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Journal Article

Emissions Reduction Potential of Extremely High Boost and High EGR Rate for an HSDI Diesel Engine and the Reduction Mechanisms of Exhaust Emissions

The effects of an increasing boost pressure, a high EGR rate and a high injection pressure on exhaust emissions from an HSDI (High Speed Direct Injection) diesel engine were examined. The mechanisms were then investigated with both in-cylinder observations and 3DCFD coupled with ϕT-map analysis. Under a high-load condition, increasing the charging efficiency combined with a high injection pressure and a high EGR rate is an effective way to reduce NOx and soot simultaneously, which realized an ultra low NOx of 16ppm at 1.7MPa of IMEP (Indicated Mean Effective Pressure). The flame temperature with low NOx and low soot emissions is decreased by 260K from that with conventional emissions. Also, the distribution of the fuel-air mixture plot on a ϕT-map is moved away from the NOx and soot formation peninsula, compared to the conventional emissions case.
Technical Paper

Achieving Lower Exhaust Emissions and Better Performance in an HSDI Diesel Engine with Multiple Injection

The effects of multiple-injection on exhaust emissions and performance in a small HSDI (High Speed Direct Injection) Diesel engine were examined. The causes for the improvement were investigated using both in-cylinder observation and three-dimensional numerical analysis methods. It is possible to increase the maximum torque, which is limited by the exhaust smoke number, while decreasing the combustion noise under low speed and full load conditions by advancing the timing of the pilot injection. Dividing this early-timed pilot injection into two with a small fuel amount is effective for further decreasing the noise while suppressing the increase in HC emission and fuel consumption. This is realized by the reduced amount of adhered fuel to the cylinder wall. At light loads, the amount of pilot injection fuel must be reduced, and the injection must be timed just prior to the main injection in order to suppress a possible increase in smoke and HC.
Technical Paper

Effect of Hydrocarbon Molecular Structure on Diesel Exhaust Emissions Part 2: Effect of Branched and Ring Structures of Paraffins on Benzene and Soot Formation

The effect of the chemical reactivity of diesel fuel on PM formation was investigated using a flow reactor and a shock tube. Reaction products from the flow-reactor pyrolysis of the three diesel fuels used for the engine tests in Part 1(1) (“Base”, “Improved” and Swedish “Class-1”) were analyzed by gas chromatography. At 850C, Swedish “Class-1” fuel was found to produce the most PM precursors such as benzene and toluene among the three fuels, even though it contains very low amounts of aromatics. The chemical analyses described in Part 1 revealed that “Class-1” contains a large amount of branched and cyclic structures in the saturated hydrocarbon portion of the fuel. These results suggest that the presence of such branched and ring structures can increase exhaust PM emissions.
Technical Paper

Effect of Hydrocarbon Molecular Structure on Diesel Exhaust Emissions Part 1: Comparison of Combustion and Exhaust Emission Characteristics among Representative Diesel Fuels

Combustion and exhaust emission characteristics were compared among three representative diesel fuels called “Base (corresponding to a Japanese market fuel)”, “Improved” and Swedish “Class-1” using both a modern small and an optically accessible single-cylinder DI diesel engines. In these tests, the relative amount of PM collected in the exhaust was “Base” >“Class-1” >“Improved” at almost all of the operating conditions. This means that “Class-1” generated more PM than “Improved”, even though “Class-1” has significantly lower distillation temperatures, aromatic content, sulfur, and density compared with “Improved”. There was little difference in combustion characteristics such as heat release rate pattern, mixture formation and flame development processes between these two fuels. However, it was found that “Class-1” contained more branches in the paraffin fraction and more naphthenes.