE) model for laser screw welding (LSW) and validation of the model with experimental results. LSW was developed and introduced to production vehicles by Toyota Motor Corporation in 2013. LSW offers superb advantages such as increased productivity and short pitch welding. Although the authors had previously developed fracture FE models for conventional resistance spot welding (RSW), a fracture model for LSW has not been developed. To develop this fracture model, many comprehensive experiments were conducted. The results revealed that LSW had twice as many variations in fracture modes compared to RSW. Moreover, fracture mode bifurcations were also found to result from differences in clearance between welded plates. In order to analyze LSW fracture phenomena, detailed FE models using fine hexahedral elements were developed.
Journal Article

Improvement in Vehicle Motion Performance by Suppression of Aerodynamic Load Fluctuations

2015-04-14
2015-01-1537
This study focuses on fluctuations in the aerodynamic load acting on a hatchback car model under steady-state conditions, which can lead to degeneration of vehicle motion performance due to excitation of vehicle vibrations. Large eddy simulations were first conducted on a vehicle model based on a production hatchback car with and without additional aerodynamic devices that had received good subjective assessments by drivers. The numerical results showed that the magnitudes of the lateral load fluctuations were larger without the devices at Strouhal numbers less than approximately 0.1, where surface pressure fluctuations indicated a negative correlation between the two sides of the rear end, which could give rise to yawing and rolling vibrations. Based on the numerical results, wind-tunnel tests were performed with a 28%-scale hatchback car model.
Journal Article

Hierarchical Accumulative Validation of Executable Control Specifications

2013-04-08
2013-01-0430
The application of Model-Based Development (MBD) techniques for automotive control system and software development have become standard processes due to the potential for reduced development time and improved specification quality. In order to improve development productivity even further, it is imperative to introduce a systematic Verification and Validation (V&V) process to further minimize development time and human resources while ensuring control specification quality when developing large complex systems. Traditional methods for validating control specifications have been limited by control specification scale, structure and complexity as well as computational limitations restricting their application within a systematic model-based V&V process. In order to address these issues, Toyota developed Hierarchical Accumulative Validation (HAV) for systematically validating functionally structured executable control specifications.
Technical Paper

Validation of Control Software Specification Using Design Interests Extraction and Model Checking

2012-04-16
2012-01-0960
Automotive control systems such as powertrain control interact with the open physical environment, and from this nature, expensive prototyping is indispensable to capture a deep understanding of the system requirements and to develop the corresponding control software. Model-based development (MBD) has been promoted to improve productivity by virtual prototyping. Even with MBD, systematic validation of the software specification remains as a major challenge and it still depends heavily on individual engineers' skill and knowledge. Though the introduction of graphical software modeling improved the situation, it requires much time to identify the primal functions, so-called “design interests”, from a large complex model where irrelevant components are mixed with, and to validate it properly.
Journal Article

PEFC Performance Improvement Methodology for Vehicle Applications

2012-04-16
2012-01-1232
For over a decade and a half, Toyota Motor Corporation has been developing fuel cell vehicles (FCVs) and is continuing various approaches to enable mass production. This study used new methods to quantitatively observe some of the mass transfer phenomena in the reaction field, such as oxygen transport, water drainage, and electronic conductivity. The obtained results are applicable to the design requirements of ideal reaction fields, and have the potential to assist to reduce the size of the fuel cell.
Journal Article

Development of Hardening Depth Evaluation Technique using Eddy Current – Establishment and Introduction of In-line Hardening Depth Inspection System –

2009-04-20
2009-01-0867
A hardening depth evaluation technique using eddy current has been developed, which can be applied to a mass production line for destructive (cutting) inspections. Using this technique, changes in the hardness of the induction-hardened structure can be detected based on the changes in magnetic permeability. This technique reduces the thermal effect and improves measurement accuracy through a multi-frequency exciting method and a difference method algorithm.
Technical Paper

LED Headlamp Development for Mass Production

2008-04-14
2008-01-0339
To meet the market requirement for headlamps having lower power consumption, high photometric performance and long life whilst providing new styling opportunities, it has been anticipated that LED light sources would provide the necessary technological basis. Against this backdrop, Koito has succeeded in developing the necessary headlamp technologies and commercializing the world's first headlamp utilizing white LED's. The key point is that the various challenges associated with the development of an LED headlamp such as the commercial application of a synthesized light distribution, control of the light axis structure for the multi-lamp system, development of adequate thermal management for the cooling of the LED's and the achievement of volume production of the lamps have been successfully overcome.
Technical Paper

Integrated Robot System Operation for Achieving High Productivity

2003-10-27
2003-01-2842
The integration of robot system operation is the most important and interesting issues for robot end users. Increasing robot operations by a growing variety of robots, applications, and models is a serious problem in maintaining high productivity and reducing maintenance cost. In the practical development of the Toyota global body assembly line (GBL), we designed a special robot operation and man-machine interface system based on the experience of robot operators. The Toyota Integrated Robot Operation System (IROS) offers remarkable advantages in the application of practical body assembly lines.
Technical Paper

Development of Automotive Rubber Parts with New Recycling Technology

2000-03-06
2000-01-0015
Rubber is a thermosetting material and as such is generally considered difficult to recycle; therefore there is a demand for the development of rubber recycling technology to protect the environment and conserve resources. Some technologies exist to recycle vulcanized rubber, but none of these has high enough productivity to produce reclaimed rubber, and re-vulcanized rubber does not have the same properties as virgin rubber materials. Now a new recycling technology, called Shear Flow Stage Reactor, has been developed for rubber reclamation. This new technology has high productivity and can achieve the same properties as virgin materials. Automotive parts have been developed and are being produced with recycled Ethylene-Propylene-diene Rubber (EPDM) based on this new technology. The performance of the developed parts is the same as the parts made from virgin materials.
Technical Paper

Development of Robot Control Method for Curved Seal Extrusion

1998-09-29
982366
The glass-integrated Curved Seal Extrusion (hereafter called “CSE”) is a new technology for manufacturing automobile-window mole. This technology is to extrude and stick mole directly on 3-D shaped window-glass by using the combination of a multi-axes robot and an extruding machine. This process could not be realized through the previous robot technology whose primary purpose was transporting goods, which did not necessitate real-time speed control. This time, we adopted a robot for the purpose of processing plasticity molding. For the purpose of improving formability, productivity, and appearance quality, we optimized the robot's movements and devised a method to vary the molding speed of the extruding machine. Furthermore, we have established a mass production technology by developing the optimum robot control method.
Technical Paper

Development of New Headliner Material and the Manufacturing Process

1990-02-01
900836
A molded headliner made from polypropylene, which we developed for the first time in the world, was adopted in May 1987 for TOYOTA COROLLA. The new material with high stiffness and light weights, has a sandwich structure consisting of PP-sheets and a PP-foam sheet. We have thus succeeded in the production of the new headliner in which each layer is laminated without any adhesive. A unique resin used for PP-sheets as surface skins was developed with high impact, thermal and fire resistances. Further, a PP-form core sheet with soft-feel and good moldability was also developed. As a result, we established proper conditions of molding this material and succeeded in producing stable superior parts with high quality and short cycle-time. Finally new molded headliner is comparable to the suspended type headliner in respect to weight and production cost.
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