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Technical Paper

Machine Learning Based Technology for Reducing Engine Starting Vibration of Hybrid Vehicles

2019-06-05
2019-01-1450
Engine starting vibration of hybrid vehicle with Toyota hybrid system has variations even in the same vehicle, and a large vibration that occurs rarely may cause stress to the passengers. The contribution analysis based on the vibration theory and statistical analysis has been done, but the primary factor of the rare large vibration has not been clarified because the number of factors is enormous. From this background, we apply machine learning that can reproduce multivariate and complicated relationships to analysis of variation factors of engine starting vibration. Variations in magnitude of the exciting force such as motor torque for starting the engine and in-cylinder pressure of the engine and timing of these forces are considered as factors of the variations. In addition, there are also nonlinear factors such as backlash of gears as a factor of variations.
Technical Paper

Development of Innovative Dynamic Torque Vectoring AWD System

2019-04-02
2019-01-0332
This paper describes the development of an innovative AWD system called Dynamic Torque Vectoring AWD for all-wheel drive (AWD) vehicles based on a front-wheel drive configuration. The Dynamic Torque Vectoring AWD system helps to achieve high levels of both dynamic performance and fuel efficiency. Significant fuel economy savings are achieved by using a new compact disconnection mechanism at the transfer and rear units, which prevents any unnecessary rotation of the propeller shaft. In addition, the system is also capable of independently distributing torque to the rear wheels by utilizing electronically controlled couplings on the left and right sides of the rear differential. This greatly enhances both on-road cornering performance and off-road driving performance.
Technical Paper

Application of Models of Short Circuits and Blow-Outs of Spark Channels under High-Velocity Flow Conditions to Spark Ignition Simulation

2018-09-10
2018-01-1727
This report describes the implementation of the spark channel short circuit and blow-out submodels, which were described in the previous report, into a spark ignition model. The spark channel which is modeled by a particle series is elongated by moving individual spark particles along local gas flows. The equation of the spark channel resistance developed by Kim et al. is modified in order to describe the behavior of the current and the voltage in high flow velocity conditions and implemented into the electrical circuit model of the electrical inductive system of the spark plug. Input parameters of the circuit model are the following: initial discharge energy, inductance, internal resistance and capacitance of the spark plug, and the spark channel length obtained by the spark channel model. The instantaneous discharge current and the voltage are obtained as outputs of the circuit model.
Technical Paper

The Development of a New V6 3.5L Turbocharged Gasoline Engine

2018-04-03
2018-01-0366
For the launch of the redesigned Lexus LS, a new 3.5 L V6 twin turbo engine has been developed aiming at unparalleled performance on four axes, “driving pleasure”, “power-performance”, “quietness” and “fuel economy”. To achieve outstanding power-performance and high thermal efficiency, the specifications have been optimized for high speed combustion. The maximum torque of 600 Nm, power of 310 kW (yielding specific power of 90 kW/L), and the maximum thermal efficiency of 37% have been achieved using several new technologies including a high efficiency turbocharger. A prototype vehicle equipped with this engine and Direct-Shift 10AT achieved a 0-60 mph acceleration time of 4.6 sec, with extremely good CAFE combined fuel economy of 23 mpg and power-performance aligned with V8 turbocharged offerings from competing OEM’s.
Journal Article

Effects of High Boiling Point Fuel Additives on Deposits in a Direct Injection Gasoline Engine

2017-10-08
2017-01-2299
The effects of high boiling point fuel additives on deposits were investigated in a commercial turbocharged direct injection gasoline engine. It is known that high boiling point substances have a negative effect on deposits. The distillation end points of blended fuels containing these additives may be approximately 15°C higher than the base fuel (end point: 175°C). Three additives with boiling points between 190 and 196°C were examined: 4-tert-Butyltoluene (TBT), N-Methyl Aniline (NMA), and 2-Methyl-1,5-pentanediamine (MPD). Aromatics and anilines, which may be added to gasoline to increase its octane number, might have a negative effect on deposits. TBT has a benzene ring. NMA has a benzene ring and an amino group. MPD, which has no benzene ring and two amino groups, was selected for comparison with the former two additives.
Journal Article

An Intake Valve Deposit (IVD) Engine Test Development to Investigate Deposit Build-Up Mechanism Using a Real Engine

2017-10-08
2017-01-2291
In emerging markets, Port Fuel Injection (PFI) technology retains a higher market share than Gasoline Direct Injection (GDI) technology. In these markets fuel quality remains a concern even despite an overall improvement in quality. Typical PFI engines are sensitive to fuel quality regardless of brand, engine architecture, or cylinder configuration. One of the well-known impacts of fuel quality on PFI engines is the formation of Intake Valve Deposits (IVD). These deposits steadily accumulate over time and can lead to a deterioration of engine performance. IVD formation mechanisms have been characterized in previous studies. However, no test is available on a state-of-the-art engine to study the impact of fuel components on IVD formation. Therefore, a proprietary engine test was developed to test several chemistries. Sixteen fuel blends were tested. The deposit formation mechanism has been studied and analysed.
Technical Paper

Mechanism of Turbocharger Coking in Gasoline Engines

2015-09-01
2015-01-2029
Turbocharged downsized gasoline engines have been widely used in the market as one of the measures to improve fuel economy. Coking phenomena in the lubricating circuit of the turbocharger unit is a well-known issue that may affect turbocharger efficiency and durability. Laboratory rig test such as ASTM D6335 (TEOST 33C) has been used to predict this phenomenon as a part of engine oil performance requirements. On the other hand, laboratory tests sometimes have difficulty reproducing the actual mechanism of coking caused by engine oil degradation. Accumulation of insoluble material is one of the important gasoline engine oil degradation modes. The influence of temperature and insoluble concentration were investigated based on actual used engine oils collected in the field.
Technical Paper

Study of Ignition System for Demand Voltage Reduction

2015-04-14
2015-01-0777
Improving the engine efficiency to respond to climate change and energy security issues is strongly required. In order to improve the engine efficiency, lower fuel consumption, and enhance engine performance, OEMs have been developing high compression ratio engines and downsized turbocharged engines. However, higher compression ratio and turbocharging cause cylinder pressure to increase, which in turn increases the demand voltage for ignition. To reduce the demand voltage, a new ignition system is developed that uses a high voltage Zener diode to maintain a constant output voltage. Maintaining a constant voltage higher than the static breakdown voltage helps limit the amount of overshoot produced during the spark event. This allows discharge to occur at a lower demand voltage than with conventional spark ignition systems. The results show that the maximum reduction in demand voltage is 3.5 kV when the engine is operated at 2800 rpm and 2.6 MPa break mean effective pressure.
Technical Paper

The New Toyota 1.2-Liter ESTEC Turbocharged Direct Injection Gasoline Engine

2015-04-14
2015-01-1268
Toyota Motor Corporation is developing a series of engines belonging to its ESTEC (Economy with Superior Thermal Efficient Combustion) development concept. This paper describes the development of 8NR-FTS after the subsequent launch of the 2.0-liter DI Turbocharged 8AR-FTS. 8NR-FTS is a 1.2-liter inline 4-cylinder spark ignition downsized turbocharged direct injection (DI) gasoline engine. By following the same basic concepts as 8AR-FTS engine [1], the 8NR-FTS incorporates various fuel efficient technologies such as a cylinder head with an integrated exhaust manifold, the Atkinson cycle using the center-spooled variable valve timing with mid-position lock system (VVT-iW), and intensified in-cylinder turbulence to achieve high-speed combustion.
Journal Article

Pre-Ignition of Gasoline-Air Mixture Triggered by a Lubricant Oil Droplet

2014-10-13
2014-01-2627
This paper presents the effects of a lubricant oil droplet on the start of combustion of a fuel-air mixture. Lubricant oil is thought to be a major source of low-speed pre-ignition in highly boosted spark ignition engines. However, the phenomenon has not yet been fully understood because its unpredictability and the complexity of the mixture in the engine cylinder make analysis difficult. In this study, a single oil droplet in a combustion cylinder was considered as a means of simplifying the phenomenon. The conditions under which a single oil droplet ignites earlier than the fuel-air mixture were investigated. Tests were conducted by using a rapid compression expansion machine. A single oil droplet was introduced into the cylinder through an injector developed for this study. The ignition and the flame propagation were observed through an optical window, using a high-speed video camera.
Journal Article

Engine Oil Development for Preventing Pre-Ignition in Turbocharged Gasoline Engine

2014-10-13
2014-01-2785
Gasoline engine downsizing combined with a turbocharger is one of the more effective approaches to improve fuel efficiency without sacrificing power performance. The benefit comes from lower pumping loss, lower mechanical friction due to ‘downsizing’ of the engine displacement and ‘down-speeding’ of the engine by using higher transmission gear ratios which is allowed by the higher engine torque at lower engine speeds. However abnormal combustion referred to as Low-Speed Pre-ignition (LSPI) is known to be able to occur in low-speed and high-torque conditions. It is a potential restriction to maximize the engine performance and its benefit, therefore prevention of LSPI is strongly desired for long-term durability of engine performance. According to recent technical reports, auto-ignition of an engine oil droplet in a combustion chamber is believed to be one of major contributing factors of LSPI and its formulations have a significant effect on LSPI frequency.
Technical Paper

Numerical Modeling of the Contamination of Engine Oil by Fuel Combustion Byproducts

2014-10-13
2014-01-2574
This paper focuses on the fuel contribution to crankcase engine oil degradation in gasoline fueled engines in view of insoluble formation. The polymerization of degraded fuel is responsible for the formation of insoluble which is considered as a possible cause of low temperature sludge in severe vehicle operating conditions. The main objective of the study is to understand the mechanism of formation of partially oxidized compounds from fuel during the combustion process, before their accumulation in the crankcase oil. A numerical method has been established to calculate the formation of partially oxidized compounds in spark ignition engines directly, by using 3D CFD. To further enable the possibility of running a large number of simulations with a realistic turn-around time, a coupled approach of 3D CFD (with simplified chemical mechanism) and 0D Kinetics (with full chemical mechanism) is proposed here.
Technical Paper

Combustion Noise Analysis of Premixed Diesel Engine by Engine Tests and Simulations

2014-04-01
2014-01-1293
When fuel is vaporized and mixed well with air in the cylinder of premixed diesel engines, the mixture auto-ignites in one burst resulting in strong combustion noise, and combustion noise reduction is necessary to achieve high load premixed diesel engine operation. In this paper, an engine noise analysis was conducted by engine tests and simulations. The engine employed in the experiments was a supercharged single cylinder DI diesel engine with a high pressure common rail fuel injection system. The engine noise was sampled by two microphones and the sampled engine noise was averaged and analyzed by an FFT sound analyzer. The engine was equipped with a pressure transducer and the combustion noise was calculated from the power spectrum of the FFT analysis of the in-cylinder pressure wave data from the cross power spectrum of the sound pressure of the engine noise.
Journal Article

New Combustion Concept for Turbocharged Gasoline Direct-Injection Engines

2014-04-01
2014-01-1210
The advantages of gasoline direct-injection are intake air cooling due to fuel vaporization which reduces knocking, additional degrees of freedom in designing a stratified injection mixture, and capability for retarded ignition timing which shortens catalyst light-off time. Stratified mixture combustion designs often require complicated piston shapes which disturb the fluid flow in the cylinder, leading to power reduction, especially in turbocharged gasoline direct-injection engines. Our research replaced the conventional shell-type shallow cavity piston with a dog dish-type curved piston that includes a small lip to facilitate stratification and minimize flow disturbance. As a result, stable stratified combustion and increased power were both achieved.
Journal Article

Research into Engine Friction Reduction under Cold Conditions - Effect of Reducing Oil Leakage on Bearing Friction

2014-04-01
2014-01-1662
Fuel efficiency improvement measures are focusing on both cold and hot conditions to help reduce CO2 emissions. Recent technological trends for improving fuel economy such as hybrid vehicles (HVs), engine start and stop systems, and variable valve systems feature expanded use of low-temperature engine operation regions. Under cold conditions (oil temperature: approximately 30°C), fuel consumption is roughly 20% greater than under hot conditions (80°C). The main cause of the increased friction under cold conditions is increased oil viscosity. This research used the motoring slipping method to measure the effect of an improved crankshaft bearing, which accounts for a high proportion of friction under cold conditions. First, the effect of clearance was investigated. Although increasing the clearance helped to decrease friction due to the oil wedge effect, greater oil leakage reduced the oil film temperature increase generated by the friction.
Journal Article

Study of Low-Speed Pre-Ignition in Boosted Spark Ignition Engine

2014-04-01
2014-01-1218
This paper analyzes low-speed pre-ignition (LSPI), a sudden pre-ignition phenomenon that occurs in downsized boosted gasoline engines in low engine speed high-load operation regions. This research visualized the in-cylinder state before the start of LSPI combustion and observed the behavior of particles, which are thought to be the ignition source. The research also analyzed pre-ignition by injecting deposit flakes and other combustible particulate substances into the combustion chamber. The analysis found that these particles require at least two combustion cycles to reach a glowing state that forms an ignition source. As a result, deposits peeling from combustion chamber walls were identified as a new mechanism causing pre-ignition. Additionally, results also suggested that the well-known phenomenon in which the LSPI frequency rises in accordance with greater oil dilution may also be explained by an increase in deposit generation.
Journal Article

Measurement of Piston Secondary Motion Using the New Digital Telemeter

2013-04-08
2013-01-1708
The authors have developed a measurement technique using a new digital telemeter which measures the piston secondary motion as ensuring high accuracy while under the operation. We applied this new digital telemeter to several measurements and analysis on the piston secondary motion that can cause piston noises, and here are some of the results from our measurement. We have confirmed that these piston motions vary by only several tenths of millimeter changes of the piston specifications such as the piston-pin offset and the center of gravity of the piston. As in other cases, we have found that a mere change of pressure in the crankcase or the amount of lubricating oil supplied on the cylinder bore varies the piston motion that may give effect on the piston noises.
Technical Paper

Modeling of Diesel Engine Components for Model-Based Control (First Report): The construction and validation of a model of the Air Intake System

2011-08-30
2011-01-2066
Model based control design is an important method for optimizing engine operating conditions so as to simultaneously improve engines' thermal efficiency and emission profiles. Modeling of intake system that includes an intake throttle valve, an EGR valve and a variable geometry turbocharger was constructed based on conservation laws combined with maps. Calculated results were examined the predictive accuracy of fresh charge mass flow, EGR rate and boost pressure.
Technical Paper

A Study of High Compression Ratio SI Engine Equipped with a Variable Piston Crank Mechanism for Knocking Mitigation

2011-08-30
2011-01-1874
To avoid knocking phenomena, a special crank mechanism for gasoline engine that allowed the piston to move rapidly near TDC (Top Dead Center) was developed and experimentally demonstrated in the previous study. As a result, knocking was successfully mitigated and indicated thermal efficiency was improved [1],[2],[3],[4]. However, performance of the proposed system was evaluated at only limited operating conditions. In the present study, to investigate the effect of piston movement near TDC on combustion characteristics and indicated thermal efficiency and to clarify the knock mitigation mechanism of the proposed method, experimental studies were carried out using a single cylinder engine with a compression ratio of 13.7 at various engine speeds and loads. The special crank mechanism, which allows piston to move rapidly near TDC developed in the previous study, was applied to the test engine with some modification of tooling accuracy.
Technical Paper

Anti- Combustion Deposit Fuel Development for 2009 Toyota Formula One Racing Engine

2011-08-30
2011-01-1983
Toyota participated in Formula One1 (F1) Racing from 2002 to 2009. As a result of the downturn in the world economy, various engine developments within F1 were restricted in order to reduce the cost of competing in F1. The limit on the maximum number of engines allowed has decreased year by year. Toyota focused on the engine performance deterioration due to the combustion chamber deposits. In 2009, Toyota was successful in reducing around 40% of the deterioration by making combustion chamber cleaner in cooperation with ExxonMobil. This contributed to good result of 2009 F1 season for Toyota, including two second place finishes.
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