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Technical Paper

Development of Strength Distributed Hot Stamp Parts

2019-04-02
2019-01-0522
1 Structural parts, such as the center pillar, are a multi-layer structure. They are a combination of high-strength panels and high-toughness panels, to control the deformation mode during a crash. If we can make this multi-layered structure as one panel, consisting of different hardness within it, we will be able to make a lightweight part. In this study, we have developed a method to fabricate a ‘lightweight center pillar’ with the following processes. First, the whole panel is hardened by quenching within the hot stamp process. Next, certain areas of the panel are softened by partial tempering. We have found that the temperature zone for softening is between A1 and A3, and it is easy to perform a rapid and accurate tempering by utilizing induction heating around the Curie temperature between A1 and A3 transformation temperature.
Technical Paper

Reference PMHS Sled Tests to Assess Submarining of the Small Female

2018-11-12
2018-22-0003
In the last decade, extensive efforts have been made to understand the physics of submarining and its consequences in terms of abdominal injuries. For that purpose, 27 Post Mortem Human Subject (PMHS) tests were performed in well controlled conditions on a sled and response corridors were provided to assess the biofidelity of dummies or human body models. All these efforts were based on the 50th percentile male. In parallel, efforts were initiated to transfer the understanding of submarining and the prediction criteria to the THOR dummies. Both the biofidelity targets and the criteria were scaled down from the 50th percentile male to the 5th percentile THOR female. The objective of this project was to run a set of reference PMHS tests in order to check the biofidelity of the THOR F05 in terms of submarining. Three series of tests were performed on nine PMHS, the first one was designed to avoid submarining, the second and third ones were designed to result in submarining.
Technical Paper

Update of the WorldSID 50th Male Pelvic Injury Criterion and Risk Curve

2018-04-03
2018-01-0539
Petit et al. 2015 and Lebarbé et al. 2016 reported on two studies where the injury mechanism and threshold of the sacroiliac joint were investigated in two slightly oblique crash test conditions from 18 Post Mortem Human Subjects (PMHS) tests. They concluded that the sacroiliac joint fractures were associated with pubic rami fractures. These latter being reported to occur first in the time history. Therefore it was recommended not to define a criterion specific for the sacroiliac joint. In 2012, injury risk curves were published for the WorldSID dummy by Petitjean et al. For the pelvis, dummy and PMHS paired tests from six configurations were used (n = 55). All of these configurations were pure lateral impacts. In addition, the sacroiliac joint and femur neck loads were not recorded, and the dummy used was the first production version (WorldSID revision 1). Since that time, the WorldSID was updated several times, including changes in the pelvis area.
Technical Paper

Toyota’s New Driveline for FR Passenger Vehicles

2017-03-28
2017-01-1130
The renewed platform of the upcoming flagship front-engine, rear-wheel drive (FR) vehicles demands high levels of driving performance, fuel efficiency and noise-vibration performance. The newly developed driveline system must balance these conflicting performance attributes by adopting new technologies. This article focuses on several technologies that were needed in order to meet the demand for noise-vibration performance and fuel efficiency. For noise-vibration performance, this article will focus on propeller shaft low frequency noise (booming noise). This noise level is determined by the propeller shaft’s excitation force and the sensitivity of differential mounting system. In regards to the propeller shaft’s excitation force, the contribution of the axial excitation force was clarified. This excitation force was decreased by adopting a double offset joint (DOJ) as the propeller shaft’s second joint and low stiffness rubber couplings as the first and third joints.
Technical Paper

Investigation of Pelvic Injuries on Eighteen Post Mortem Human Subjects Submitted to Oblique Lateral Impacts

2016-11-07
2016-22-0005
The aim of this study was to investigate the sacroiliac joint injury mechanism. Two test configurations were selected from full scale car crashes conducted with the WorldSID 50th dummy resulting in high sacroiliac joint loads and low pubic symphysis force, i.e. severe conditions for the sacroiliac joint. The two test conditions were reproduced in laboratory using a 150-155 kg guided probe propelled respectively at 8 m/s and 7.5 m/s and with different shapes and orientations for the plate impacting the pelvis. Nine Post Mortem Human Subject (PMHS) were tested in each of the two configurations (eighteen PMHS in total). In order to get information on the time of fracture, eleven strain gauges were glued on the pelvic bone of each PMHS. Results - In the first configuration, five PMHS out of nine sustained AIS2+ pelvic injuries. All five presented sacroiliac joint injuries associated with pubic area injuries.
Journal Article

Low-viscosity Gear Oil Technology to Improve Wear at Tapered Roller Bearings in Differential Gear Unit

2016-10-17
2016-01-2204
Torque loss reduction at differential gear unit is important to improve the fuel economy of automobiles. One effective way is to decrease the viscosity of lubricants as it results in less churning loss. However, this option creates a higher potential for thin oil films, which could damage the mechanical parts. At tapered roller bearings, in particular, wear at the large end face of rollers and its counterpart, known as bearing bottom wear is one of major failure modes. To understand the wear mechanism, wear at the rolling contact surface of rollers and its counterpart, known as bearing side wear, was also observed to confirm the wear impact on the tapered roller bearings. Because gear oils are also required to avoid seizure under extreme pressure, the combination of a phosphorus anti-wear agent and a sulfurous extreme pressure agent are formulated.
Technical Paper

Analysis for Vibration Caused by Starter Shaft Resonance

2016-04-05
2016-01-1319
It is important for vehicle concept planning to estimate fuel economy and the influence of vehicle vibration using virtual engine specifications and a virtual vehicle frame. In our former study, we showed the 1D physical power plant model with electrical starter, battery that can predict combustion transient torque, combustion heat energy and fuel efficiency. The simulation result agreed with measured data. For idling stop system, the noise and vibration during start up is important factor for salability of the vehicle. In this paper, as an application of the 1D physical power plant model (engine model), we will show the result of analysis that is starter shaft resonance and the effect on the engine mount vibration of restarting from idle stop. First, an engine model for 3.5L 6cyl NA engine was developed by energy-based model using VHDL-AMS. Here, VHDL-AMS is modeling language registered in IEC international standard (IEC61691-6) to realize multi physics on 1D simulation.
Technical Paper

Solar Module Laminated Constitution for Automobiles

2016-04-05
2016-01-0351
Replacing the metal car roof with conventional solar modules results in the increase of total car weight and change of center of mass, which is not preferable for car designing. Therefore, weight reduction is required for solar modules to be equipped on vehicles. Exchanging glass to plastic for the cover plate of solar module is one of the major approaches to reduce weight; however, load bearing property, impact resistance, thermal deformation, and weatherability become new challenges. In this paper a new solar module structure that weighs as light as conventional steel car roofs, resolving these challenges is proposed.
Technical Paper

Development of Bicycle Carrier for Bicyclist Pre-Collision System Evaluation

2016-04-05
2016-01-1446
According to the U.S. National Highway Traffic Safety Administration, 743 pedal cyclists were killed and 48,000 were injured in motor vehicle crashes in 2013. As a novel active safety equipment to mitigate bicyclist crashes, bicyclist Pre-Collision Systems (PCSs) are being developed by many vehicle manufacturers. Therefore, developing equipment for evaluating bicyclist PCS is essential. This paper describes the development of a bicycle carrier for carrying the surrogate bicyclist in bicyclist PCS testing. An analysis on the United States national crash databases and videos from TASI 110 car naturalistic driving database was conducted to determine a set of most common crash scenarios, the motion speed and profile of bicycles. The bicycle carrier was designed to carry or pull the surrogate bicyclist for bicycle PCS evaluation. The carrier is a platform with a 4 wheel differential driving system.
Technical Paper

Pre-Collision System for Toyota Safety Sense

2016-04-05
2016-01-1458
Toyota Safety Sense is a safety system package developed to help drivers avoid accident types with a high frequency of occurrence. This paper deals with pre-collision system which forms the core of Toyota Safety Sense, especially Toyota Safety Sense P which uses a combined sensor configuration consisting of a monocular camera paired with millimeter wave radar, in order to achieve both high recognition performance and reliability. The use of a wide-angle monocular camera, millimeter wave radar integrated in the front grill emblem, and a collision determination algorithm for pedestrian targets enabled the development of a pre-collision system comprising detection capability of crossing pedestrians. Toyota has developed warning and pre-collision brake assist for driver to assist in avoiding a collision effectively; In addition, Pre-collision brake has achieved high level of performance for the drivers who cannot avoid a collision.
Technical Paper

Research of Occupant kinematics and Injury values of Hybrid III, THOR, and human FE model in Oblique Frontal Impact

2016-04-05
2016-01-1521
This paper describes impact kinematics and injury values of Hybrid III AM50, THOR AM50 and THUMS AM50 in simulated oblique frontal impact conditions. A comparison was made among them in driver and passenger seat positions of a midsize sedan car finite element (FE) model. The simulation results indicated that the impact kinematics of THOR was close to that of THUMS compared to that of the Hybrid III. Both THOR and THUMS showed z-axis rotation of the rib cage, while Hybrid III did not. It was considered that the rib cage rotation was due primarily to the oblique impact but was allowed by flexibility of the lumbar spine in THOR and THUMS. Lateral head displacement observed in both THOR and THUMS was mostly induced by that rotation in both driver seat and passenger seat positions. The BrIC, thorax and abdominal injury values were close to each other between THOR and THUMS, while HIC15 and Acetabulum force values were different.
Technical Paper

Analysis of Occupant Kinematics of Rollover Buck Test

2016-04-05
2016-01-1516
Approximately 20% of traffic fatalities in United States 2012 were caused by rollover accidents. Mostly injured parts were head, chest, backbone and arms. In order to clarify the injury mechanism of rollover accidents, kinematics of six kinds of Anthropomorphic Test Devices (ATD) and Post Mortem Human Subjects (PMHS) in the rolling compartment, whose body size is 50th percentile male (AM50), were researched by Zhang et al.(2014) using rollover buck testing system. It was clarified from the research that flexibility of the backbone and thoracic vertebra affected to occupant’s kinematics. On the other hand, the kinematics research of body size except AM50 will be needed in order to decrease traffic fatalities. There were few reports about the researches of occupant kinematics using FE models of body sizes except AM50.
Journal Article

High Efficiency Electromagnetic Torque Converter for Hybrid Electric Vehicles

2016-04-05
2016-01-1162
A new concept of an electromagnetic torque converter for hybrid electric vehicles is proposed. The electromagnetic torque converter, which is an electric system comprised of a set of double rotors and a stator, works as a high-efficiency transmission in the driving conditions of low gear ratio including a vehicle moving-off and as a starting device for an internal combustion engine. Moreover, it can be used for an electric vehicle driving as well as for a regenerative braking. In this concept, a high-efficiency drivetrain system for hybrid electric vehicles is constructed by replacing a fluid-type torque converter with the electromagnetic torque converter in the automatic transmission of a conventional vehicle. In this paper, we present the newly developed electromagnetic torque converter with a compact structure that enables mounting on a vehicle, and we evaluate its transmission efficiency by experiment.
Journal Article

Event Data Recorder (EDR) Developed by Toyota Motor Corporation

2016-04-05
2016-01-1495
An event data recorder (EDR) records the vehicle status at the timing of an accident. Toyota Motor Corporation began the sequential introduction of EDRs onto its vehicles from August 2000. Currently, about 70% of all Toyota’s vehicles in North America are equipped with an EDR, which is more than the average rate of EDR installation in vehicles in North America (around 50%). The U.S. has introduced regulations for EDRs. Toyota regards these as minimum requirements and also records additional data for accident analysis, including the following: (1) pre-crash data, (2) side crash data, (3) rollover data, (4) pedestrian protection pop-up hood (PUH) data, and (5) vehicle control history (VCH) data from a non-crash triggered recording system. The regulations stipulate that EDR data retrieval must be possible using a commercially available tool. The developed system uses the Crash Data Retrieval (CDR) tool manufactured by Bosch.
Journal Article

Influence of Pre-impact Pedestrian Posture on Lower Extremity Kinematics in Vehicle Collisions

2016-04-05
2016-01-1507
Lower extremities are the most frequently injured body regions in vehicle-to-pedestrian collisions and such injuries usually lead to long-term loss of health or permanent disability. However, influence of pre-impact posture on the resultant impact response has not been understood well. This study aims to investigate the effects of preimpact pedestrian posture on the loading and the kinematics of the lower extremity when struck laterally by vehicle. THUMS pedestrian model was modified to consider both standing and mid-stance walking postures. Impact simulations were conducted under three severities, including 25, 33 and 40 kph impact for both postures. Global kinematics of pedestrian was studied. Rotation of the knee joint about the three axes was calculated and pelvic translational and rotational motions were analyzed.
Journal Article

Clarification of Transient Characteristics by Coupled Analysis of Powertrains and Vehicles

2016-04-05
2016-01-1314
With the goal of improving drivability, this research aimed to clarify the mechanism of vehicle longitudinal acceleration, focusing on tip-in acceleration. Conventional typical analysis methods include experimental modal and model-based analysis. However, since the former requires the measurement of impulses and other input forces while the vehicle is stopped, measurement under actual driving conditions is difficult. The latter requires characteristic values such as the stiffness and damping coefficients to be identified in advance, which cannot be achieved either easily or precisely. Therefore, this paper proposes a new experiment-based analysis method. This method enables the acquisition of engine torque and transmission torque/force by measuring only the acceleration values of some components under driving conditions.
Technical Paper

Study of Unsteady Aerodynamics of a Car Model in Dynamic Pitching Motion

2016-04-05
2016-01-1609
The unsteady aerodynamic loads produced due to vehicle dynamic motions affect vehicle dynamic performance attributes such as straight-line stability or handling characteristics. To improve these dynamic performances, understanding the detailed mechanisms by which unsteady aerodynamic loads are caused during dynamic motions and the effects of unsteady aerodynamic loads on vehicle dynamic performance are needed. This paper describes the numerical study of unsteady aerodynamics of a 1/4 scale car model in dynamic pitching motion to clarify the detailed mechanisms by which unsteady aerodynamic loads are caused during the motion. Vortical structures around front wheelhouse and front under side of the body are analyzed by introducing schematic views to understand the mechanisms of unsteady flow fields. Furthermore, effects of aerodynamic devices devised based on the analyses on unsteady aerodynamics are discussed.
Technical Paper

Finite Element Modeling Method of Vibro-Acoustic Systems for Mid-Frequency Simulation

2016-04-05
2016-01-1355
Current vehicle acoustic performance prediction methods, CAE (computer aided engineering) or physical testing, have some difficulty predicting interior sound in the mid-frequency range (300 to 1000 Hz). It is in this frequency range where the overall acoustic performance becomes sensitive to not only the contributions of structure-borne sources, which can be studied using traditional finite element analysis (FEA) methods, but also the contribution of airborne noise sources which increase proportional to frequency. It is in this higher frequency range (>1000 Hz) that physical testing and statistical CAE methods are traditionally used for performance studies. This paper will discuss a study that was undertaken to test the capability of a finite element modeling method that can accurately simulate air-borne noise phenomena in the mid-frequency range.
Technical Paper

A Comparison of Sacroiliac and Pubic Rami Fracture Occurrences in Oblique Side Impact Tests on Nine Post Mortem Human Subjects

2015-11-09
2015-22-0002
The WorldSID dummy can be equipped with both a pubic and a sacroiliac joint (S-I joint) loadcell. Although a pubic force criterion and the associated injury risk curve are currently available and used in regulation (ECE95, FMVSS214), as of today injury mechanisms, injury criteria, and injury assessment reference values are not available for the sacroiliac joint itself. The aim of this study was to investigate the sacroiliac joint injury mechanism. Three configurations were identified from full-scale car crashes conducted with the WorldSID 50th percentile male where the force passing through the pubis in all three tests was approximately 1500 N while the sacroiliac Fy / Mx peak values were 4500 N / 50 Nm, 2400 N / 130 Nm, and 5300 N / 150 Nm, respectively. These tests were reproduced using a 150 kg guided probe impacting Post Mortem Human Subjects (PMHS) at 8 m/s, 5.4 m/s and 7.5 m/s.
Technical Paper

Injury Estimation in Frontal Collisions for Automobiles Equipped with Event Data Recorders (EDRs)

2015-04-14
2015-01-1447
Event Data Recorders (EDRs) record valuable data in estimating the occupant injury severity after a crash. Advanced Automatic Collision Notification (AACN) with the use of EDR data will determine the potential extent of injuries to those involved in motor vehicle accidents. In order to obtain basic information in injury estimation using EDR data, frontal collisions for 29 vehicles equipped with EDRs were analyzed as a pilot study by retrieving the EDR data from the accident vehicles and collecting the occupant injury data from the database of an insurance company. As a result, the severity of occupant injury was closely related to the Delta V recorded on an EDR. However, there were several cases in which the predicted injury level was overestimated or underestimated by the Delta V. Therefore, caution is required when predicting the level of injury in frontal collisions based upon the Delta V alone.
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