Refine Your Search

Search Results

Viewing 1 to 9 of 9
Technical Paper

Constitutive Modeling of Brain Parenchyma Taking Account of Strain Rate Dependency with Anisotropy and Application to Brain Injury Analyses

A reduction in brain disorders owing to traumatic brain injury (TBI) caused by head impacts in traffic accidents is needed. However, the details of the injury mechanism still remain unclear. In past analyses, brain parenchyma of a head finite element (FE) model has generally been modeled using simple isotropic viscoelastic materials. For further understanding of TBI mechanism, in this study we developed a new constitutive model that describes most of the mechanical properties in brain parenchyma such as anisotropy, strain rate dependency, and the characteristic features of the unloading process. Validation of the model was performed against several material test data from the literature with a simple one-element model. The model was also introduced into the human head FE model of THUMS v4.02 and validated against post-mortem human subject (PMHS) test data about brain displacements and intracranial pressures during head impacts.
Technical Paper

Development and Validation of the Total HUman Model for Safety (THUMS) Version 5 Containing Multiple 1D Muscles for Estimating Occupant Motions with Muscle Activation During Side Impacts

Accurate prediction of occupant head kinematics is critical for better understanding of head/face injury mechanisms in side impacts, especially far-side occupants. In light of the fact that researchers have demonstrated that muscle activations, especially in neck muscles, can affect occupant head kinematics, a human body finite element (FE) model that considers muscle activation is useful for predicting occupant head kinematics in real-world automotive accidents. In this study, we developed a human body FE model called the THUMS (Total HUman Model for Safety) Version 5 that contains 262 one-dimensional (1D) Hill-type muscle models over the entire body. The THUMS was validated against 36 series of PMHS (Post Mortem Human Surrogate) and volunteer test data in this study, and 16 series of PMHS and volunteer test data on side impacts are presented. Validation results with force-time curves were also evaluated quantitatively using the CORA (CORrelation and Analysis) method.
Technical Paper

Variation in Nerve Fiber Strain in Brain Tissue Subjected to Uniaxial Stretch

Diffuse axonal injury (DAI) is the most frequent type of closed head injury involved in vehicular accidents, and is characterized by structural and functional damage of nerve fibers in the white matter that may be caused by their overstretch. Because nerve fibers in the white matter have an undulated network-like structure embedded in the neuroglia and extracellular matrix, and are expected to be much stiffer than other components, the strain in the nerve fiber is not necessarily equal to that in the white matter. In this study, the authors have measured strain of the nerve fibers running in various directions in porcine brain tissue subjected to uniaxial stretch and compared them with global strain (tissue strain). The nerve fiber strain had a close correlation with their direction, and was smaller than surrounding global strain.
Technical Paper

Development of a Three-Dimensional Finite Element Chest Model for the 5th Percentile Female

Several three-dimensional (3D) finite element (FE) models of the human body have been developed to elucidate injury mechanisms due to automotive crashes. However, these models are mainly focused on 50th percentile male. As a first step towards a better understanding of injury biomechanics in the small female, a 3D FE model of a 5th percentile female human chest (FEM-5F) has been developed and validated against experimental data obtained from two sets of frontal impact, one set of lateral impact, two sets of oblique impact and a series of ballistic impacts. Two previous FE models, a small female Total HUman Model for Safety (THUMS-AF05) occupant version 1.0ϐ (Kimpara et al., 2002) and the Wayne State University Human Thoracic Model (WSUHTM, Wang 1995 and Shah et al., 2001) were integrated and modified for this model development.
Technical Paper

A tibial mid-shaft injury mechanism in frontal automotive crashes

Lower extremity injuries in frontal automotive crashes usually occur with footwell intrusion where both the knee and foot are constrained. In order to identify factors associated with tibial shaft injury, a series of numerical simulations were conducted using a finite element model of the whole human body. These simulations demonstrated that tibial mid-shaft injuries in frontal crashes could be caused by an abrupt change in velocity and a high rate of footwell intrusion.
Technical Paper

Development of a Finite Element Model of the Human Shoulder

Previous studies have hypothesized that the shoulder may be used to absorb some impact energy and reduce chest injury due to side impacts. Before this hypothesis can be tested, a good understanding of the injury mechanisms and the kinematics of the shoulder is critical for occupant protection in side impact. However, existing crash dummies and numerical models are not designed to reproduce the kinematics and kinetics of the human shoulder. The purpose of this study was to develop a finite element model of the human shoulder in order to achieve a deeper understanding of the injury mechanisms and the kinematics of the shoulder in side impact. Basic anthropometric data of the human shoulder used to develop the skeletal and muscular portions of this model were taken from commercial data packages. The shoulder model included three bones (the humerus, scapula and clavicle) and major ligaments and muscles around the shoulder.
Technical Paper

Development of a Finite Element Model of the Human Lower Extremity for Analyses of Automotive Crash Injuries

A finite element model of the human lower extremity has been developed to predict lower extremity injuries in full frontal and offset frontal impact. The model included 30bones from femur to toes. Each bone was modeled using crushable solid elements for the orbicular bone and damageable shell elements for the cortical bone. The models of the long bones for the lower extremities were validated against data obtained from quasi-static 3-pointbending tests by Yamada (1970). The ankle, knee and hip joints were modeled as bone-to-bone contacts and included major ligaments and tendons. The ankle model was validated against data obtained from quasi-staticdorsiflexion, inversion and eversion tests by Petit et al. (1996) and against data obtained from dynamic impactcadaveric tests by Kitagawa et al. (1998). The possibility of using this model to predict injuries was discussed.
Technical Paper

Relationship between Localized Spine Deformation and Cervical Vertebral Motions for Low Speed Rear Impacts Using Human Volunteers

It is important to more clearly identify the relationship among the ramping-up motion, straightening of the whole spine, and cervical vertebrae motion in order to clarify minor neck injury mechanism. The aim of the current study is to verify the influence of the change of the spine configuration on human cervical vertebral motion and on head/neck/torso kinematics under low speed rear-end impacts. Seven healthy human volunteers participated in the experiment under the supervision of an ethics committee. Each subject sat on a seat mounted on a sled that glided backward on rails and simulated actual car impact acceleration. Impact speeds (4, 6, and 8 km/h), and seat stiffness (rigid and soft) without headrest were selected. During the experiment, the change of the spine configuration (measured by a newly developed spine deformation sensor with 33 paired set strain gauges and placed on the skin) and the interface load-pressure distribution was recorded.
Technical Paper

Analysis of Head and Neck Response During Side Impact

Numerical analyses of head and neck response during side impact are presented in this paper. A mathematical human model for side impact simulation was developed based on previous studies of other researchers. The effects of muscular activities during severe side impact were analyzed with the use of this model. This study shows that the effect of muscular activities is significant especially if the occupant is prepared to resist the impact. This result suggests that the modeling of muscles is important for the simulation of real accident situation.