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Technical Paper

Effect of Hydrocarbon Molecular Structure on Diesel Exhaust Emissions Part 2: Effect of Branched and Ring Structures of Paraffins on Benzene and Soot Formation

The effect of the chemical reactivity of diesel fuel on PM formation was investigated using a flow reactor and a shock tube. Reaction products from the flow-reactor pyrolysis of the three diesel fuels used for the engine tests in Part 1(1) (“Base”, “Improved” and Swedish “Class-1”) were analyzed by gas chromatography. At 850C, Swedish “Class-1” fuel was found to produce the most PM precursors such as benzene and toluene among the three fuels, even though it contains very low amounts of aromatics. The chemical analyses described in Part 1 revealed that “Class-1” contains a large amount of branched and cyclic structures in the saturated hydrocarbon portion of the fuel. These results suggest that the presence of such branched and ring structures can increase exhaust PM emissions.
Technical Paper

Effect of Hydrocarbon Molecular Structure on Diesel Exhaust Emissions Part 1: Comparison of Combustion and Exhaust Emission Characteristics among Representative Diesel Fuels

Combustion and exhaust emission characteristics were compared among three representative diesel fuels called “Base (corresponding to a Japanese market fuel)”, “Improved” and Swedish “Class-1” using both a modern small and an optically accessible single-cylinder DI diesel engines. In these tests, the relative amount of PM collected in the exhaust was “Base” >“Class-1” >“Improved” at almost all of the operating conditions. This means that “Class-1” generated more PM than “Improved”, even though “Class-1” has significantly lower distillation temperatures, aromatic content, sulfur, and density compared with “Improved”. There was little difference in combustion characteristics such as heat release rate pattern, mixture formation and flame development processes between these two fuels. However, it was found that “Class-1” contained more branches in the paraffin fraction and more naphthenes.
Technical Paper

Development of the Second Generation Methanol Lean Burn System

The second generation methanol lean burn system has been developed. The power unit is a new, 4 valve 1.6L in-line four with compact combustion chambers. Lean misfire limit was extended by using a swirl control valve in the intake port which improves combustion under partial load. Lean mixture control is made by using a signal from lean mixture sensor provided in the exhaust manifold. An EGR system has been newly adopted to reduce NOx emissions and a under-floor type catalyst is also used to reduce formaldehyde emission in the cold transient mode in addition to the manifold type catalyst. Permissible excess air ratio range (PEXARR) was defined and used to indicate the potential for reducing vehicle NOx emissions in engine dynamometer tests to optimize compression ratio, valve timing and swirl ratio and to evaluate the effect of the EGR.