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Technical Paper

Development of Three-Way Catalyst with Using Only Pd as Activator

The Pd only three-way catalyst with Rh as an activator completely removed has been developed. The catalyst has been improved with regards to its thermal stability and its NOx reduction capability in the fuel rich region. These two factors have been known as the weak points of Pd catalyst. The thermal stability of the Pd catalyst was improved by modifying the washcoat alumina to yield a higher thermal stability. On the other hand, the NOx reduction capability was controlled by adding a combination of La and Ba. The developed Pd only three-way catalyst demonstrated the equivalent performance to a current production Pt/Rh catalyst after engine dynamometer aging up to 800°C.
Technical Paper

Engine Oil Additive Effects on Deactivation of Monolithic Three-Way Catalysts and Oxygen Sensors

It is widely known that pellet-typed catalysts are deactivated by phosphorus (ZnDTP) that comes from engine oils. In this paper, the poisoning of monolithic three-way catalysts and oxygen sensors by engine oils is studied. First, catalysts and oxygen sensors were poisoned on the engine bench by test oils in which the quantity of phosphorus and ash was varied. Next, performance of the catalysts and sensors alone was examined and the vehicle exhaust emission at FTP mode was measured on a chassis dynamometer. The results indicate that phosphorus in engine oils poisons the monolithic catalyst and the oxygen sensor resulting in deterioration of the vehicle NOx exhaust emission. However, Ca sulfonate and Mg sulfonate detergents act by restraining phosphorus poisoning of the catalyst and the oxygen sensor. Through analysis of the catalyst and sensor surfaces, it is concluded that phosphorus poisons the catalyst and sensor forming a dense coating.