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Technical Paper

Effects of EGR Constituents and Fuel Composition on DISI Engine Knock: An Experimental and Modeling Study

The use of exhaust gas recirculation (EGR) in spark ignition engines has been shown to have a number of beneficial effects under specific operating conditions. These include reducing pumping work under part load conditions, reducing NOx emissions and heat losses by lowering peak combustion temperatures, and by reducing the tendency for engine knock (caused by end-gas autoignition) under certain operating regimes. In this study, the effects of EGR addition on knocking combustion are investigated through a combined experimental and modeling approach. The problem is investigated by considering the effects of individual EGR constituents, such as CO2, N2, and H2O, on knock, both individually and combined, and with and without traces species, such as unburned hydrocarbons and NOx. The effects of engine compression ratio and fuel composition on the effectiveness of knock suppression with EGR addition were also investigated.
Technical Paper

Study of Ignition System for Demand Voltage Reduction

Improving the engine efficiency to respond to climate change and energy security issues is strongly required. In order to improve the engine efficiency, lower fuel consumption, and enhance engine performance, OEMs have been developing high compression ratio engines and downsized turbocharged engines. However, higher compression ratio and turbocharging cause cylinder pressure to increase, which in turn increases the demand voltage for ignition. To reduce the demand voltage, a new ignition system is developed that uses a high voltage Zener diode to maintain a constant output voltage. Maintaining a constant voltage higher than the static breakdown voltage helps limit the amount of overshoot produced during the spark event. This allows discharge to occur at a lower demand voltage than with conventional spark ignition systems. The results show that the maximum reduction in demand voltage is 3.5 kV when the engine is operated at 2800 rpm and 2.6 MPa break mean effective pressure.
Journal Article

Pre-Ignition of Gasoline-Air Mixture Triggered by a Lubricant Oil Droplet

This paper presents the effects of a lubricant oil droplet on the start of combustion of a fuel-air mixture. Lubricant oil is thought to be a major source of low-speed pre-ignition in highly boosted spark ignition engines. However, the phenomenon has not yet been fully understood because its unpredictability and the complexity of the mixture in the engine cylinder make analysis difficult. In this study, a single oil droplet in a combustion cylinder was considered as a means of simplifying the phenomenon. The conditions under which a single oil droplet ignites earlier than the fuel-air mixture were investigated. Tests were conducted by using a rapid compression expansion machine. A single oil droplet was introduced into the cylinder through an injector developed for this study. The ignition and the flame propagation were observed through an optical window, using a high-speed video camera.