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Technical Paper

Development of an Analytical Method for Rear Differential Gear Whine Noise utilizing Principal Component Contribution by OTPA and CAE

2019-06-05
2019-01-1555
Due to the global warming concern, CO2 emission regulations have been reinforced in most countries and electrification of automobiles has accelerated. Since the engine noise will be largely reduced, the improvements of gear whine noise becomes more important. But gear whine noise mechanism is complicated by involving many parts and transmitting paths to the cabin. Operational Transfer Path Analysis (OTPA) is one of the TPA methods to determine the main path and contributing part using only the operational data. However, in cases which many reference points are set on the same frame or body, the contribution becomes similar by high correlation among the reference data set and finding out the main transfer part becomes difficult. The contribution of principal component (PC) which is obtained from the correlated reference signals, instead of calculating the contribution from each reference point by modifying the OTPA process, has been utilized.
Technical Paper

Development of Three-Way Catalysts Enhanced NOx Purifying Activity

2018-04-03
2018-01-0942
Growing concerns about the depletion of raw materials as vehicle ownership continues to increase is prompting automakers to look for ways of decreasing the use of platinum-group metals (PGMs) in the exhaust systems. This research has developed a new catalyst with strong robustness against fluctuations in the exhaust gas and excellent nitrogen oxide (NOx) conversion performance. One of the key technologies is a new OSC material that has low surface area (SA) and high OSC performance. We enhanced the pyrochlore- ceria/zirconia (CZ) which has a very small SA. In order to enhance the heat resistance and promote the OSC reaction, we selected and optimized the additive element. This material showed high OSC performance especially in the temperature range of 400 degrees or less. Another key technology is washcoat structure that has high gas diffusivity by making connected pore in the washcoat (New pore forming technology).
Technical Paper

Development of Low Pressure and High Performance GPF Catalyst

2018-04-03
2018-01-1261
Awareness of environmental protection with respect to the particulate number (PN) in the exhaust emissions of gasoline direct injection (GDI) engine vehicles has increased. In order to decrease the emission of particulate matter (PM), suppressing emissions by improving engine combustion, and/or filtering PM with a gasoline particulate filter (GPF) is effective. This paper describes the improvement of the coated GPF to reduce pressure drop while securing three-way performance and PN filtration efficiency. It was necessary to load a certain amount of washcoat on the GPF to add the three-way function, but this led to an increase in pressure drop that affected engine power. The pressure drop was influenced by the gas permeation properties of the filter wall.
Technical Paper

Development of High Accuracy and Quick Light-off NOx Sensor

2018-04-03
2018-01-0334
For the purpose of coping with the strengthening of NOx exhaust gas control and fuel consumption control, it is indispensable to improve the NOx purification capacity. In view of this, vehicle manufacturers are in the course of developing high performance SCR (Selective Catalytic Reduction) systems [1, 2]. For such SCR systems to be realized, high precision NOx sensors for carrying out urea injection quantity control and SCR degradation diagnosis are absolutely indispensable. Detection of NOx concentration by means of a NOx sensor is generally performed as follows: O2 is discharged by means of an O2 detection electrode; remaining NOx is decomposed by a NOx detection electrode; NOx concentration is then detected as electric current that flows when oxygen ions are conduct through solid electrolyte. In order to detect NOx of ppm-order, it is necessary to detect minute current of nA-order with high accuracy.
Technical Paper

Driveability Improvement with Innovative Toyota 8 Speed Automatic Transmission Control

2017-03-28
2017-01-1109
To meet increasing driveability expectation and government stringent fuel economy regulations reducing CO2 emissions of passenger cars; Toyota developed a new 8-speed automatic transmission "Direct Shift-8AT". Direct Shift-8AT is the first stepped automatic transmission model based on “TNGA” philosophy. New models which received Direct Shift-8AT are the new Camry, Highlander and Sienna. Direct Shift-8AT has an innovative control method with gear train and torque converter models, providing enhanced driveability and fuel economy performance through high efficiency transmission technology. This paper describes details of the new technology and vehicle performance.
Technical Paper

New Exhaust Emission Control System with Two A/F Sensors

2017-03-28
2017-01-0917
Exhaust systems must satisfy a wide range of requirements, including lowering emissions to comply with future fuel economy and emissions regulations. To help meet these requirements, new emissions control systems have been developed today. In addition, since air-fuel ratio (hereafter, A/F) control has a major impact on emissions, a new two-A/F sensor system with A/F sensors provided both upstream and downstream of the catalyst was developed, incorporating an A/F control capable of further lowering emissions with greater robustness. This development identified the hysteresis characteristics of the O2 sensor downstream of the catalyst as an important factor affecting emissions during conventional A/F control. Subsequently, reaction analysis was carried out using sensor reaction models and by evaluating sensors under real-world operating conditions.
Journal Article

Development of Chemical Process for Recovering High-quality Rare-earth Oxides from HV Motor Magnets

2017-03-28
2017-01-1278
In the automobile industry, interest in the prevention of global warming has always been high. The development of eco cars (HV, EV etc.), aimed at reducing CO2 emissions during operation, has been progressing. In the announcement of its "Toyota Environmental Challenge 2050", Toyota declared its commitment to creating a future in which people, cars, and nature coexist in harmony. In this declaration, Toyota committed to reducing CO2 emissions not only during operation but also over the entire life cycle of vehicles, and to using resources effectively based on a 4 R’s approach (refuse, reduce, reuse, and recycle). Although eco cars decrease CO2 emissions during operation, most of them increase CO2 emissions during manufacturing. For example, the rare-earths (Nd, Dy etc.) used in the magnets of driving motors are extracted through processes that produce a significant amount of CO2 emissions.
Journal Article

Development of Prediction Method for Engine Compartment Water Level by Using Coupled Multibody and Fluid Dynamics

2017-03-28
2017-01-1328
When vehicles run on the flooded road, water enters to the engine compartment and sometimes reaches the position of the air intake duct and electrical parts and causes the reliability problems. Numerical simulation is an effective tool for this phenomenon because it can not only evaluate the water level before experiment but also identify the intrusion route. Recently, the gap around the engine cooling modules tends to become smaller and the undercover tends to become bigger than before in order to enhance the vehicle performance (e.g., aerodynamics, exterior noise). Leakage tightness around the engine compartment becomes higher and causes an increase of the buoyancy force from the water. Therefore the vehicle attitude change is causing a greater impact on the water level. This paper describes the development of a water level prediction method in engine compartment while running on the flooded road by using the coupled multibody and fluid dynamics.
Journal Article

Development Solar Charging System of Vehicle

2017-03-28
2017-01-1598
Fuel consumption and CO2 emission regulations for vehicles, such as the Zero Emission Vehicle (ZEV) Regulation, motivate renewable energy technologies in the automotive industry. Therefore, the automotive industry is focused on adopting solar charging systems. Some vehicles have adopted solar energy to power the ventilation system, but these vehicles do not use solar energy to power the drivetrain. One important issue facing the design of solar charging systems is the low power generated by solar panels. Compared to solar panels for residential use, solar panels for vehicles can’t generate as much power because of size and weight limitations. Also, the power generated by solar panels can be extremely affected depending on differences in solar radiation among the cells. Therefore, Toyota has developed a solar charging system that can use solar energy for driving the Prius PHV. This system can efficiently charge the hybrid battery with the low power generated by the solar panel.
Technical Paper

Development of CFD Method for Spray Shape Estimation

2016-10-17
2016-01-2198
Computational fluid dynamic (CFD) is widely used to develop engine combustion. Especially the in-cylinder spray calculation is important in order to resolve the issues of direct injection gasoline engines (e.g., particulate matter (PM) and oil dilution caused by fuel wetting on the cylinder walls). Conventional spray calculation methods require fitting based on measurements of spray characteristics such as penetration and droplet diameter (i.e., the Sauter mean diameter (SMD)). Particularly in the case of slit nozzle shapes that widen from the inlet to the outlet to form a fan-shaped spray, fitting the shape of spray is a complex procedure because the flow inside the nozzle is not uniform. In response, a new calculation method has been developed that eliminates the need for spray shape fitting by combining calculations of the Eulerian multiphase and the Lagrangian multiphase.
Technical Paper

Effectiveness and Issues of Automotive Electric Power Generating System Using Solar Modules

2016-04-05
2016-01-1266
Solar and other green energy technologies are attracting attention as a means of helping to address global warming caused by CO2 and other emission gases. Countries, factories, and individual homes around the world have already introduced photovoltaic energy power sources, a trend that is likely to increase in the future. Electric vehicles powered from photovoltaic energy systems can help decrease the CO2 emmissions caused by vehicles. Unlike vehicles used for solar car racing, it is not easy to equip conventional vehicles with solar modules because the available area for module installation is very small to maintain cabin space, and the body lines of conventional vehicles are also usually slightly rounded. These factors decrease the performance of photovoltaic energy systems and prevent sufficient electric power generation. This research aimed to estimate the effectiveness of a solar module power generating system equipped on a conventional car, the Toyota Prius PHV.
Technical Paper

Model-Based OBD Logic Utilizing Adsorption and Desorption Model of NH3 in SCR Catalyst

2016-04-05
2016-01-0960
Urea selective catalytic reduction (SCR) systems are a promising technology for helping to lower NOx emissions from diesel engines. These systems also require on-board diagnostic (OBD) systems to detect malfunctioning catalysts. Conventional OBD methodology for a SCR catalyst involves the measurement of NOx concentration downstream of the catalyst. However, considering future OBD regulations, erroneous diagnostics may occur due to variations in the actual environment. Therefore, to enhance OBD accuracy, a new methodology was examined that utilizes NH3 slip as a new diagnostic parameter in addition to NOx. NH3 slip increases as the NOx reduction performance degrades, because both phenomena are based on deterioration in the capability of the SCR catalyst to adsorb NH3. Furthermore, NH3 can be measured by existing NOx sensors because NH3 is oxidized to NO internally. To make use of NH3 slip, an estimation model was developed.
Journal Article

Typical Velocity Fields and Vortical Structures around a Formula One Car, based on Experimental Investigations using Particle Image Velocimetry

2016-04-05
2016-01-1611
This paper presents typical flow structures around a 60%-scale wind-tunnel model of a Formula One (F1) car, using planar particle image velocimetry (PIV). The customized PIV system is permanently installed in a wind tunnel to help aerodynamicists in the development loop. The PIV results enhance the understanding of the mean velocity field in the two-dimensional plane in some important areas of the car, such as the front-wheel wake and the underfloor flow. These real phenomena obtained in the wind tunnel also help maintain the accuracy of simulations using computational fluid dynamics (CFD) by allowing regular checking of the correlation with the real-world counterpart. This paper first surveys recent literature on unique flow structures around the rotating exposed wheel, mostly that on the isolated wheel, and then gives the background to F1 aerodynamics in the late 2000s.
Technical Paper

Development of an Electronically Controlled Brake System for Fuel-efficient Vehicles

2016-04-05
2016-01-1664
To solve various environmental problems, fuel-efficient vehicles that reduce CO2 emissions as well as exhaust gas emissions have been developed. In such vehicles, a regenerative brake is used to further reduce fuel consumption. Because the market size for such vehicles is expanding, a brake system is required that can be used in a wide range of vehicles extending from internal combustion engine vehicles (ICEVs) to electric vehicles (EVs). In addition, issues such as deceleration fluctuation and brake pedal fluctuation arise because the regenerative brake force is dependent on the vehicle speed. This paper presents a brake system configuration and its element technologies that can replace existing brake systems in different vehicles ranging from ICEVs to EVs. The proposed system can realize a regenerative cooperative brake not only by replacing the brake booster unit but also without replacing the modulator.
Technical Paper

Effects of Next-Generation Bio Diesel Fuel on the Engine Performance

2015-09-01
2015-01-1928
Hydrotreated Vegetable Oil (HVO) and Sugar-to-Diesel as next-generation bio diesel fuels consist of normal and iso-paraffin, and those carbon number of paraffinic hydrocarbons and distillation characteristics are narrow distribution. These characteristics would cause to deteriorate the evaporation and mixture with air and fuel. Therefore, in this study, the effects of normal paraffin (Tridecane) and iso-paraffin (HVO) on emission characteristics and cold start performance in a diesel engine were investigated by engine dynamometer tests, cold start vehicle tests, and spray analyzer tests. From the results, it was found that normal and iso-paraffin are beneficial for HC, CO, Smoke emission reduction. In addition, isomerization is effective for the diesel engine to fulfill cold start performance, since normal paraffin of narrow carbon number distribution became solidified under low temperature and high pressure condition in a common rail system.
Technical Paper

Development of Piston and Piston Ring Lubrication Analysis

2015-09-01
2015-01-2039
The reduction of CO2 emissions has become an imperative duty in order to cope with environmental compliance. For car manufacturers, CO2 emission has been set by regulation and many consumers prefer a fuel efficient car because of the increasing fuel price. In such a situation, reducing engine friction is an effective way of improving fuel efficiency. Among engine parts, the piston counts for a large percentage of the friction losses. In this study, we established a calculation model for estimating piston and piston ring friction. This paper shows how the accuracy of the calculation model was improved by validating against measurements.
Technical Paper

Small Bore Diesel Engine Combustion Concept

2015-04-14
2015-01-0788
Small bore diesel engines often adopt a two-valve cylinder head and a non-central injector layout to expand the port flow passage area. This non-central injector layout causes asymmetrical gas flow and fuel distribution, resulting in worse heat losses and a less homogenous fuel-air mixture than an equivalent four-valve cylinder head layout with a central injector. This paper describes the improvement of piston bowl geometry to achieve a more homogeneous gas flow and fuel-air mixture. This concept reduced fuel consumption by 2.5% compared to the original piston bowl geometry, while also reducing NOx emissions by 10%.
Technical Paper

Development of ILSAC GF-5 0W-20 Fuel Economy Gasoline Engine Oil

2012-09-10
2012-01-1614
We report in this paper our newly developed technology applied to ILSAC GF-5 0W-20 engine oil that offers great fuel economy improvement over GF-4 counterpart, which is a key performance requirement of modern engine oil to reduce CO2 emissions from a vehicle. Our development strategy of the oil consisted of two elements: (1) further friction reduction under mixed and hydrodynamic lubrication conditions considering use of roller rocker arm type valve train system and (2) lowering viscosity at low temperature conditions to improve fuel economy under cold cycles. Use of roller rocker arm type valve train system has been spreading, because of its advantage of reducing mechanical friction. Unlike engine with conventional direct-acting type valve train system, lubrication condition of engine with the roller rocker arm type valve train system has higher contribution of mixed or hydrodynamic lubrication conditions rather than boundary lubrication condition.
Technical Paper

Feasibility Study of Exhaust Emissions in a Natural Gas Diesel Dual Fuel (DDF) Engine

2012-09-10
2012-01-1649
The Diesel Dual Fuel (DDF) vehicle is one of the technologies to convert diesel vehicles for natural gas usage. The purpose of this research was to study the possibility of a DDF vehicle to meet emission standards for diesel vehicles. This research was done for small passenger vehicles and commercial vehicles. The exhaust emissions compliance of such vehicles in a New European Driving Cycle (NEDC) mode which was composed of Urban Driving Cycles (UDC) and an Extra Urban Driving Cycle (EUDC) was evaluated. (see APPENDIXFigure A1) In this study, the passenger vehicle engine, compliant with the EURO4 standard, was converted to a DDF engine. Engine bench tests under steady state conditions showed similar result to previous papers. Total hydrocarbon (HC) emission was extremely high, compared to diesel engine. The NEDC mode emissions of the DDF vehicle were estimated based on these engine bench test results.
Journal Article

Reaction Mechanism Analysis of Di-Air-Contributions of Hydrocarbons and Intermediates

2012-09-10
2012-01-1744
The details of Di-Air, a new NOx reduction system using continuous short pulse injections of hydrocarbons (HC) in front of a NOx storage and reduction (NSR) catalyst, have already been reported. This paper describes further studies into the deNOx mechanism, mainly from the standpoint of the contribution of HC and intermediates. In the process of a preliminary survey regarding HC oxidation behavior at the moment of injection, it was found that HC have unique advantages as a reductant. The addition of HC lead to the reduction or metallization of platinum group metals (PGM) while keeping the overall gas atmosphere in a lean state due to adsorbed HC. This causes local O₂ inhibition and generates reductive intermediate species such as R-NCO. Therefore, the specific benefits of HC were analyzed from the viewpoints of 1) the impact on the PGM state, 2) the characterization of intermediate species, and 3) Di-Air performance compared to other reductants.
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