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Technical Paper

Effects of EGR Constituents and Fuel Composition on DISI Engine Knock: An Experimental and Modeling Study

The use of exhaust gas recirculation (EGR) in spark ignition engines has been shown to have a number of beneficial effects under specific operating conditions. These include reducing pumping work under part load conditions, reducing NOx emissions and heat losses by lowering peak combustion temperatures, and by reducing the tendency for engine knock (caused by end-gas autoignition) under certain operating regimes. In this study, the effects of EGR addition on knocking combustion are investigated through a combined experimental and modeling approach. The problem is investigated by considering the effects of individual EGR constituents, such as CO2, N2, and H2O, on knock, both individually and combined, and with and without traces species, such as unburned hydrocarbons and NOx. The effects of engine compression ratio and fuel composition on the effectiveness of knock suppression with EGR addition were also investigated.
Journal Article

Study of Diesel Engine System for Hybrid Vehicles

In this study, we combined a diesel engine with the Toyota Hybrid System (THS). Utilizing the functions of the THS, reducing engine friction, lowering the compression ratio, and adopting a low pressure loop exhaust gas recirculation system (LPL-EGR) were examined to achieve both low fuel consumption and low nitrogen oxides (NOx) emissions over a wide operating range. After applying this system to a test vehicle it was verified that the fuel economy greatly surpassed that of a conventional diesel engine vehicle and that NOx emissions could be reduced below the value specified in the Euro 6 regulations without DeNOx catalysts.
Technical Paper

Numerical Study of Mixture Formation and Combustion Processes in a Direct Injection Gasoline Engine with Fan-Shaped Spray

Numerical 3-D simulations are performed for the improvement of the new direct injection gasoline engine. A solution based local grid refinement method has been developed in order to reduce the CPU time. This method has been incorporated into the CFD program (STAR-CD) with in-house spray and combustion models. Calculation results were compared with the experimental data taken by the LIF technique, and good agreement was obtained for the mixture formation and combustion processes. Some calculations were carried out for the fuel-air mixture formation process during late injection stratified combustion and the following results were obtained. The unburnt fuel has a tendency to remain in the side of the piston cavity at the latter part of the combustion period. To reduce the amount of unburnt fuel, it was shown that the combination of a thin thickness fan spray and compact cavity forms a spherical mixture, suitable for combustion.
Technical Paper

Application of a New Combustion Concept to Direct Injection Gasoline Engine

A direct injection (DI) gasoline engine having a new stratified charge combustion system has been developed. This new combustion process (NCP) was achieved by a fan-shaped fuel spray and a combustion chamber with a shell-shaped cavity in the piston. Compared with the current Toyota D-4 engine, wider engine operating area with stratified combustion and higher output performance were obtained without a swirl control valve (SCV) and a helical port. This report presents the results of combustion analyses to optimize fuel spray characteristics and piston cavity shapes. Two factors were found to be important for achieving stable stratified combustion. The first is to create a ball-shaped uniform mixture cloud in the vicinity of the spark plug. The optimum ball-shaped mixture cloud is produced with a fuel spray having early breakup characteristics and uniform distribution, and a suitable side wall shape in the piston cavity to avoid the dispersion of the mixture.
Technical Paper

Research and Development of a New Direct Injection Gasoline Engine

A new stratified charge combustion system has been developed for direct injection gasoline engines. The special feature of this system is employment of a thin fan-shaped fuel spray formed by a slit nozzle. The stratified mixture is produced by the combination of this fan-spray and a shell-shaped piston cavity. Both under-mixing and over-mixing of fuel in the stratified mixture is reduced by this system. This combustion system does not require distinct charge motion such as tumble or swirl, which enables intake port geometry to be simplified to improve full load performance. The effects of the new system on engine performance at part load are improved fuel consumption and reduced smoke, CO and HC emissions, obviously at medium load and medium engine speed. HC emissions at light load are also improved even with high EGR conditions.
Technical Paper

Development of Direct Injection Gasoline Engine - Study of Stratified Mixture Formation

Effects of spray characteristics for stratified combustion of direct injection gasoline engine have been researched. The highly functional piezoelectric (PZT) injector was selected for this research. A hole and swirl nozzle were examined in a wide range of fuel pressure. The hole nozzle aims to make stratified mixture formation by vaporizing fuel on the piston, and the swirl nozzle aims to do so in the air above the piston by utilizing the spray characteristic of lower penetration and higher dispersibility. Both sprays could realize stable stratified combustion. The stability mainly depends on the combination of spray characteristic and piston cavity shape, and the swirl air motion which strength changes corresponding to engine operating conditions. The hole nozzle requires high, and the swirl nozzle less fuel pressure. Even by a large amount of EGR, stratified combustion has the advantage of combustion stability, and is useful to reduce exhaust emissions, especially NOx emissions.
Technical Paper

Development of Two-Dimensional Oil Film Thickness Distribution Measuring System

A newly developed fluorescent diagnostic system can measure the oil film thickness distribution through two-dimensional images with high sensitivity and quick response. This system consists of a filtered Xe-flash lamp, a filtered charge-coupled-device video camera, a personal-computer-based signal analyzer and lubricating oil with the fluorescent dye added. We have installed the system in a single cylinder research engine and measured the oil film thickness distribution around the piston under various operating conditions. One example of the results is that an oil spout from a gap in the first compression ring, which agrees with the measured oil consumption rate of the engine, was clearly observed at high engine speed.
Technical Paper

Measurement of Flame Temperature Distribution in Engines by Using a Two-Color High Speed Shutter TV Camera System

A two-color high speed shutter TV camera system has been developed as a new sensing device for measuring the flame temperature in engines. The TV camera system can measure the radiant intensities of high temperature substances accurately and rapidly. And, the two-dimensional temperature distribution can be easily calculated from the radiant intensities by using an image processor. This system is applicable to measurement of flame temperatures in diesel and gasoline engines. The relation between the progress of combustion phenomena and the measured temperature distribution is clearly explained. It is confirmed that the system is effective for measurement of the flame temperature distribution in engines.