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Journal Article

Development of HEV Engine Start-Shock Prediction Technique Combining Motor Generator System Control and Multi-Body Dynamics (MBD) Models

2013-05-13
2013-01-2007
Previous reports have already described the details of engine start-shock and the mechanism of vibration mechanism in a stationary vehicle. This vibration can be reduced by optimized engine and motor generator vibration-reduction controls. A prediction method using a full-vehicle MBD model has also been developed and applied in actual vehicle development. This paper describes the outline of a new method for the hybrid system of mechanical power split device with two motors that predicts engine start-shock when the vehicle is accelerating while the engine is stopped. It also describes the results of mechanism analysis and component contribution analysis. This method targets engine start-shock caused by driving torque demand during acceleration after vehicle take-off. The hybrid control system is modeled by MATLAB/Simulink. A power management and motor generator control program used in actual vehicles is installed into the main part of the control system model.
Technical Paper

Development of New AMT Shift Speed Control System for Lexus LFA

2011-10-06
2011-28-0103
The development of the Lexus LFA focused on the pursuit of a passionate driving experience suitable for a super sports car. The shift speed control system in the LFA is an automated manual transmission (AMT) that uses an electrohydraulic actuator. The excellent shifting performance of the AMT was achieved by developing control technology that performs smooth, quick, and highly responsive shifting in accordance with the driving conditions. This was the result of repeated evaluations in both normal driving and on circuits featuring many acceleration, deceleration, and high-speed driving sectors. This paper describes the AMT shift speed control system and technology.
Technical Paper

Progress and Challenges in Toyota's Fuel Cell Vehicle Development

2011-10-06
2011-28-0061
This paper describes an outline of the Toyota FCHV-adv, a fuel cell vehicle with a practical cruising range of more than 500 km. The cold startability of the FCHV-adv was improved by modifying the FC stack and control system. As a result, the FCHV-adv is capable of starting at a temperature of -30°C. In the future, Toyota intends to improve durability and reduce costs and is continuing to cooperate with governments and energy businesses to establish infrastructure and make the necessary modifications to laws and regulations.
Technical Paper

Modeling of Diesel Engine Components for Model-Based Control (Second Report): Prediction of Combustion with High Speed Calculation Diesel Combustion Model

2011-08-30
2011-01-2044
This paper describes the development of a High Speed Calculation Diesel Combustion Model that predicts combustion-related behaviors of diesel engines from passenger cars. Its output is dependent on the engine's operating parameters and on input from on-board pressure and temperature sensors. The model was found to be capable of predicting the engine's in-cylinder pressure, rate of heat release, and NOx emissions with a high degree of accuracy under a wide range of operating conditions at a reasonable computational cost. The construction of this model represents an important preliminary step towards the development of an integrated Model Based Control system for controlling combustion in diesel engines used in passenger cars.
Technical Paper

Research into All Solid Secondary Lithium Battery

2011-05-17
2011-39-7234
It may be possible to simplify the structure and control systems of a lithium-ion battery by replacing the conventional liquid electrolyte with a solid electrolyte, resulting in higher energy density. However, power performance is a development issue of batteries using a solid electrolyte. To increase battery power performance, in addition to lithium ionic conductivity within the bulk of the electrolyte, it is also necessary to boost the lithium ionic conductivity at the interface between the electrode active material and the electrolyte, and to boost electron and lithium ionic conductivity within the cathode and anode active material. This research studied the mechanism of resistance reduction by electrode surface modification. Subsequently, this research attempted to improve electron conductivity by simultaneously introducing oxygen vacancies and carrying out nitrogen substitution in the crystalline structure of the Li4Ti5O12 anode active material.
Technical Paper

Development of Fuel Cell Hybrid Vehicle in TOYOTA

2011-05-17
2011-39-7238
The outline of the TOYOTA FCHV-adv is described in this paper. The TOYOTA FCHVadv achieved an approximately 25 percent improvement in vehicle fuel efficiency and about 1.9 times the amount of usable hydrogen in comparison with the previous model. These improvements have enabled almost 2.5 times longer practical cruising range, more than 500 km. The freeze start capabilities of the FCHV-adv were improved by modifying the FC stack and control system. As a result, the FCHV-adv has been capable of starting at a temperature of -30°C. In the future, TOYOTA intends to improve durability and reduce costs.
Technical Paper

The Humidity Control System Applied to Reduce Ventilation Heat Loss of HVAC Systems

2011-04-12
2011-01-0134
Vehicles have been more required to save energy against the background of the tendency of ecology. As the result of improving efficiency of internal combustion engines and adoption of electric power train, heat loss from engine coolant, which is used to heat the cabin, decreases and consequently additional energy may be consumed to maintain thermal comfort in the passenger compartment in winter. This paper is concerned with the humidity control system that realizes reduction of ventilation heat loss by controlling recirculation rate of the HVAC system by using highly accurate humidity sensor to evaluate risk of fogging on the windshield. As the results of the control, fuel consumption of hybrid vehicles decreases and maximum range of electric vehicles increases.
Technical Paper

Development of a Vehicle Model for FCHV Control and Functional Specification Development within a Software-in-the-Loop Simulation Environment

2010-04-12
2010-01-0939
Model-Based Development (MBD) has become an automotive industry standard process in vehicle control systems development due to the potential to reduce development time and improve engineering quality. This has become even more important as control systems are becoming increasingly complex while development cycle timelines shorten. Toyota utilized Hardware-in-the-Loop Simulations (HILS) techniques when developing the latest Fuel Cell Hybrid Vehicle, FCHV-adv. These MBD techniques contributed to the overall development process, but applications were limited to verifying control specifications. It was recognized that if MBD could be utilized beyond its current role in the control system design process to include functional specification validation, specification quality could be improved while decreasing development time and cost.
Technical Paper

Development of Water Content Control System for Fuel Cell Hybrid Vehicles Based on AC Impedance

2010-04-12
2010-01-1088
Toyota has been developing fuel cell hybrid vehicles (FCHV) since 1992 and is currently working to resolve issues that remain for commercialization. This research focused on one of the main issues for fuel cells (FC), namely water content of the electrolyte membrane, to develop a FC water content control system based on AC impedance measurement. Adopting this control system in the FCHV resolved the issue of reduced efficiency caused by FC membrane dry-out, and makes it possible to start up the FCHV in temperatures down to -30°C by performing appropriate water content control for freezing environments.
Technical Paper

Development of New Sports Shift Control System for Toyota's Automatic Transmission

2008-04-14
2008-01-0535
Toyota has developed a new sports shift control system introduced in the world's first eight-speed automatic transmission (AA80E), which is implemented in the “LS 460” and has been adopted in the “IS F” (upcoming 2008 model). This enables the IS F to be a vehicle that also permits the enjoyment of driving on circuits as well as achieving that “fun-to-drive” image. In sports driving, as achieved by the conventional torque converter-type automatic transmissions, shift response performance for shift operation and linearity performance for accelerator operations were challenges to tackle. On the contrary, the newly developed sports shift control system has resolved these challenges and enables the IS F to be capable of responding to a driver's intention quickly and accurately, letting the driver truly experience satisfaction.
Technical Paper

Toyota AA80E 8-Speed Automatic Transmission with Novel Powertrain Control System

2007-04-16
2007-01-1311
Toyota has developed the world's first 8-speed automatic transmission (AA80E) for RWD automobiles. The transmission will first be used in the all-new Lexus LS460. In addition, a novel control system has been developed to maximize the predictability, response, efficiency, and initial quality of the powertrain while utilizing the high number of gear steps.
Technical Paper

Development of Vehicle Dynamics Integrated Management

2006-04-03
2006-01-0922
We have developed a new vehicle dynamics control system that is based on a new concept and uses a new hydraulic modulator. The new algorithm, which reflects the concept and hydraulic modulator, can control a vehicle not only in emergency but also in normal driving situation. This results in excellent vehicle controllability.
Technical Paper

Development of Vibration Reduction Motor Control for Series-Parallel Hybrid System

2006-04-03
2006-01-1125
In hybrid electric vehicles, engine starting and stopping occur frequently to provide better fuel economy. Specifically, the structure of the series-parallel hybrid system transmits engine torque pulsations to the driving wheels during engine starting and stopping, which may degrade the quality of the ride. In addition, the quick response of the electric motor can easily cause drivetrain vibration. This paper presents a motor control system for a series-parallel hybrid vehicle designed to reduce these vibrations. The proposed motor control system consists of two parts; one controller functions to compensate the engine torque pulsation during engine starts, and the other controller functions to control torsional vibration of the propeller shaft and drive shaft generated by rapid increases or decreases in driving torque. The proposed vibration reduction motor control method was added to the motor controller on the first rear wheel drive hybrid vehicle (Lexus GS450h).
Technical Paper

Control System Development with Large Flow Small Linear Solenoid for the New Toyota FWD 6-Speed Transaxle

2006-04-03
2006-01-1487
Toyota Motor Corporation has developed a new 6-speed automatic transmission (U660E) for the front-wheel drive vehicles and large displacement engines. The U660 E was adapted to achieve improved environmental protection, and meet safety standards, which are large concerns for the society and customer satisfaction, by being small, light, highly efficient, quick response, and high shift quality. Toyota fundamentally improved both the hardware and software of the control system to meet these important goals.
Technical Paper

Development of New Brake Control System With Gear Pump Modulator

2004-03-08
2004-01-0253
In recent years, there has been a growing need for excellent automobile safety. The number of vehicle with active safety systems such as ABS, Brake Assist and VSC (Vehicle Stability Control) is dramatically increasing. A current brake control systems tend to generate activating noise and uncomfortable brake pedal feeling, which they have to restrain its positive use during ordinary braking. To improve this point, a new brake control system has been developed. This paper introduces the configuration, functions and effects of the system. The new hydraulic modulator adopts a gear pump (trochoid pump) and linear solenoid valves. This allows the modulator to be controlled silently and smoothly. As a result, it becomes possible to apply hydraulic pressure in the normal operating range at any time and a high level of performance is realized. Several new benefits were added to the current control system.
Technical Paper

Shift Control System Development (NAVI·AI-SHIFT) for 5 Speed Automatic Transmissions Using Information From the Vehicle's Navigation System

2002-03-04
2002-01-1254
A 5-speed automatic transmission (5AT) control system called the NAVI·AI-SHIFT, which effects the shift control of a 5AT by using the road data obtained by a navigation system, has been developed and installed on the new Mark-II model. This system acquires data such as the distance from the vehicle to the curve located ahead, the contour of the curve from the navigation system. Then, the system determines the optimum gear selection based on the above mentioned information, the gradient data, the present vehicle speed and the driver's maneuvers. This paper describes the construction, features, and the effectiveness of the new shift control system that has been developed for automatic transmissions (AT).
Technical Paper

Automatic Transmission Control System Developed for Toyota Mild Hybrid System (THS-M)

2002-03-04
2002-01-1253
Environmental improvement is moving forward, due in part to the reduction of fuel consumption of automatic transmission(AT) vehicles as a result of social requirements in recent years and many measures have been implemented. Adoption of idling stop is a typical example introduced to reduce energy consumption while the vehicle is stopped to improve the urban environment. However, there are problems such as responsiveness and smoothness for an AT vehicle when the engine is stopped with the shift selector in “D” range. To overcome these problems, a new start clutch control system has been developed using an electric oil pump installed in a simple hybrid vehicle called a mild hybrid. As a result, a smooth feeling starting performance is achieved by operating the system in combination with the engine and other systems.
Technical Paper

Development of Toyota's New “Super CVT”

2001-03-05
2001-01-0872
Toyota has developed a new continuously variable transmission (CVT) named “Super CVT”. The Super CVT has a wide ratio coverage and adopts a newly developed integrated control system with a direct injection gasoline engine (D-4) equipped with electronically controlled throttle. The combined package has achieved good fuel economy and a high overall level of performance. This paper shows the major features and performance of the Super CVT.
Technical Paper

A Study of Stratified Charge Combustion Characteristics in New Concept Direct Injection SI Gasoline Engine

2001-03-05
2001-01-0734
A new stratified charge system has been developed for direct injection gasoline engines. The special feature of this system is employment of a thin fan-shaped fuel spray formed by a slit nozzle and a shell-shaped piston cavity. This system, basically classified into the wall-guided mixture preparation concept that leads air/fuel mixture to the spark plug periphery by means of spray penetration and piston cavity configuration without an extra intake air flow controlling system, obtained wide engine operating area with stratified combustion and high output performance. This report presents the characteristics of stratified mixture formation and combustion, especially the important factor for achieving stable stratified combustion in the high-speed region, which have been clarified through analytical studies.
Technical Paper

Development of open laboratory automation system

2000-06-12
2000-05-0170
We urgently need to develop the next generation of automotive technology to support energy conservation and the global environment. For this we need an advancement of the Laboratory Automation System (LAS). However, restructuring the hardware and software of the LAS requires enormous amounts of time and costs. To solve the problems of the LAS development, we formed a user-vendor working group, which then established the common rules of LAS and IMACS (Integrated Measurement And Control System). IMACS are software-centered rules, characterized by the stratification of LAS and the interface called software parts. So far, we have integrated IMACS into five engineering fields. A total of 11 testing machine vendors participated in the development. We manufactured about 350 software parts and made their specifications openly available. As the next step, we are collecting software parts by deleting redundant functions.
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