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Technical Paper

Research and Development of a New Direct Injection Gasoline Engine

2000-03-06
2000-01-0530
A new stratified charge combustion system has been developed for direct injection gasoline engines. The special feature of this system is employment of a thin fan-shaped fuel spray formed by a slit nozzle. The stratified mixture is produced by the combination of this fan-spray and a shell-shaped piston cavity. Both under-mixing and over-mixing of fuel in the stratified mixture is reduced by this system. This combustion system does not require distinct charge motion such as tumble or swirl, which enables intake port geometry to be simplified to improve full load performance. The effects of the new system on engine performance at part load are improved fuel consumption and reduced smoke, CO and HC emissions, obviously at medium load and medium engine speed. HC emissions at light load are also improved even with high EGR conditions.
Technical Paper

Application of a New Combustion Concept to Direct Injection Gasoline Engine

2000-03-06
2000-01-0531
A direct injection (DI) gasoline engine having a new stratified charge combustion system has been developed. This new combustion process (NCP) was achieved by a fan-shaped fuel spray and a combustion chamber with a shell-shaped cavity in the piston. Compared with the current Toyota D-4 engine, wider engine operating area with stratified combustion and higher output performance were obtained without a swirl control valve (SCV) and a helical port. This report presents the results of combustion analyses to optimize fuel spray characteristics and piston cavity shapes. Two factors were found to be important for achieving stable stratified combustion. The first is to create a ball-shaped uniform mixture cloud in the vicinity of the spark plug. The optimum ball-shaped mixture cloud is produced with a fuel spray having early breakup characteristics and uniform distribution, and a suitable side wall shape in the piston cavity to avoid the dispersion of the mixture.
Technical Paper

Development of Direct Injection Gasoline Engine - Study of Stratified Mixture Formation

1997-02-24
970539
Effects of spray characteristics for stratified combustion of direct injection gasoline engine have been researched. The highly functional piezoelectric (PZT) injector was selected for this research. A hole and swirl nozzle were examined in a wide range of fuel pressure. The hole nozzle aims to make stratified mixture formation by vaporizing fuel on the piston, and the swirl nozzle aims to do so in the air above the piston by utilizing the spray characteristic of lower penetration and higher dispersibility. Both sprays could realize stable stratified combustion. The stability mainly depends on the combination of spray characteristic and piston cavity shape, and the swirl air motion which strength changes corresponding to engine operating conditions. The hole nozzle requires high, and the swirl nozzle less fuel pressure. Even by a large amount of EGR, stratified combustion has the advantage of combustion stability, and is useful to reduce exhaust emissions, especially NOx emissions.
Technical Paper

Measurement of Flame Temperature Distribution in Engines by Using a Two-Color High Speed Shutter TV Camera System

1989-02-01
890320
A two-color high speed shutter TV camera system has been developed as a new sensing device for measuring the flame temperature in engines. The TV camera system can measure the radiant intensities of high temperature substances accurately and rapidly. And, the two-dimensional temperature distribution can be easily calculated from the radiant intensities by using an image processor. This system is applicable to measurement of flame temperatures in diesel and gasoline engines. The relation between the progress of combustion phenomena and the measured temperature distribution is clearly explained. It is confirmed that the system is effective for measurement of the flame temperature distribution in engines.
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