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Technical Paper

Machine Learning Based Technology for Reducing Engine Starting Vibration of Hybrid Vehicles

Engine starting vibration of hybrid vehicle with Toyota hybrid system has variations even in the same vehicle, and a large vibration that occurs rarely may cause stress to the passengers. The contribution analysis based on the vibration theory and statistical analysis has been done, but the primary factor of the rare large vibration has not been clarified because the number of factors is enormous. From this background, we apply machine learning that can reproduce multivariate and complicated relationships to analysis of variation factors of engine starting vibration. Variations in magnitude of the exciting force such as motor torque for starting the engine and in-cylinder pressure of the engine and timing of these forces are considered as factors of the variations. In addition, there are also nonlinear factors such as backlash of gears as a factor of variations.
Technical Paper

Simulator Motion Sickness Evaluation Based on Eye Mark Recording during Vestibulo-Ocular Reflex

The driving simulator (DS) developed by Toyota Motor Corporation simulates acceleration using translational (XY direction) and tilting motions. However, the driver of the DS may perceive a feeling of rotation generated by the tilting motion, which is not generated in an actual vehicle. If the driver perceives rotation, a vestibulo-ocular reflex (VOR) is generated that results in an unnecessary correction in the driver's gaze. This generates a conflict between the vestibular and visual sensations of the driver and causes motion sickness. Although such motion sickness can be alleviated by reducing the tilting motion of the DS, this has the effect of increasing the amount of XY motion, which has a limited range. Therefore, it is desirable to limit the reduction in the tilting motion of the DS to the specific timing and amount required to alleviate motion sickness. However, the timing and extent of the VOR has yet to be accurately identified.
Technical Paper

Structural Design Technology for Brake Squeal Reduction Using Sensitivity Analysis

The finite element method (FEM) is effective for analyzing brake squeal phenomena. Although FEM analysis can be used to easily obtain squeal frequencies and complex vibration modes, it is difficult to identify how to modify brake structure design or contact conditions between components. Therefore, this study deals with a practical design method using sensitivity analysis to reduce brake squeal, which is capable of optimizing both the structure of components and contact conditions. A series of analysis processes that consist of modal reduction, complex eigenvalue analysis, sensitivity analysis and optimization analysis is shown and some application results are described using disk brake systems.
Technical Paper

HILS Application for Hybrid System Development

The hybrid system has the typical advantage that it can realize various types of system control, because the system has two power units, engine and motor. On the other hand, however, constraints are increasing due to the complexity of the vehicle system. Compared to the conventional HILS construction and application, there are mainly two typical characteristics or themes for HV-HILS (i.e. HILS for hybrid vehicle control development). Firstly, HV-HILS requires full vehicle simulation environment, because the plural ECU control logic is intricately intertwined. Secondly, recent HILS system needs to run with more accurate or complicated plant models which are necessary to develop more accurate vehicle control logic.
Technical Paper

First Order Analysis of Low Frequency Disk Brake Squeal

Reducing disk brake squeal, especially low frequency disk brake squeal (1-5kHz), is an important technical issue in vehicles. The disk brake squeal mechanism has been shown in many papers (1), (2), (3), (4), (5), (6), (7), (8) and (9). Recently, the disk brake squeal comes to be simulated by Finite Element Analysis (FEA) for disk brake design (10), (11), (12), (13), (14), (15), (16), (17), (18) and (19). Though FEA is useful, it is sometimes difficult to modify in large when the prototype of disk brake system has been designed. First Order Analysis gives design concepts, which should be done before FEA. This paper shows First Order Analysis of low frequency disk brake squeal. The equation of motion is shown in 4 degrees of freedom model. In this equation the generalized force matrix is composed of the variations of pressure and friction force between each brake pad and brake disk. The generalized force matrix is arranged with a symmetric matrix and an anti-symmetric matrix.
Technical Paper

Method of Fatigue Life Estimation for Spot-Welded Structures

A method of fatigue life estimation for the spot-welds of vehicle body structures by means of Finite Element Analysis (FEA) was studied. 6 general forces applied to a nugget of spot-weld under multiaxial loads were determined and the Nominal Structural Stress (σns) was calculated from them. It was confirmed that fatigue strength of the spot-welds under various multiaxial loads could be estimated universally by using σns. Based on the theory of elasticity of plates, stress of spot-weld nugget was analyzed. The theoretical equations for determining the principal stress at the nugget edge from6 general forces acting on a nugget were derived. And the principal stress was defined as the σns. The value of σns was determined by FEM that used a solid model and compared with the theoretical calculation value. They agreed quite well. Fatigue tests of DC specimens under various multiaxial loads (shear plus cross tension and tensile shear plus torsion) were conducted.
Technical Paper

Prediction of the Life of CVJ Boot in Design Stage and Establishment of an Optimal Design Method with FEA

In a stage of designing a CVJ boot, analytic conditions of FEA method are established so that values calculated with the FEA method coincide with the actually measured values. This has made it possible to predict the life of the boot under bench testing. Furthermore, the boot field life can also be predicted by the minor rule based on the joint-angle frequencies of a vehicle. As a result, it has become possible to determine an optimal configuration in the design stage and to decrease the number of test cycles, resulting in reduced development lead time.
Technical Paper

Dynamic Finite Element Analysis of Window Regulator Linkage System Using LS-DYNA

One of the main types of window regulators that are in current use is the X-arm type window regulator, which utilizes a linkage mechanism to raise and lower the window glass. One of the evaluation items that are necessary in analyzing the performance of a window regulator is the operating force that is required to operate the handle for moving up the window glass. It is difficult to estimate this force during the design stage. We have to take into consideration factors such as the influences of the various types of contacts and the elastic deformation of linkage arm. Therefore, we used the LS-DYNA, which is dynamic and kinematic nonlinear finite element analysis code, to develop a technique for analyzing the handle operating force. Then, we used this technique to conduct parameter studies to identify the factors that are believed to exert a greater influence on the operating force.
Technical Paper

Handling Analysis with Vehicle Dynamics Simulator

We have developed a vehicle test system called the Vehicle Dynamics Simulator (VDS). The system measures the handling characteristics in a transient state in the laboratory. The automobile suspensions are moved as on a road with the machine providing relative motion by force transducer platform beneath each tire. The detailed measurements of transitive motions and forces given to the wheel clarify the kinematics and compliance characteristics contributed to the good handling performance and stability. This paper presents the system introduction and the results of analyzing the suspensions characteristics by the new analytical technique for breaking down into a variety of compliance components in a transient state.
Technical Paper

Investigation on Oxidation Stability of Engine Oils Using Laboratory Scale Simulator

The purposes of this paper are to develop a new laboratory oxidation stability testing method and to clarify factors relative to the viscosity increase of engine oil. Polymerized products, obtained from the oil after a JASO M333-93 engine test, were found to consist mainly of carboxyl, nitrate and nitro compounds and to increase the oil viscosity. A good similarity between the JASO M333-93 test and the laboratory simulation test was found for the polymerized products. The products were obtained not by heating oil only in air but by heating oil while supplying a synthetic blowby gas consisting of fuel pyrolysis products, NO, SO2 and air. The laboratory test has also revealed that the viscosity increase depends on oil quality, organic Fe content and hydrocarbon composition in the fuel. Moreover, it has been found that blowby gas and organic Fe accelerate ZnDTP consumption and that aromatics concentration in the fuel correlates with the viscosity increase of oil.
Technical Paper

Development of Shape Optimization Technique Based on The Basis Vector Method

A practical shape optimization technique is presented. We employed the basis vector method to parameterize the shape of the structural domain that is usually discretized by the finite element method. VMA/GENESIS software, the optimization system with finite element analysis, sensitivity analysis, and numerical optimization capabilities, was used for this study. Various design problems such as body, chassis, and engine parts design are solved to demonstrate the effectiveness and the robustness of the present approach for automotive applications.
Technical Paper

Road Noise Reduction Using Transfer Function Synthesis Method

An experimental simulation method has been developed for predicting the noise and vibration characteristics of a complete vehicle when body frame stiffness is changed. This method was developed by means of an improved transfer function synthesis method. Advantages over numerical simulation methods, such as finite element analysis include dramatic reductions in computation time. This experimental method is also very easy to carry out with a few measurement data. By applying this method to investigate the effects of stiffness changes of different vehicle components on low frequency road noise, effective ways of reducing road noise were proposed in the first stage of vehicle development.
Technical Paper

Development of Exhaust Manifold Muffler

The muffler layout in the exhaust system has been optimized for the attenuation of exhaust noise which has not been studied much to this date. As a result, “Exhaust Manifold Muffler” has been developed. This unit is capable of efficiently muffling the primary and secondary componemts of the engine explosion stroke noise. Such task is achieved without deterioration of engine performance by allocating the volume at the junction of the exhaust manifold branch pipes. Acoustic characteristics of “Exhaust Manifold Muffler” have been analyzed by FEM and experimental methods, which have shown that not only does the volume placed at the junction of the exhaust manifold branch pipes work as a conventional muffler, but also prevents the exhaust manifold branch pipes from amplifying exhaust noise. This is the reason why “Exhaust Manifold Muffler” can muffle more efficiently than the conventional muffler.
Technical Paper

Mechanism of Intake Valve Deposit Formation Part III: Effects of Gasoline Quality

Quality control of gasoline constituents and its effect on the Intake Valve Deposits (IVD) has become a recent issue. In this paper, the effects of gasoline and oil quality on intake valve deposits were investigated using an Intake Valve Deposit Test Bench and a Sludge Simulator. The deposit formation from the gasoline maximized at an intake valve temperature of approximately 160 °C, and the deposits formed from the engine oil were maximum at approximately 250 °C. Therefore, the contribution of the gasoline or the engine oil appears to depend on the engine conditions. The gasoline which contains MTBE or ethanol with no detergent additive slightly increases the deposition amount. The gasoline with a superior detergent significantly decreases the deposition amount even when MTBE or ethanol is blended in the gasoline. Appropriate detergent fuel additive retards the oil deterioration.
Technical Paper

Recent Progress in Closing the Loop of Automobile Recyclability - Japan

Recycling has become, and will continue to be one of the key technical issues for the automotive industry's role in protection of the global environment. Continued increases in vehicle registrations and use of non-metallic automotive materials will present a increasing opportunity for the utilization of currently wasted resources. Toyota has set up a management body and continues efforts to establish the necessary technologies and strategies for reduction and recovery of these wasted materials as valuable resources. Automakers worldwide are currently investigating numerous technically feasible recycling methodologies. These technologies may be useful for post-use vehicle recycling, but will require further development. It is important to focus current efforts on investigation of as many of these as possible in cooperation with related organizations.
Technical Paper

Lateral Shake Analysis of Open Top Cars

This paper analyzes the vibration of open-top cars known as lateral shake. The characteristics of the phenomenon were identified by means of road tests and a test method called the shake test was devised to reproduce these characteristics in order that the respective roles of the suspension, body and engine could be determined. On the basis of the analysis findings, a simple but practical simulation model was realized and used to investigate various methods of reducing lateral shake. The simulations indicated that although changing the natural frequency of the suspension has little effect, increasing the natural torsional frequency of the body and/or utilizing the engine as a dynamic damper results in a significant improvement. Further experiments conclusively demonstrated that by optimizing the body structure in accordance with FEM analysis results and optimizing the spring constant of the engine mounts, the level of lateral shake can be halved.
Technical Paper

Effect of Mirror-Finished Combustion Chamber on Heat Loss

The use of ceramic insulation to reduce engine heat loss and thus improve fuel economy was examined but found to be detrimental rather than advantageous. This paper analyzes the reasons and presents an alternative approach, namely minimizing the heat transfer area. Experiments were conducted to determine the effects of surface smoothness on BSFC, output torque, heat release rate and piston temperature. It was found that with a mirror-finished combustion chamber, heat loss is decreased and consequently engine output is raised, while fuel consumption is lowered. The percentage reduction in heat loss was ascertained by numerically simulating combustion and was confirmed by FEM analysis of piston thermal distribution.
Technical Paper

Toyota EC-HYMATIC – A New Full Time 4WD System for Automatic Transmission

Toyota has developed a new full time 4WD system, called “EC-HYMATIC” or Electronically Controlled - HYdraulic Multi-plate clutch Active Traction Intelligent Control. This system permits an automatic torque transfer, depending on driving conditions, for front and rear wheels under control of the speed difference between the two. The system developed consists of a center differential, a speed difference control clutch system employing multi-plate clutch, and a gear set for rear axle drive. The speed difference control clutch system is controlled by a unique electro-hydraulic system using a microcomputer. An extensive use of computer simulations and vehicle test and evaluation has successfully developed an appropriate control strategy for the clutch system. The new 4WD system, EC-HYMATIC, considerably improves handling characteristics, traction performance and stability of a 4WD vehicle.
Technical Paper

Technical Service Training in the “Hi-Tech” Era

In recent years, advanced technology has become more and more important in the design of automobiles. Therefore, if we wish our products to continue to display their full potential to the people who buy them, thus ensuring customer satisfaction with our products, we must, even in the area of after-soles service, ensure that the technical proficiency and knowledge of our technicians will continue to keep pace with advances in technology. To do this, we must carry out effective “high-tech” training for our dealer workshops this is our present and future challenge Toyota's technical service training system is now applied to some 50, 000 service technicians in around 10, 000 workshops throughout the world, and the proposed report will introduce this system and give some actual examples of technical training that is actually carried out.
Technical Paper

A Study of Noise in Vehicle Passenger Compartment during Acceleration

A discomforting noise can sometimes be heard in a vehicle passenger compartment during acceleration which can be annoying to passengers. We call this noise a “rumbling noise”. A detailed study of the rumbling noise spectrum has clarified the generating mechanism of the rumbling noise and the relation between the spectral structure and the tone. In order to analyze the rumbling noise, we simulated it with electrically synthesized noise. This method showed that at the times when the noise is heard there are always more than three discrete harmonics which are half an order harmonics of the engine revolution. The sensation of discomfort depends on the phase, frequency and magnitude of each frequency component. To evaluate the noise quantitatively, we also analyzed the shape of the time domain noise envelope. The envelope shape has a good correlation with the feelings of discomfort.