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Journal Article

Development of Di-Air - A New Diesel deNOx System by Adsorbed Intermediate Reductants

An unprecedented phenomenon that achieves high NOx conversion was found over an NSR catalyst. This phenomenon occurs when continuous short cycle injections of hydrocarbons (HCs) are supplied at a predetermined concentration in lean conditions. Furthermore, this phenomenon has a wider range of applicability for different catalyst temperatures (up to 800 degrees Celsius) and SVs, and for extending thermal and sulfur durability than a conventional NOx storage and reduction system. This paper analyzes the reaction mechanism and concludes it to be highly active HC-deNOx by intermediates generated from adsorbed NOx over the base catalysts and HCs partially oxidized by oscillated HC injection. Subsequently, a high performance deNOx system named Di-Air (diesel NOx aftertreatment by adsorbed intermediate reductants) was demonstrated that applies this concept to high speed driving cycles.
Technical Paper

Fatigue Life Prediction on Rough Road Using Full Vehicle Co-simulation Model with Suspension Control

A full vehicle multi-body dynamic (MBD) model with suspension control system is developed for fatigue life prediction under rough road condition. The model consists of tires, a trimmed body, heavy attached parts, powertrain, suspension, joints, and a driver model, and includes a suspension control system that varies characteristics of the suspension according to the rough road inputs. For tires, a commercial MBD tire model is employed with identifiable parameters. The models are simulated to run on the optically measured road surface of the proving ground. Apart from the trimmed body, several important heavy attached parts are modeled separately, that represent dynamic behavior that induces complex body input load. These parts, along with suspension and powertrain systems are connected to the body using nonlinear elements such as joints, springs, and dampers. Contact conditions are used to represent mount bushing, hood lock, stopper rubber, etc.
Technical Paper

Development of High Performance Three-Way-Catalyst

In conventional gasoline engine vehicles, three-way catalysts are used to simultaneously remove HC, CO and NOx from the exhaust gas. The effectiveness of the catalyst to remove these harmful species depends strongly on the oxygen concentration in the exhaust gas. Deterioration of three-way catalyst results in a reduction in its purification activity and OSC (oxygen storage capacity). In this investigation, additive elements were used to enhance the durability and OSC of the catalyst support material. An optimized formulation of a CeO2-ZrO2 and a ZrO2 material was developed to have excellent durability, improved OSC, enhanced interaction between precious metals and support materials, and increase thermal stability. Using these newly developed support materials, catalysts with increased performance was designed.
Technical Paper

The Technology to Produce Thermoplastic Elastomer Based on Waste Rubber

A new rubber recycling technology to produce a thermoplastic elastomer (TPE) based on ethylene-propylene-diene rubber (EPDM) waste was developed. In this technology, the developed process consists of devulcanization of EPDM waste, blending of the devulcanized EPDM and polypropylene (PP), and dynamic vulcanization of the rubber component. All three are set up in as a continuous process in which the Recycled Rubber based Thermoplastic Elastomer (which is indicated as “RR-TPE” henceforth) is finally obtained. The RR-TPE exhibits elasticity and mechanical properties similar to those of commercial Thermoplastic olefins (TPO). These properties may be due to a suitably formed phase structure. Automotive parts are being developed and are going to be produced with the RR-TPE manufactured by this new technology. This technology will contribute to both protecting the environment and saving resources.
Technical Paper

Improvement of NOx Storage-Reduction Catalyst

In order to further improve the performance of NOx storage-reduction catalysts (NSR catalysts), focus was placed on their high temperature performance deterioration via sulfur poisoning and heat deterioration. The reactions between the basicity or acidity of supports and the storage element, potassium, were analyzed. It was determined that the high temperature performance of NSR catalysts is enhanced by the interaction between potassium and zirconia, which is a basic metal oxide. Also, a new zirconia-titania complex metal oxides was developed to improve high temperature performance and to promote the desorption of sulfur from the supports after aging.
Technical Paper

Modeling and Numerical Analysis of NOx Storage-Reduction Catalysts - On the Two Effects of Rich-Spike Duration

Two effects of rich-spike duration on NOx-storing have been analyzed. The first one, that NOx-storing speed decreases as rich-spike duration increases, is explained as the influence of NOx diffusion in wash-coat layer, which is quantified by a simple mathematical expression for NOx-storing rate. The second one, a peculiar behavior of NOx-storing in appearance of the outlet NOx concentration, is clarified: Heat produced directly or indirectly (via oxygen storage in ceria) by rich-spike warms up the downstream part, which releases excess NOx at the raised temperature. Contributions of the oxygen storage and the carbonate of NOx-storage material are also discussed.
Technical Paper

Recycling Technology of Surface Material for Interior Trims

Two-layered surface materials composed of a thermoplastic olefin elastomer (TPO) skin and a cross-linked polypropylene (PP)foam are increasingly replacing the conventional PVC skin/PVC foam for interior trims. In the past, recycled material obtained by melt-blending TPO skin and PP foam could not be re-used for TPO skin because of its appearance. A new recycling technology using the reaction biaxial extruder with a reaction agent can decompose the network structure of PP foam. As a result, PP foam is dispersed into TPO uniformly and the recycled material has properties and an appearance similar to virgin TPO. These new properties may allow the application of the recycled material as a surface material.
Technical Paper

Next Generation High Performance ATF for Slip-Controlled Automatic Transmission

A slip-controlled lock-up clutch system Is very efficient in improving the fuel economy of automatic transmission (AT) equipped vehicles. However, a special automatic transmission fluid (ATF) which combines an anti-shudder property with high torque capacity is required for this system. In this study, we established additive technology for ATF having a sufficient anti-shudder property and high torque capacity. Based on the technology, new ATF: ATF-T4 was developed. It was confirmed in actual AT tests that ATF-T4 has excellent anti-shudder durability and high torque capacity. Furthermore, ATF-T4 has good SAE No. 2 friction characteristics, oxidation stability, compatibility with materials (elastomers, nylons, etc.) and viscosity at low temperatures.
Technical Paper

Development of New Concept Three-Way Catalyst for Automotive Lean-Burn Engines

A new 3-way catalyst with NOx conversion performance for lean-burn engines has been developed. The catalyst oxidizes NOx and stores the resulting nitrate, which is then reduced by HC and CO during engine operation around the stoichiometric air/fuel ratio. Both the composition of the storage component and the particle sizes of the noble metal were optimized. In addition, a special air fuel mixture control has been developed to make the best of the NOx storage-reduction function. The present catalyst showed 90% conversion efficiency and improved fuel economy by 4% in the Japanese 10-15 mode test cycle. The efficiency remained at 60% or more after durability test.
Technical Paper

Development of a Robot Simulation and Off-Line Programming System

In Toyota, a robot off-line programming system was developed five years ago for the use at spot welding processes. And it has been effective to reduce and level off the engineering time. This time we have developed the new robot simulation system. It has three newly features so that the system becomes capable of simulating and programming robots from various manufacturers with different functions. As a result, the new system can be applied to a variety of processes in automobile manufacturing. First, a universal robot programming language was developed which includes a variety of commands such as definitions of motion attributes, signals of inputs/outputs, control of program flow, special functions proper to each process, and so on. And the language can be translated to and from any particular programming language using pre / post processor, so the simulation system needs to deal with only one language.
Technical Paper

Development of Super Olefin Bumper for Automobiles

The EMT (Elastomer Modified Thermoplastics) currently used in passenger car bumper fascia are limited in retaining low CLTE (Coefficient of Linear Thermal Expansion) and impact resistance, although they are highly rigid, which allows a reduction in weight, and also have high flowability during injection molding. We have developed a new bumper material called “Super Olefin Polymer” using a unique theory based upon a reversal of the current concept. The current polymer design concept of the EMT material is to compound and disperse the EPR (Ethylene Propylene Rubber) into the resin matrix such as polypropylene. We reversed the domain and the matrix, and treated the resin phase as the filler and the elastomer phase as the matrix.