Refine Your Search

Search Results

Viewing 1 to 2 of 2
Technical Paper

Effects of California Phase 2 Reformulated Gasoline Regulations on Exhaust Emission Reduction: Part 2

The 50% and 90% distillation temperature (T50 & T90), aromatics, olefins and sulfur content are regulated in California Phase2 Reformulated Gasoline. The effects of these properties on the exhaust emissions were investigated. Twelve test fuels with little interaction between T50, T90, aromatics and olefins were prepared. Exhaust emissions were measured using a TLEV according to 1975 Federal Test Procedure (75 FTP). T50 had a large effect on exhaust HC emissions. T90 also affected HC emissions. Both increasing and decreasing T50, T90 showed increasing exhaust HC emissions. These results suggest that an optimum range of T50 and T90 exist for lowering exhaust HC emissions. The effects of sulfur on exhaust emissions were also investigated. A Pt/Rh type catalyst (production type) and a Pd type catalyst (prototype) were prepared. These catalysts were put on a 94MY TLEV. Increase of sulfur lead to increase of the exhaust emissions with both catalysts.
Technical Paper

Engine Oil Additive Effects on Deactivation of Monolithic Three-Way Catalysts and Oxygen Sensors

It is widely known that pellet-typed catalysts are deactivated by phosphorus (ZnDTP) that comes from engine oils. In this paper, the poisoning of monolithic three-way catalysts and oxygen sensors by engine oils is studied. First, catalysts and oxygen sensors were poisoned on the engine bench by test oils in which the quantity of phosphorus and ash was varied. Next, performance of the catalysts and sensors alone was examined and the vehicle exhaust emission at FTP mode was measured on a chassis dynamometer. The results indicate that phosphorus in engine oils poisons the monolithic catalyst and the oxygen sensor resulting in deterioration of the vehicle NOx exhaust emission. However, Ca sulfonate and Mg sulfonate detergents act by restraining phosphorus poisoning of the catalyst and the oxygen sensor. Through analysis of the catalyst and sensor surfaces, it is concluded that phosphorus poisons the catalyst and sensor forming a dense coating.