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Technical Paper

Has Electronic Stability Control Reduced Rollover Crashes?

2019-04-02
2019-01-1022
Vehicle rollovers are one of the more severe crash modes in the US - accounting for 32% of all passenger vehicle occupant fatalities annually. One design enhancement to help prevent rollovers is Electronic Stability Control (ESC) which can reduce loss of control and thus has great promise to enhance vehicle safety. The objectives of this research were (1) to estimate the effectiveness of ESC in reducing the number of rollover crashes and (2) to identify cases in which ESC did not prevent the rollover to potentially advance additional ESC development. All passenger vehicles and light trucks and vans that experienced a rollover from 2006 to 2015 in the National Automotive Sampling System Crashworthiness Database System (NASS/CDS) were analyzed. Each rollover was assigned a crash scenario based on the crash type, pre-crash maneuver, and pre-crash events.
Technical Paper

Long-Term Evolution of Straight Crossing Path Crash Occurrence in the U.S. Fleet: The Potential of Intersection Active Safety Systems

2019-04-02
2019-01-1023
Intersection collisions currently account for approximately one-fifth of all crashes and one-sixth of all fatal crashes in the United States. One promising method of mitigating these crashes and fatalities is to develop and install Intersection Advanced Driver Assistance Systems (I-ADAS) on vehicles. When an intersection crash is imminent, the I-ADAS system can either warn the driver or apply automated braking. The potential safety benefit of I-ADAS has been previously examined based on real-world cases drawn from the National Motor Vehicle Crash Causation Survey (NMVCCS). However, these studies made the idealized assumption of full installation in all vehicles of a future fleet. The objective of this work was to predict the reduction in Straight Crossing Path (SCP) crashes due to I-ADAS systems in the United States over time. The proportion of new vehicles with I-ADAS was modeled using Highway Loss Data Institute (HLDI) fleet penetration predictions.
Technical Paper

Development of an Emergency Stop Assist System

2019-04-02
2019-01-1025
Social concern with traffic accidents caused by driver’s medical emergencies has been growing for the last several years. In Japan, the government issued technical guidelines in June 2016 to promote systems that deal with such accidents. Based on those guidelines, the Emergency Stop Assist system was manufactured in October 2017 to help reduce such accidents. This article first describes its purpose and core design, then presents an overview of the system, and finally discusses its effectiveness.
Journal Article

Analysis of Driver Kinematics and Lower Thoracic Spine Injury in World Endurance Championship Race Cars during Frontal Impacts

2017-03-28
2017-01-1432
This study used finite element (FE) simulations to analyze the injury mechanisms of driver spine fracture during frontal crashes in the World Endurance Championship (WEC) series and possible countermeasures are suggested to help reduce spine fracture risk. This FE model incorporated the Total Human Model for Safety (THUMS) scaled to a driver, a model of the detailed racecar cockpit and a model of the seat/restraint systems. A frontal impact deceleration pulse was applied to the cockpit model. In the simulation, the driver chest moved forward under the shoulder belt and the pelvis was restrained by the crotch belt and the leg hump. The simulation predicted spine fracture at T11 and T12. It was found that a combination of axial compression force and bending moment at the spine caused the fractures. The axial compression force and bending moment were generated by the shoulder belt down force as the driver’s chest moved forward.
Technical Paper

Benefit Estimation Method for Lane Departure Warning Systems in the American Traffic Environment

2014-04-01
2014-01-0172
We develop a simulation tool which reproduces lane departure crashes for the purpose of estimating potential benefits of Lane Departure Warning (LDW) systems in the American traffic environment. Tools that allow a fast evaluation of active safety systems are useful to make better systems, more effective in the real world; however accuracy of the results is always an issue. Our proposed approach is based on developing a simulation tool that reproduces lane departure crashes, then adding the effect of the LDW to compare the cases with and without the safety system, and finally comparing the results of different settings of the safety system. Here, the accurate reproduction of the relevant crashes determines the reliability of the results. In this paper, we present the reproduction of the lane departure crashes occurred in American roads in one year, by using data distributions obtained from retrospective crash databases.
Technical Paper

A tibial mid-shaft injury mechanism in frontal automotive crashes

2001-06-04
2001-06-0241
Lower extremity injuries in frontal automotive crashes usually occur with footwell intrusion where both the knee and foot are constrained. In order to identify factors associated with tibial shaft injury, a series of numerical simulations were conducted using a finite element model of the whole human body. These simulations demonstrated that tibial mid-shaft injuries in frontal crashes could be caused by an abrupt change in velocity and a high rate of footwell intrusion.
Technical Paper

Numerical Analysis of Side Impact Phenomena Using MADYMO-3D DOT-SID Dummy

1996-11-01
962414
In the present investigation, a numerical model of side impact dummy (DOT-SID) is developed using TNO's MADYMO-3D multi-body features. During the model construction phases, relevant dummy components are individually modeled and are verified against empirical test results. The completed DOT-SID model is then integrated into a padded impactor model to simulate secondary-impact. Computations are run for several input force-deflection distributions, in conjunction with other parameters. From the results, occupant responses to various thoracic input are quantitatively sought, and the effectiveness of the MADYMO DOT-SID model as a vehicle development tool is assessed.
Technical Paper

Super Olefin Polymer for Material Consolidation of Automotive Interior Plastic Parts

1996-02-01
960296
A new automotive interior component material, TSOP-5 has been developed by refining the technology utilized to develop TSOP-1, the high modulus and high flow material for bumper covers. This new interior component material has excellent molding capability (MI=30dg/min.) yet still maintains high impact resistance which enables the material to be used in areas such as the dash board as well as trim covers requiring to meet the FMVSS 214, the new side impact regulation or the FMVSS 201, the new soft upper trim regulation.
Technical Paper

Development of the All-Mechanical Air Bag System

1991-02-01
910149
A highly reliable all-mechanical air bag system has been developed with a production cost lower than the electrical air bag system. All components, such as the bag, inflator and sensor are integrated into the steering wheel. Regarding the sensor design, we first discussed the requirements of the sensor to optimize the driver's protection, and then we designed it using a simulation method. We have confirmed by crash tests that this method is correct, and have found that this system is effective for reducing facial injuries.
Technical Paper

Computer Simulation of Automotive Body Crash Response

1985-10-01
851685
This paper describes a three-dimensional crash simulation program code-named ‘CRASH’ and its evaluation. This program predicts body deformation behavior of an automotive vehicle in a crash. In the program the body is represented by a structure consisting of beam elements. The inelastic deformation is calculated with the simplified constitutive equation using the yielding function. Reduced load carrying capacities due to local deformations are considered by means of representative static load-deformation curves obtained by experiments. Deformation behavior of the structural members with the above properties are analyzed with direct integration scheme taking the strain rate effects into consideration. Large displacements of structural members are also accurately calculated with the coordinate transformation matrices taking account of the finite rotations.
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