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Technical Paper

Development of Innovative Dynamic Torque Vectoring AWD System

2019-04-02
2019-01-0332
This paper describes the development of an innovative AWD system called Dynamic Torque Vectoring AWD for all-wheel drive (AWD) vehicles based on a front-wheel drive configuration. The Dynamic Torque Vectoring AWD system helps to achieve high levels of both dynamic performance and fuel efficiency. Significant fuel economy savings are achieved by using a new compact disconnection mechanism at the transfer and rear units, which prevents any unnecessary rotation of the propeller shaft. In addition, the system is also capable of independently distributing torque to the rear wheels by utilizing electronically controlled couplings on the left and right sides of the rear differential. This greatly enhances both on-road cornering performance and off-road driving performance.
Technical Paper

Effect of High RON Fuels on Engine Thermal Efficiency and Greenhouse Gas Emissions

2019-04-02
2019-01-0629
Historically, greenhouse gas (GHG) emissions standards for vehicles have focused on tailpipe emissions. However, sound environmental policy requires a more holistic well-to-wheels (WTW) assessment that includes both production of the fuel and its use in the vehicle. The present research explores the net change in WTW GHG emissions associated with moving from regular octane (RO) to high octane (HO) gasoline. It considers both potential increases in refinery emissions from producing HO fuel and potential reductions in vehicle emissions through the use of fuel-efficient engines optimized for such fuel. Three refinery configurations of varying complexity and reforming capacity were studied. A set of simulations covering different levels of HO gasoline production were run for each refinery configuration.
Technical Paper

Effects of EGR Constituents and Fuel Composition on DISI Engine Knock: An Experimental and Modeling Study

2018-09-10
2018-01-1677
The use of exhaust gas recirculation (EGR) in spark ignition engines has been shown to have a number of beneficial effects under specific operating conditions. These include reducing pumping work under part load conditions, reducing NOx emissions and heat losses by lowering peak combustion temperatures, and by reducing the tendency for engine knock (caused by end-gas autoignition) under certain operating regimes. In this study, the effects of EGR addition on knocking combustion are investigated through a combined experimental and modeling approach. The problem is investigated by considering the effects of individual EGR constituents, such as CO2, N2, and H2O, on knock, both individually and combined, and with and without traces species, such as unburned hydrocarbons and NOx. The effects of engine compression ratio and fuel composition on the effectiveness of knock suppression with EGR addition were also investigated.
Technical Paper

The Development of a New V6 3.5L Turbocharged Gasoline Engine

2018-04-03
2018-01-0366
For the launch of the redesigned Lexus LS, a new 3.5 L V6 twin turbo engine has been developed aiming at unparalleled performance on four axes, “driving pleasure”, “power-performance”, “quietness” and “fuel economy”. To achieve outstanding power-performance and high thermal efficiency, the specifications have been optimized for high speed combustion. The maximum torque of 600 Nm, power of 310 kW (yielding specific power of 90 kW/L), and the maximum thermal efficiency of 37% have been achieved using several new technologies including a high efficiency turbocharger. A prototype vehicle equipped with this engine and Direct-Shift 10AT achieved a 0-60 mph acceleration time of 4.6 sec, with extremely good CAFE combined fuel economy of 23 mpg and power-performance aligned with V8 turbocharged offerings from competing OEM’s.
Technical Paper

Development of High Accuracy Rear A/F Sensor

2017-03-28
2017-01-0949
New 2A/F systems different from usual A/F-O2 systems are being developed to cope with strict regulation of exhaust gas. In the 2A/F systems, 2A/F sensors are equipped in front and rear of a three-way catalyst. The A/F-O2 systems are ideas which use a rear O2 to detect exhaust gas leaked from three-way catalyst early and feed back. On the other hand, the 2A/F systems are ideas which use a rear A/F sensor to detect nearly stoichiometric gas discharged from the three-way catalyst accurately, and to prevent leakage of exhaust gas from the three-way catalyst. Therefore, accurate detection of nearly stoichiometric gas by the rear A/F sensor is the most importrant for the 2A/F systems. In general, the A/F sensors can be classified into two types, so called, one-cell type and two-cell type. Because the one-cell type A/F sensors don’t have hysteresis, they have potential for higher accuracy.
Journal Article

New RWD 10 Speed Automatic Transmission for Passenger Vehicles

2017-03-28
2017-01-1097
Aisin AW (AW) and Toyota Motor Corporation (TMC) have developed a new rear wheel drive (RWD) 10-speed automatic transmission, AWR10L65 (TMC name: AGA0), suitable for RWD/AWD luxury passenger cars and sports cars. This 10-speed automatic transmission provides enhanced drivability leading to outstanding driver satisfaction. This has been accomplished using a close ratio gear train with optimized gear steps for rhythmic shift changes and quick acceleration. Low rpm lock-up and highly responsive shift changes result in a direct shift feel. This automatic transmission contributes to improved fuel economy by having higher efficiency and lower mass than current 8-speed RWD automatic transmissions.
Journal Article

Development of Ignition Technology for Dilute Combustion Engines

2017-03-28
2017-01-0676
In recent years, from a viewpoint of global warming and energy issues, the need to improve vehicle fuel economy to reduce CO2 emission has become apparent. One of the ways to improve this is to enhance engine thermal efficiency, and for that, automakers have been developing the technologies of high compression ratio and dilute combustion such as exhaust gas recirculation (EGR), and lean combustion. Since excessive dilute combustion causes the failure of flame propagation, combustion promotion by intensifying in-cylinder turbulence has been indispensable. However, instability of flame kernel formation by gas flow fluctuation between combustion cycles is becoming an issue. Therefore, achieving stable flame kernel formation and propagation under a high dilute condition is important technology.
Technical Paper

The New Toyota Inline 4-Cylinder 2.5L Gasoline Engine

2017-03-28
2017-01-1021
In order to adapt to energy security and the changes of global-scale environment, further improvement of fuel economy and adaptation to each country’s severer exhaust gas emission regulation are required in an automotive engine. To achieve higher power performance with lower fuel consumption, the engine’s basic internal design such as an engine block and cylinder head were changed and the combustion speed was dramatically increased. Consequently, stroke-bore ratio and valve layout were optimized. Also, both flow coefficient and intake tumble ratio port were improved by adopting a laser cladded valve seat. In addition, several new technologies were adopted. The Atkinson cycle using a new Electrical VVT (Variable Valve Timing) and new combustion technology adopting new multi-hole type Direct fuel Injector (DI) improved engine power and fuel economy and reduced exhaust emissions.
Technical Paper

Mechanism of Turbocharger Coking in Gasoline Engines

2015-09-01
2015-01-2029
Turbocharged downsized gasoline engines have been widely used in the market as one of the measures to improve fuel economy. Coking phenomena in the lubricating circuit of the turbocharger unit is a well-known issue that may affect turbocharger efficiency and durability. Laboratory rig test such as ASTM D6335 (TEOST 33C) has been used to predict this phenomenon as a part of engine oil performance requirements. On the other hand, laboratory tests sometimes have difficulty reproducing the actual mechanism of coking caused by engine oil degradation. Accumulation of insoluble material is one of the important gasoline engine oil degradation modes. The influence of temperature and insoluble concentration were investigated based on actual used engine oils collected in the field.
Technical Paper

Development of 3.5L V6 Gasoline Direct Injection Engine - ESTEC 2GR-FKS/FXS -

2015-09-01
2015-01-1972
The new 2GR-FKS / FXS engines were developed to achieve stringent fuel economy and emission targets and respond to recent innovations in the field. The major parts of the 2GR-FKS/FXS engines were re-designed based on the well-received dynamic performance and fuel economy aspects of the 2GR-FE engine. The aims of this development were as follows. 1 Best-in-class power performance 2 Environmental performance that maximizes thermal efficiency and complies with fuel economy and emission regulations in each country by a wide margin 3 Engine response typical of V6 engines through drastic weight reduction of moving parts To achieve these conflicting aims, the developed engines use a modified version of the D-4S fuel injection system, which enables selective use of direct and port injection, in addition to advanced technologies such as variable valve technology (VVT) with a mid-position lock system and an exhaust port cooling system.
Technical Paper

Power Plant Model of Fuel Consumption and Vibration for Vehicle Concept Planning

2015-06-15
2015-01-2253
It is important for vehicle concept planning to estimate fuel economy and the influence of vehicle vibration in advance. This can be accomplished using virtual engine specifications and a virtual vehicle frame. In this paper, I will show the power plant model with electric starter and battery that can predict fuel economy, combustion heat results and transient torque. The power plant is a 1.3L 4cyl designed for NA Spark Ignition. The power plant model was realized using an energy based model using VHDL-AMS. Here, VHDL-AMS is modeling language stored in IEC international standard (IEC61691-6) and can realize multi physics in 1D simulation. The modeling language supports electrical, magnetic, thermal, mechanical, fluidic and compressive fluidic domains. The model was created in house using VHDL-AMS and validated on ANSYS SIMPLORER. The simulated results of fuel energy consumption agreed with driving energy and amount of energy losses, e.g. cooling loss, exhaust loss.
Technical Paper

Study of Ignition System for Demand Voltage Reduction

2015-04-14
2015-01-0777
Improving the engine efficiency to respond to climate change and energy security issues is strongly required. In order to improve the engine efficiency, lower fuel consumption, and enhance engine performance, OEMs have been developing high compression ratio engines and downsized turbocharged engines. However, higher compression ratio and turbocharging cause cylinder pressure to increase, which in turn increases the demand voltage for ignition. To reduce the demand voltage, a new ignition system is developed that uses a high voltage Zener diode to maintain a constant output voltage. Maintaining a constant voltage higher than the static breakdown voltage helps limit the amount of overshoot produced during the spark event. This allows discharge to occur at a lower demand voltage than with conventional spark ignition systems. The results show that the maximum reduction in demand voltage is 3.5 kV when the engine is operated at 2800 rpm and 2.6 MPa break mean effective pressure.
Technical Paper

Development of New Continuously Variable Transmission for 2.0-Liter Class Vehicles

2015-04-14
2015-01-1101
In response to increasing demands for measures to conserve the global environment and the introduction of more stringent CO2 emissions regulations around the world, the automotive industry is placing greater focus on reducing levels of CO2 through the development of fuel-efficient technologies. With the aim of improving fuel economy, a new continuously variable transmission (CVT) has been developed for 2.0-liter class vehicles. This new CVT features various technologies for improving fuel economy including a coaxial 2-discharge port oil pump system, wider ratio coverage, low-viscosity CVT fluid, and a flex start system. This CVT is also compatible with a stop and start (S&S) system that reduces fuel consumption by shutting off the engine while the vehicle is stopped. In addition, the development of the CVT improves driveability by setting both the driving force and engine speed independently.
Technical Paper

Development of Advanced Three-Way Catalyst with Improved NOx Conversion

2015-04-14
2015-01-1005
Countries and regions around the world are tightening emissions regulations in reaction to the increasing awareness of environmental conservation. At the same time, growing concerns about the depletion of raw materials as vehicle ownership continues to increase is prompting automakers to look for ways of decreasing the use of platinum-group metals (PGMs) in the exhaust systems. This research has developed a new catalyst with strong robustness against fluctuations in the exhaust gas and excellent nitrogen oxide (NOx) conversion performance. This catalyst incorporates rhodium (Rh) clusters with a particle size of several nanometers, and stabilized CeO2-ZrO2 solid-solution (CZ) with a pyrochlore crystal structure as a high-volume oxygen storage capacity (OSC) material with a slow O2 storage rate.
Technical Paper

The New Toyota 1.2-Liter ESTEC Turbocharged Direct Injection Gasoline Engine

2015-04-14
2015-01-1268
Toyota Motor Corporation is developing a series of engines belonging to its ESTEC (Economy with Superior Thermal Efficient Combustion) development concept. This paper describes the development of 8NR-FTS after the subsequent launch of the 2.0-liter DI Turbocharged 8AR-FTS. 8NR-FTS is a 1.2-liter inline 4-cylinder spark ignition downsized turbocharged direct injection (DI) gasoline engine. By following the same basic concepts as 8AR-FTS engine [1], the 8NR-FTS incorporates various fuel efficient technologies such as a cylinder head with an integrated exhaust manifold, the Atkinson cycle using the center-spooled variable valve timing with mid-position lock system (VVT-iW), and intensified in-cylinder turbulence to achieve high-speed combustion.
Technical Paper

Combustion Development to Achieve Engine Thermal Efficiency of 40% for Hybrid Vehicles

2015-04-14
2015-01-1254
In recent years, enhancing engine thermal efficiency is strongly required. Since the maximum engine thermal efficiency is especially important for HVs, the technologies for improving engine thermal efficiency have been developed. The current gasoline engines for hybrid vehicles have Atkinson cycle with high expansion ratio and cooled exhaust gas recirculation (EGR) system. These technologies contribute to raise the brake engine thermal efficiency to more than 38%.In the near future the consumers demand will push the limit to 40% thermal efficiency. To enhance engine thermal efficiency, it is essential to improve the engine anti-knock quality and to decrease the engine cooling heat loss. To comply with improving the anti-knock quality and decreasing the cooling heat loss, it is known that the cooled EGR is an effective way.
Journal Article

Pre-Ignition of Gasoline-Air Mixture Triggered by a Lubricant Oil Droplet

2014-10-13
2014-01-2627
This paper presents the effects of a lubricant oil droplet on the start of combustion of a fuel-air mixture. Lubricant oil is thought to be a major source of low-speed pre-ignition in highly boosted spark ignition engines. However, the phenomenon has not yet been fully understood because its unpredictability and the complexity of the mixture in the engine cylinder make analysis difficult. In this study, a single oil droplet in a combustion cylinder was considered as a means of simplifying the phenomenon. The conditions under which a single oil droplet ignites earlier than the fuel-air mixture were investigated. Tests were conducted by using a rapid compression expansion machine. A single oil droplet was introduced into the cylinder through an injector developed for this study. The ignition and the flame propagation were observed through an optical window, using a high-speed video camera.
Journal Article

Engine Oil Development for Preventing Pre-Ignition in Turbocharged Gasoline Engine

2014-10-13
2014-01-2785
Gasoline engine downsizing combined with a turbocharger is one of the more effective approaches to improve fuel efficiency without sacrificing power performance. The benefit comes from lower pumping loss, lower mechanical friction due to ‘downsizing’ of the engine displacement and ‘down-speeding’ of the engine by using higher transmission gear ratios which is allowed by the higher engine torque at lower engine speeds. However abnormal combustion referred to as Low-Speed Pre-ignition (LSPI) is known to be able to occur in low-speed and high-torque conditions. It is a potential restriction to maximize the engine performance and its benefit, therefore prevention of LSPI is strongly desired for long-term durability of engine performance. According to recent technical reports, auto-ignition of an engine oil droplet in a combustion chamber is believed to be one of major contributing factors of LSPI and its formulations have a significant effect on LSPI frequency.
Technical Paper

Numerical Modeling of the Contamination of Engine Oil by Fuel Combustion Byproducts

2014-10-13
2014-01-2574
This paper focuses on the fuel contribution to crankcase engine oil degradation in gasoline fueled engines in view of insoluble formation. The polymerization of degraded fuel is responsible for the formation of insoluble which is considered as a possible cause of low temperature sludge in severe vehicle operating conditions. The main objective of the study is to understand the mechanism of formation of partially oxidized compounds from fuel during the combustion process, before their accumulation in the crankcase oil. A numerical method has been established to calculate the formation of partially oxidized compounds in spark ignition engines directly, by using 3D CFD. To further enable the possibility of running a large number of simulations with a realistic turn-around time, a coupled approach of 3D CFD (with simplified chemical mechanism) and 0D Kinetics (with full chemical mechanism) is proposed here.
Technical Paper

Combustion Noise Analysis of Premixed Diesel Engine by Engine Tests and Simulations

2014-04-01
2014-01-1293
When fuel is vaporized and mixed well with air in the cylinder of premixed diesel engines, the mixture auto-ignites in one burst resulting in strong combustion noise, and combustion noise reduction is necessary to achieve high load premixed diesel engine operation. In this paper, an engine noise analysis was conducted by engine tests and simulations. The engine employed in the experiments was a supercharged single cylinder DI diesel engine with a high pressure common rail fuel injection system. The engine noise was sampled by two microphones and the sampled engine noise was averaged and analyzed by an FFT sound analyzer. The engine was equipped with a pressure transducer and the combustion noise was calculated from the power spectrum of the FFT analysis of the in-cylinder pressure wave data from the cross power spectrum of the sound pressure of the engine noise.
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