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Technical Paper

Development of Innovative Dynamic Torque Vectoring AWD System

2019-04-02
2019-01-0332
This paper describes the development of an innovative AWD system called Dynamic Torque Vectoring AWD for all-wheel drive (AWD) vehicles based on a front-wheel drive configuration. The Dynamic Torque Vectoring AWD system helps to achieve high levels of both dynamic performance and fuel efficiency. Significant fuel economy savings are achieved by using a new compact disconnection mechanism at the transfer and rear units, which prevents any unnecessary rotation of the propeller shaft. In addition, the system is also capable of independently distributing torque to the rear wheels by utilizing electronically controlled couplings on the left and right sides of the rear differential. This greatly enhances both on-road cornering performance and off-road driving performance.
Technical Paper

Application of Dynamic Mode Decomposition to Influence the Driving Stability of Road Vehicles

2019-04-02
2019-01-0653
The recent growth of available computational resources has enabled the automotive industry to utilize unsteady Computational Fluid Dynamics (CFD) for their product development on a regular basis. Over the past years, it has been confirmed that unsteady CFD can accurately simulate the transient flow field around complex geometries. Concerning the aerodynamic properties of road vehicles, the detailed analysis of the transient flow field can help to improve the driving stability. Until now, however, there haven’t been many investigations that successfully identified a specific transient phenomenon from a simulated flow field corresponding to driving stability. This is because the unsteady flow field around a vehicle consists of various time and length scales and is therefore too complex to be analyzed with the same strategies as for steady state results.
Technical Paper

Effect of High RON Fuels on Engine Thermal Efficiency and Greenhouse Gas Emissions

2019-04-02
2019-01-0629
Historically, greenhouse gas (GHG) emissions standards for vehicles have focused on tailpipe emissions. However, sound environmental policy requires a more holistic well-to-wheels (WTW) assessment that includes both production of the fuel and its use in the vehicle. The present research explores the net change in WTW GHG emissions associated with moving from regular octane (RO) to high octane (HO) gasoline. It considers both potential increases in refinery emissions from producing HO fuel and potential reductions in vehicle emissions through the use of fuel-efficient engines optimized for such fuel. Three refinery configurations of varying complexity and reforming capacity were studied. A set of simulations covering different levels of HO gasoline production were run for each refinery configuration.
Journal Article

Development of Fuel Cell (FC) System for New Generation FC Bus

2019-04-02
2019-01-0372
Toyota Motor Corporation has been actively pursuing the development of fuel cell vehicles (FCVs) to respond to global environmental concerns and demands for clean energy. Toyota developed the first fuel cell (FC) bus to receive vehicle type certification in Japan. Subsequently, a new FC bus has been developed, which adopts two FC systems and four high-voltage batteries to achieve the required high power performance and durability. For enhanced durability, the FC system is controlled to maximize usage of the high-voltage batteries and to reduce the number of electric potential changes of the fuel cell. To accomplish this, the voltage of the FC stack must be kept high and FC power must be kept low. The high-voltage batteries were used to actively minimize FC power during acceleration.
Technical Paper

Effects of EGR Constituents and Fuel Composition on DISI Engine Knock: An Experimental and Modeling Study

2018-09-10
2018-01-1677
The use of exhaust gas recirculation (EGR) in spark ignition engines has been shown to have a number of beneficial effects under specific operating conditions. These include reducing pumping work under part load conditions, reducing NOx emissions and heat losses by lowering peak combustion temperatures, and by reducing the tendency for engine knock (caused by end-gas autoignition) under certain operating regimes. In this study, the effects of EGR addition on knocking combustion are investigated through a combined experimental and modeling approach. The problem is investigated by considering the effects of individual EGR constituents, such as CO2, N2, and H2O, on knock, both individually and combined, and with and without traces species, such as unburned hydrocarbons and NOx. The effects of engine compression ratio and fuel composition on the effectiveness of knock suppression with EGR addition were also investigated.
Technical Paper

Critical Analysis of PM Index and Other Fuel Indices: Impact of Gasoline Fuel Volatility and Chemical Composition

2018-09-10
2018-01-1741
Among the challenges for the future facing the development of gasoline engines, one of the most important is the reduction of particles emissions. This study proposes a critical and objective evaluation of the influence of fuel characteristics on gasoline particles emission through the use of Fuel Particle Indices. For this, a selected fuel matrix composed of 22 fuels was built presenting different volatility and chemical composition (content in total aromatics, heavy cuts and ethanol). To represent the fuel sooting tendency, seven Fuel Particle Indices were selected based on a literature review, namely, Particulate Matter Index (PMI), Particulate Number index (PNI), Threshold Sooting index (TSI), Smoke point (SP), Oxygen Extended Sooting Index (OESI), Simplified index 1 and 2 (sPMI 1, sPMI 2). These indices were computed on the fuel matrix and compared on the basis of three main axes. First, the sensitivity to fuel variation.
Technical Paper

The Development of a New V6 3.5L Turbocharged Gasoline Engine

2018-04-03
2018-01-0366
For the launch of the redesigned Lexus LS, a new 3.5 L V6 twin turbo engine has been developed aiming at unparalleled performance on four axes, “driving pleasure”, “power-performance”, “quietness” and “fuel economy”. To achieve outstanding power-performance and high thermal efficiency, the specifications have been optimized for high speed combustion. The maximum torque of 600 Nm, power of 310 kW (yielding specific power of 90 kW/L), and the maximum thermal efficiency of 37% have been achieved using several new technologies including a high efficiency turbocharger. A prototype vehicle equipped with this engine and Direct-Shift 10AT achieved a 0-60 mph acceleration time of 4.6 sec, with extremely good CAFE combined fuel economy of 23 mpg and power-performance aligned with V8 turbocharged offerings from competing OEM’s.
Technical Paper

The Color Specification of Surrogate Roadside Objects for the Performance Evaluation of Roadway Departure Mitigation Systems

2018-04-03
2018-01-0506
Roadway departure mitigation systems for helping to avoid and/or mitigate roadway departure collisions have been introduced by several vehicle manufactures in recent years. To support the development and performance evaluation of the roadway departure mitigation systems, a set of commonly seen roadside surrogate objects need to be developed. These objects include grass, curbs, metal guardrail, concrete divider, and traffic barrel/cones. This paper describes how to determine the representative color of these roadside surrogates. 24,762 locations with Google street view images were selected for the color determination of roadside objects. To mitigate the effect of the brightness to the color determination, the images not in good weather, not in bright daylight and under shade were manually eliminated. Then, the RGB values of the roadside objects in the remaining images were extracted.
Journal Article

Effects of Moving Ground and Rotating Wheels on Aerodynamic Drag of a Two-Box Vehicle

2018-04-03
2018-01-0730
Previous studies and recent practical aerodynamic evaluations have shown that aerodynamic drag of passenger vehicles with “ground simulation” with moving ground and rotating wheels may increase in some cases and decrease in other cases relative to the fixed ground and stationary wheel conditions. Accordingly, the effects of the ground simulation on the aerodynamic drag should be deeply understood for further drag reduction. Although the previous studies demonstrated what is changed by the ground simulation, the reason for the change has not been fully understood. In this article, the effects of wheels and wheel houses attachment and those by the ground simulation with ground movement and wheel rotation on the aerodynamic drag were investigated by quantification of the underfloor flow that plays a crucially important role on the formation of vortical structure around vehicles.
Journal Article

Effects of High Boiling Point Fuel Additives on Deposits in a Direct Injection Gasoline Engine

2017-10-08
2017-01-2299
The effects of high boiling point fuel additives on deposits were investigated in a commercial turbocharged direct injection gasoline engine. It is known that high boiling point substances have a negative effect on deposits. The distillation end points of blended fuels containing these additives may be approximately 15°C higher than the base fuel (end point: 175°C). Three additives with boiling points between 190 and 196°C were examined: 4-tert-Butyltoluene (TBT), N-Methyl Aniline (NMA), and 2-Methyl-1,5-pentanediamine (MPD). Aromatics and anilines, which may be added to gasoline to increase its octane number, might have a negative effect on deposits. TBT has a benzene ring. NMA has a benzene ring and an amino group. MPD, which has no benzene ring and two amino groups, was selected for comparison with the former two additives.
Journal Article

An Intake Valve Deposit (IVD) Engine Test Development to Investigate Deposit Build-Up Mechanism Using a Real Engine

2017-10-08
2017-01-2291
In emerging markets, Port Fuel Injection (PFI) technology retains a higher market share than Gasoline Direct Injection (GDI) technology. In these markets fuel quality remains a concern even despite an overall improvement in quality. Typical PFI engines are sensitive to fuel quality regardless of brand, engine architecture, or cylinder configuration. One of the well-known impacts of fuel quality on PFI engines is the formation of Intake Valve Deposits (IVD). These deposits steadily accumulate over time and can lead to a deterioration of engine performance. IVD formation mechanisms have been characterized in previous studies. However, no test is available on a state-of-the-art engine to study the impact of fuel components on IVD formation. Therefore, a proprietary engine test was developed to test several chemistries. Sixteen fuel blends were tested. The deposit formation mechanism has been studied and analysed.
Journal Article

Development of Ignition Technology for Dilute Combustion Engines

2017-03-28
2017-01-0676
In recent years, from a viewpoint of global warming and energy issues, the need to improve vehicle fuel economy to reduce CO2 emission has become apparent. One of the ways to improve this is to enhance engine thermal efficiency, and for that, automakers have been developing the technologies of high compression ratio and dilute combustion such as exhaust gas recirculation (EGR), and lean combustion. Since excessive dilute combustion causes the failure of flame propagation, combustion promotion by intensifying in-cylinder turbulence has been indispensable. However, instability of flame kernel formation by gas flow fluctuation between combustion cycles is becoming an issue. Therefore, achieving stable flame kernel formation and propagation under a high dilute condition is important technology.
Journal Article

New RWD 10 Speed Automatic Transmission for Passenger Vehicles

2017-03-28
2017-01-1097
Aisin AW (AW) and Toyota Motor Corporation (TMC) have developed a new rear wheel drive (RWD) 10-speed automatic transmission, AWR10L65 (TMC name: AGA0), suitable for RWD/AWD luxury passenger cars and sports cars. This 10-speed automatic transmission provides enhanced drivability leading to outstanding driver satisfaction. This has been accomplished using a close ratio gear train with optimized gear steps for rhythmic shift changes and quick acceleration. Low rpm lock-up and highly responsive shift changes result in a direct shift feel. This automatic transmission contributes to improved fuel economy by having higher efficiency and lower mass than current 8-speed RWD automatic transmissions.
Journal Article

Analysis of Driver Kinematics and Lower Thoracic Spine Injury in World Endurance Championship Race Cars during Frontal Impacts

2017-03-28
2017-01-1432
This study used finite element (FE) simulations to analyze the injury mechanisms of driver spine fracture during frontal crashes in the World Endurance Championship (WEC) series and possible countermeasures are suggested to help reduce spine fracture risk. This FE model incorporated the Total Human Model for Safety (THUMS) scaled to a driver, a model of the detailed racecar cockpit and a model of the seat/restraint systems. A frontal impact deceleration pulse was applied to the cockpit model. In the simulation, the driver chest moved forward under the shoulder belt and the pelvis was restrained by the crotch belt and the leg hump. The simulation predicted spine fracture at T11 and T12. It was found that a combination of axial compression force and bending moment at the spine caused the fractures. The axial compression force and bending moment were generated by the shoulder belt down force as the driver’s chest moved forward.
Technical Paper

The New Toyota Inline 4-Cylinder 2.5L Gasoline Engine

2017-03-28
2017-01-1021
In order to adapt to energy security and the changes of global-scale environment, further improvement of fuel economy and adaptation to each country’s severer exhaust gas emission regulation are required in an automotive engine. To achieve higher power performance with lower fuel consumption, the engine’s basic internal design such as an engine block and cylinder head were changed and the combustion speed was dramatically increased. Consequently, stroke-bore ratio and valve layout were optimized. Also, both flow coefficient and intake tumble ratio port were improved by adopting a laser cladded valve seat. In addition, several new technologies were adopted. The Atkinson cycle using a new Electrical VVT (Variable Valve Timing) and new combustion technology adopting new multi-hole type Direct fuel Injector (DI) improved engine power and fuel economy and reduced exhaust emissions.
Journal Article

Friction Coefficient Variation Mechanism under Wet Condition in Disk Brake (Variation Mechanism Contributing Wet Wear Debris)

2016-09-18
2016-01-1943
This paper deals with friction under wet condition in the disk brake system of automobiles. In our previous study, the variation of friction coefficient μ was observed under wet condition. And it was experimentally found that μ becomes high when wear debris contains little moisture. Based on the result, in this paper, we propose a hypothesis that agglomerates composed of the wet wear debris induce the μ variation as the agglomerates are jammed in the gaps between the friction surfaces of a brake pad and a disk rotor. For supporting the hypothesis, firstly, we measure the friction property of the wet wear debris, and confirm that the capillary force under the pendular state is a factor contributing to the μ variation. After that, we simulate the wear debris behavior with or without the capillary force using the particle-based simulation. We prepare the simulation model for the friction surfaces which contribute to the friction force through the wear debris.
Journal Article

An Application of Shape Optimization to Brake Squeal Phenomena

2015-09-27
2015-01-2658
The present paper describes an application of non-parametric shape optimization to disc brake squeal phenomena. A main problem is defined as complex eigenvalue problem in which the real part of the complex eigenvalue causing the brake squeal is chosen as an objective cost function. The Fre´chet derivative of the objective cost function with respect to the domain variation, named as the shape derivative of the objective cost function, is evaluated using the solution of the main problem and the adjoint problem. A selection criterion of the adoptive mode number in component mode synthesis (CMS), which is used in the main problem, is presented in order to reduce the computational error in complex eigenvalue pairs. A scheme to solve the shape optimization problem is presented using an iterative algorithm based on the H1 gradient method for reshaping. For an application of the optimization method, a numerical example of a practical disc brake model is presented.
Technical Paper

Development of 3.5L V6 Gasoline Direct Injection Engine - ESTEC 2GR-FKS/FXS -

2015-09-01
2015-01-1972
The new 2GR-FKS / FXS engines were developed to achieve stringent fuel economy and emission targets and respond to recent innovations in the field. The major parts of the 2GR-FKS/FXS engines were re-designed based on the well-received dynamic performance and fuel economy aspects of the 2GR-FE engine. The aims of this development were as follows. 1 Best-in-class power performance 2 Environmental performance that maximizes thermal efficiency and complies with fuel economy and emission regulations in each country by a wide margin 3 Engine response typical of V6 engines through drastic weight reduction of moving parts To achieve these conflicting aims, the developed engines use a modified version of the D-4S fuel injection system, which enables selective use of direct and port injection, in addition to advanced technologies such as variable valve technology (VVT) with a mid-position lock system and an exhaust port cooling system.
Technical Paper

Engine Oil Formulation Technology to Prevent Pre-ignition in Turbocharged Direct Injection Spark Ignition Engines

2015-09-01
2015-01-2027
Engine oil formulation is known to affect low speed pre-ignition (LSPI), which creates technical restrictions on downsized turbocharged engines. Calcium, which is used to ensure detergency and anti-rust performance, is reported to increase LSPI events. Therefore, new formulation technologies are needed to satisfy both LSPI prevention performance and other conventional performance areas. The authors focused on two approaches: enhancement of LSPI prevention performance by adding a booster component and substitution of calcium for a less reactive component to balance performance areas including LSPI prevention. We have verified the effectiveness of these approaches by increasing the dosage of molybdenum used as a friction modifier as well as replacing calcium detergent with a magnesium detergent. These formulation strategies can be applicable for future ILSAC GF-6 engine oil, where a specification for LSPI prevention performance is expected to be implemented.
Technical Paper

Mechanism of Turbocharger Coking in Gasoline Engines

2015-09-01
2015-01-2029
Turbocharged downsized gasoline engines have been widely used in the market as one of the measures to improve fuel economy. Coking phenomena in the lubricating circuit of the turbocharger unit is a well-known issue that may affect turbocharger efficiency and durability. Laboratory rig test such as ASTM D6335 (TEOST 33C) has been used to predict this phenomenon as a part of engine oil performance requirements. On the other hand, laboratory tests sometimes have difficulty reproducing the actual mechanism of coking caused by engine oil degradation. Accumulation of insoluble material is one of the important gasoline engine oil degradation modes. The influence of temperature and insoluble concentration were investigated based on actual used engine oils collected in the field.
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