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Journal Article

Development of Strength Distributed Hot Stamp Parts

2019-04-02
2019-01-0522
1 Structural parts, such as the center pillar, are a multi-layer structure. They are a combination of high-strength panels and high-toughness panels, to control the deformation mode during a crash. If we can make this multi-layered structure as one panel, consisting of different hardness within it, we will be able to make a lightweight part. In this study, we have developed a method to fabricate a ‘lightweight center pillar’ with the following processes. First, the whole panel is hardened by quenching within the hot stamp process. Next, certain areas of the panel are softened by partial tempering. We have found that the temperature zone for softening is between A1 and A3, and it is easy to perform a rapid and accurate tempering by utilizing induction heating around the Curie temperature between A1 and A3 transformation temperature.
Technical Paper

Reference PMHS Sled Tests to Assess Submarining of the Small Female

2018-11-12
2018-22-0003
In the last decade, extensive efforts have been made to understand the physics of submarining and its consequences in terms of abdominal injuries. For that purpose, 27 Post Mortem Human Subject (PMHS) tests were performed in well controlled conditions on a sled and response corridors were provided to assess the biofidelity of dummies or human body models. All these efforts were based on the 50th percentile male. In parallel, efforts were initiated to transfer the understanding of submarining and the prediction criteria to the THOR dummies. Both the biofidelity targets and the criteria were scaled down from the 50th percentile male to the 5th percentile THOR female. The objective of this project was to run a set of reference PMHS tests in order to check the biofidelity of the THOR F05 in terms of submarining. Three series of tests were performed on nine PMHS, the first one was designed to avoid submarining, the second and third ones were designed to result in submarining.
Technical Paper

Update of the WorldSID 50th Male Pelvic Injury Criterion and Risk Curve

2018-04-03
2018-01-0539
Petit et al. 2015 and Lebarbé et al. 2016 reported on two studies where the injury mechanism and threshold of the sacroiliac joint were investigated in two slightly oblique crash test conditions from 18 Post Mortem Human Subjects (PMHS) tests. They concluded that the sacroiliac joint fractures were associated with pubic rami fractures. These latter being reported to occur first in the time history. Therefore it was recommended not to define a criterion specific for the sacroiliac joint. In 2012, injury risk curves were published for the WorldSID dummy by Petitjean et al. For the pelvis, dummy and PMHS paired tests from six configurations were used (n = 55). All of these configurations were pure lateral impacts. In addition, the sacroiliac joint and femur neck loads were not recorded, and the dummy used was the first production version (WorldSID revision 1). Since that time, the WorldSID was updated several times, including changes in the pelvis area.
Technical Paper

Development of a New 6-Speed FWD Manual Transmission

2018-04-03
2018-01-0392
Environmental awareness has increased on a global scale which pushed for a heavier demand for weight reduction and high transmission efficiency on manual transmissions (hereafter referred to as the “MT”) in improving vehicle driving and fuel economy performance. Comfortable shift feel is also continuously in demand by the customer because its sensitive performance can be directly recognized by the driver which may determine the transmission’s merchantability. The newly developed 6-speed MT (hereafter referred to as the “6MT”) has achieved size reduction (compact size), weight reduced, better fuel efficiency, and improvement in the shift feel which will continue to maintain its’ competitiveness in the future.
Journal Article

Rubber Suspension Bushing Model Identified by General Design Parameters for Initial Design Phase

2018-04-03
2018-01-0693
This article proposes a rubber suspension bushing model considering amplitude dependence as a useful tool at the initial design phase. The purpose of this study is not to express physical phenomena accurately and in detail and to explore the truth academically, but to provide a useful design method for initial design phase. Experiments were carried out to verify several dynamic characteristics of rubber bushings under vibration up to a frequency of 100 Hz, which is an important frequency range when designing ride comfort performance. When dynamic characteristic theory and the geometrical properties of the force-displacement characteristic curve were considered using these dynamic characteristics as assumptions, an equation was derived that is capable of calculating the dynamic stiffness under an arbitrary amplitude by identifying only two general design parameters (dynamic stiffness and loss factor) under a reference amplitude.
Technical Paper

Theory of Collision Avoidance Capability in Automated Driving Technologies

2018-04-03
2018-01-0044
This paper proposes a theory to analyze the collision avoidance capability of automated driving technologies. The theory gives answers to a fundamental question whether automated vehicles fall into extreme conditions at all rather than another question how a vehicle reacts under extreme conditions (is it as safe as driver?). The theory clarifies the following matters: There are two types of hazards to cause collisions, cognitive hazards and behavioral hazards. Cognitive hazards are handled by controlling the upper limit speed of the automated vehicle including when stopped. There are two methods for handling behavioral hazards, preparation and response. The response known well is the coping method activated when the hazard is detected in the dynamic (operational) level. The preparation is the coping method operating at all time in the semantic (tactical) level.
Technical Paper

Feasibility Study of Drowsy Driving Prediction based on Eye Opening Time

2017-03-28
2017-01-1398
Since drowsy driving is a major cause of serious traffic accidents, there is a growing requirement for drowsiness prevention technologies. This study proposes a drowsy driving prediction method based on eye opening time. One issue of using eye opening time is predicting strong drowsiness before the driver actually feels sleepy. Because overlooking potential hazards is one of the causes of traffic accidents and is closely related to driver cognition and drowsiness, this study focuses on eye opening movements during driving. First, this report describes hypotheses concerning drowsiness and eye opening time based on the results of previous studies. It is assumed that the standard deviation of eye opening time (SDEOP) indicates driver drowsiness and the following two transitions are considered: increasing and decreasing SDEOP. To confirm the hypotheses, the relationship between drowsiness and SDEOP was investigated.
Technical Paper

Development of Automatic Braking System to Help Reduce Rear Impacts

2017-03-28
2017-01-1408
A Rear Cross Traffic Auto Brake (RCTAB) system has been developed that uses radar sensors to detect vehicles approaching from the right or left at the rear of the driver’s vehicle, and then performs braking control if the system judges that a collision may occur. This system predicts the intersecting course of approaching vehicles and uses the calculated time-to-collision (TTC) to control the timing of automatic braking with the aim of helping prevent unnecessary operation while ensuring system performance.
Technical Paper

Toyota New TNGA High-Efficiency Eight-Speed Automatic Transmission Direct Shift-8AT for FWD Vehicles

2017-03-28
2017-01-1093
The new eight-speed automatic transmission direct shift-8AT (UA80) is the first automatic transmission to be developed based on the Toyota New Global Architecture (TNGA) design philosophy. Commonizing or optimizing the main components of the UA80 enables compatibility with a wide torque range, including both inline 4-cylinder and V6 engines, while shortening development terms and minimizing investment. Additionally, it has superior packaging performance by optimizing the transmission size and arrangement achieving a low gravity center. It contributes to Vehicle’s attractiveness by improving driving performance and NVH. At the same time, it drastically improves fuel economy and quietness.
Journal Article

Development of New IGBT to Reduce Electrical Power Losses and Size of Power Control Unit for Hybrid Vehicles

2017-03-28
2017-01-1244
One way to improve the fuel efficiency of HVs is to reduce the losses and size of the Power Control Unit (PCU). To achieve this, it is important to reduce the losses of power devices (such as IGBTs and FWDs) used in the PCU since their losses account for about 20% of the total loss of an HV. Furthermore, another issue when reducing the size of power devices is ensuring the thermal feasibility of the downsized devices. To achieve the objectives of the 4th generation PCU, the following development targets were set for the IGBTs: reduce power losses by 19.8% and size by 30% compared to the 3rd generation. Power losses were reduced by the development of a new Super Body Layer (SBL) structure, which improved the trade-off relationship between switching and steady-state loss. This trade-off relationship was improved by optimizing the key SBL concentration parameter.
Technical Paper

Investigation of Pelvic Injuries on Eighteen Post Mortem Human Subjects Submitted to Oblique Lateral Impacts

2016-11-07
2016-22-0005
The aim of this study was to investigate the sacroiliac joint injury mechanism. Two test configurations were selected from full scale car crashes conducted with the WorldSID 50th dummy resulting in high sacroiliac joint loads and low pubic symphysis force, i.e. severe conditions for the sacroiliac joint. The two test conditions were reproduced in laboratory using a 150-155 kg guided probe propelled respectively at 8 m/s and 7.5 m/s and with different shapes and orientations for the plate impacting the pelvis. Nine Post Mortem Human Subject (PMHS) were tested in each of the two configurations (eighteen PMHS in total). In order to get information on the time of fracture, eleven strain gauges were glued on the pelvic bone of each PMHS. Results - In the first configuration, five PMHS out of nine sustained AIS2+ pelvic injuries. All five presented sacroiliac joint injuries associated with pubic area injuries.
Journal Article

Influence of Pre-impact Pedestrian Posture on Lower Extremity Kinematics in Vehicle Collisions

2016-04-05
2016-01-1507
Lower extremities are the most frequently injured body regions in vehicle-to-pedestrian collisions and such injuries usually lead to long-term loss of health or permanent disability. However, influence of pre-impact posture on the resultant impact response has not been understood well. This study aims to investigate the effects of preimpact pedestrian posture on the loading and the kinematics of the lower extremity when struck laterally by vehicle. THUMS pedestrian model was modified to consider both standing and mid-stance walking postures. Impact simulations were conducted under three severities, including 25, 33 and 40 kph impact for both postures. Global kinematics of pedestrian was studied. Rotation of the knee joint about the three axes was calculated and pelvic translational and rotational motions were analyzed.
Journal Article

Event Data Recorder (EDR) Developed by Toyota Motor Corporation

2016-04-05
2016-01-1495
An event data recorder (EDR) records the vehicle status at the timing of an accident. Toyota Motor Corporation began the sequential introduction of EDRs onto its vehicles from August 2000. Currently, about 70% of all Toyota’s vehicles in North America are equipped with an EDR, which is more than the average rate of EDR installation in vehicles in North America (around 50%). The U.S. has introduced regulations for EDRs. Toyota regards these as minimum requirements and also records additional data for accident analysis, including the following: (1) pre-crash data, (2) side crash data, (3) rollover data, (4) pedestrian protection pop-up hood (PUH) data, and (5) vehicle control history (VCH) data from a non-crash triggered recording system. The regulations stipulate that EDR data retrieval must be possible using a commercially available tool. The developed system uses the Crash Data Retrieval (CDR) tool manufactured by Bosch.
Journal Article

Pedestrian/Bicyclist Limb Motion Analysis from 110-Car TASI Video Data for Autonomous Emergency Braking Testing Surrogate Development

2016-04-05
2016-01-1456
Many vehicles are currently equipped with active safety systems that can detect vulnerable road users like pedestrians and bicyclists, to mitigate associated conflicts with vehicles. With the advancements in technologies and algorithms, detailed motions of these targets, especially the limb motions, are being considered for improving the efficiency and reliability of object detection. Thus, it becomes important to understand these limb motions to support the design and evaluation of many vehicular safety systems. However in current literature, there is no agreement being reached on whether or not and how often these limbs move, especially at the most critical moments for potential crashes. In this study, a total of 832 pedestrian walking or cyclist biking cases were randomly selected from one large-scale naturalistic driving database containing 480,000 video segments with a total size of 94TB, and then the 832 video clips were analyzed focusing on their limb motions.
Journal Article

Development of New Electronically Controlled Hydraulic Unit for Various Applications

2016-04-05
2016-01-1660
The use of hybrid, fuel cell electric, and pure electric vehicles is on the increase as part of measures to help reduce exhaust gas emissions and to help resolve energy issues. These vehicles use regenerative-friction brake coordination technology, which requires a braking system that can accurately control the hydraulic brakes in response to small changes in regenerative braking. At the same time, the spread of collision avoidance support technology is progressing at a rapid pace along with a growing awareness of vehicle safety. This technology requires braking systems that can apply a large braking force in a short time. Although brake systems that have both accurate hydraulic control and large braking force have been developed in the past, simplification is required to promote further adoption.
Technical Paper

Analysis of Friction Coefficient Variation with Moisture between Friction Surfaces

2016-04-05
2016-01-0411
If a vehicle is left in a humid environment, the coefficient of friction between the brake pads and discs increases, generating a discomforting noise during braking called brake squeal. It is assumed that this increase in the coefficient of friction in a humid environment is the effect of moisture penetrating between the brake friction surfaces. Therefore, this paper analyzes the factors causing coefficient of friction variation with moisture between the friction surfaces by dynamic observation of these surfaces. The observation was achieved by changing the disc materials from cast iron to borosilicate glass. One side of the glass brake disc was pushed onto the brake pad and the sliding surface was observed from the opposite side by a charge coupled device (CCD) camera. First, a preliminary test was carried out in a dry state using two pad materials with different wear properties to select the appropriate pad for observing the friction surfaces.
Journal Article

Analysis of Influence of Snow Melting Agents and Soil Components on Corrosion of Decorative Chrome Plating

2016-04-05
2016-01-0539
The dissolution and exfoliation of chromium plating specific to Russia was studied. Investigation and analysis of organic compounds in Russian soil revealed contents of highly concentrated fulvic acid. Additionally, it was found that fulvic acid, together with CaCl2 (a deicing agent), causes chromium plating corrosion. The fulvic acid generates a compound that prevents reformation of a passivation film and deteriorates the sacrificial corrosion effectiveness of nickel.
Technical Paper

Development of a New 6-Speed Manual Transmission for Commercial Vehicles

2016-04-05
2016-01-1093
In recent years, awareness of environmental problems has increased on a global scale, and the development of low fuel consumption technologies has become more and more important in commercial vehicles, as it has been in passenger vehicles. A new 6-speed manual transmission was developed with direct-drive double-overdrive to contribute to the fuel economy performance and engine power of commercial vehicles through gear ratio optimization.
Technical Paper

Analysis of Occupant Kinematics of Rollover Buck Test

2016-04-05
2016-01-1516
Approximately 20% of traffic fatalities in United States 2012 were caused by rollover accidents. Mostly injured parts were head, chest, backbone and arms. In order to clarify the injury mechanism of rollover accidents, kinematics of six kinds of Anthropomorphic Test Devices (ATD) and Post Mortem Human Subjects (PMHS) in the rolling compartment, whose body size is 50th percentile male (AM50), were researched by Zhang et al.(2014) using rollover buck testing system. It was clarified from the research that flexibility of the backbone and thoracic vertebra affected to occupant’s kinematics. On the other hand, the kinematics research of body size except AM50 will be needed in order to decrease traffic fatalities. There were few reports about the researches of occupant kinematics using FE models of body sizes except AM50.
Technical Paper

Research of Occupant kinematics and Injury values of Hybrid III, THOR, and human FE model in Oblique Frontal Impact

2016-04-05
2016-01-1521
This paper describes impact kinematics and injury values of Hybrid III AM50, THOR AM50 and THUMS AM50 in simulated oblique frontal impact conditions. A comparison was made among them in driver and passenger seat positions of a midsize sedan car finite element (FE) model. The simulation results indicated that the impact kinematics of THOR was close to that of THUMS compared to that of the Hybrid III. Both THOR and THUMS showed z-axis rotation of the rib cage, while Hybrid III did not. It was considered that the rib cage rotation was due primarily to the oblique impact but was allowed by flexibility of the lumbar spine in THOR and THUMS. Lateral head displacement observed in both THOR and THUMS was mostly induced by that rotation in both driver seat and passenger seat positions. The BrIC, thorax and abdominal injury values were close to each other between THOR and THUMS, while HIC15 and Acetabulum force values were different.
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