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Technical Paper

Validation of Wireless Power Transfer up to 11kW Based on SAE J2954 with Bench and Vehicle Testing

2019-04-02
2019-01-0868
Wireless Power Transfer (WPT) promises automated and highly efficient charging of electric and plug-in-hybrid vehicles. As commercial development proceeds forward, the technical challenges of efficiency, interoperability, interference and safety are a primary focus for this industry. The SAE Vehicle Wireless Power and Alignment Taskforce published the Recommended Practice J2954 to help harmonize the first phase of high-power WPT technology development. SAE J2954 uses a performance-based approach to standardizing WPT by specifying ground and vehicle assembly coils to be used in a test stand (per Z-class) to validate performance, interoperability and safety. The main goal of this SAE J2954 bench testing campaign was to prove interoperability between WPT systems utilizing different coil magnetic topologies. This type of testing had not been done before on such a scale with real automaker and supplier systems.
Technical Paper

Development of High Accuracy and Quick Light-off NOx Sensor

2018-04-03
2018-01-0334
For the purpose of coping with the strengthening of NOx exhaust gas control and fuel consumption control, it is indispensable to improve the NOx purification capacity. In view of this, vehicle manufacturers are in the course of developing high performance SCR (Selective Catalytic Reduction) systems [1, 2]. For such SCR systems to be realized, high precision NOx sensors for carrying out urea injection quantity control and SCR degradation diagnosis are absolutely indispensable. Detection of NOx concentration by means of a NOx sensor is generally performed as follows: O2 is discharged by means of an O2 detection electrode; remaining NOx is decomposed by a NOx detection electrode; NOx concentration is then detected as electric current that flows when oxygen ions are conduct through solid electrolyte. In order to detect NOx of ppm-order, it is necessary to detect minute current of nA-order with high accuracy.
Journal Article

Rubber Suspension Bushing Model Identified by General Design Parameters for Initial Design Phase

2018-04-03
2018-01-0693
This article proposes a rubber suspension bushing model considering amplitude dependence as a useful tool at the initial design phase. The purpose of this study is not to express physical phenomena accurately and in detail and to explore the truth academically, but to provide a useful design method for initial design phase. Experiments were carried out to verify several dynamic characteristics of rubber bushings under vibration up to a frequency of 100 Hz, which is an important frequency range when designing ride comfort performance. When dynamic characteristic theory and the geometrical properties of the force-displacement characteristic curve were considered using these dynamic characteristics as assumptions, an equation was derived that is capable of calculating the dynamic stiffness under an arbitrary amplitude by identifying only two general design parameters (dynamic stiffness and loss factor) under a reference amplitude.
Technical Paper

Development of Automatic Braking System to Help Reduce Rear Impacts

2017-03-28
2017-01-1408
A Rear Cross Traffic Auto Brake (RCTAB) system has been developed that uses radar sensors to detect vehicles approaching from the right or left at the rear of the driver’s vehicle, and then performs braking control if the system judges that a collision may occur. This system predicts the intersecting course of approaching vehicles and uses the calculated time-to-collision (TTC) to control the timing of automatic braking with the aim of helping prevent unnecessary operation while ensuring system performance.
Technical Paper

Toyota New TNGA High-Efficiency Eight-Speed Automatic Transmission Direct Shift-8AT for FWD Vehicles

2017-03-28
2017-01-1093
The new eight-speed automatic transmission direct shift-8AT (UA80) is the first automatic transmission to be developed based on the Toyota New Global Architecture (TNGA) design philosophy. Commonizing or optimizing the main components of the UA80 enables compatibility with a wide torque range, including both inline 4-cylinder and V6 engines, while shortening development terms and minimizing investment. Additionally, it has superior packaging performance by optimizing the transmission size and arrangement achieving a low gravity center. It contributes to Vehicle’s attractiveness by improving driving performance and NVH. At the same time, it drastically improves fuel economy and quietness.
Journal Article

Development of New IGBT to Reduce Electrical Power Losses and Size of Power Control Unit for Hybrid Vehicles

2017-03-28
2017-01-1244
One way to improve the fuel efficiency of HVs is to reduce the losses and size of the Power Control Unit (PCU). To achieve this, it is important to reduce the losses of power devices (such as IGBTs and FWDs) used in the PCU since their losses account for about 20% of the total loss of an HV. Furthermore, another issue when reducing the size of power devices is ensuring the thermal feasibility of the downsized devices. To achieve the objectives of the 4th generation PCU, the following development targets were set for the IGBTs: reduce power losses by 19.8% and size by 30% compared to the 3rd generation. Power losses were reduced by the development of a new Super Body Layer (SBL) structure, which improved the trade-off relationship between switching and steady-state loss. This trade-off relationship was improved by optimizing the key SBL concentration parameter.
Journal Article

Improvement of Ride Comfort by Unsprung Negative Skyhook Damper Control Using In-Wheel Motors

2016-04-05
2016-01-1678
Vehicles equipped with in-wheel motors (IWMs) are capable of independent control of the driving force at each wheel. These vehicles can also control the motion of the sprung mass by driving force distribution using the suspension reaction force generated by IWM drive. However, one disadvantage of IWMs is an increase in unsprung mass. This has the effect of increasing vibrations in the 4 to 8 Hz range, which is reported to be uncomfortable to vehicle occupants, thereby reducing ride comfort. This research aimed to improve ride comfort through driving force control. Skyhook damper control is a typical ride comfort control method. Although this control is generally capable of reducing vibration around the resonance frequency of the sprung mass, it also has the trade-off effect of worsening vibration in the targeted mid-frequency 4 to 8 Hz range. This research aimed to improve mid-frequency vibration by identifying the cause of this adverse effect through the equations of motion.
Technical Paper

Analysis of Friction Coefficient Variation with Moisture between Friction Surfaces

2016-04-05
2016-01-0411
If a vehicle is left in a humid environment, the coefficient of friction between the brake pads and discs increases, generating a discomforting noise during braking called brake squeal. It is assumed that this increase in the coefficient of friction in a humid environment is the effect of moisture penetrating between the brake friction surfaces. Therefore, this paper analyzes the factors causing coefficient of friction variation with moisture between the friction surfaces by dynamic observation of these surfaces. The observation was achieved by changing the disc materials from cast iron to borosilicate glass. One side of the glass brake disc was pushed onto the brake pad and the sliding surface was observed from the opposite side by a charge coupled device (CCD) camera. First, a preliminary test was carried out in a dry state using two pad materials with different wear properties to select the appropriate pad for observing the friction surfaces.
Journal Article

Analysis of Influence of Snow Melting Agents and Soil Components on Corrosion of Decorative Chrome Plating

2016-04-05
2016-01-0539
The dissolution and exfoliation of chromium plating specific to Russia was studied. Investigation and analysis of organic compounds in Russian soil revealed contents of highly concentrated fulvic acid. Additionally, it was found that fulvic acid, together with CaCl2 (a deicing agent), causes chromium plating corrosion. The fulvic acid generates a compound that prevents reformation of a passivation film and deteriorates the sacrificial corrosion effectiveness of nickel.
Technical Paper

Development of Gasoline Injector Cleaner for Port Fuel Injection and Direct Injection

2016-04-05
2016-01-0830
Port fuel injection (PFI) injector and direct fuel injection (DI) injector clogging from deposits caused by poor fuel quality, is a concern in emerging countries. Then DI injector deposits are sometimes cleaned by injector cleaners in such situation. However deposit cleaners for PFI injectors have not been developed, because of the lack of research of PFI injector deposits. Through chemical analysis, this study showed them to be water-soluble deposits. Subsequently success was achieved in developing a new gasoline injector cleaner applicable to injector deposits in both types of injectors, through optimization of a surface active agent.
Technical Paper

Efficient Direct Yaw Moment Control during Acceleration and Deceleration While Turning (Second Report)

2016-04-05
2016-01-1677
Electric vehicles (EVs) are attracting attention due to growing awareness of environmental issues such as fossil fuel depletion and global warming. In particular, a wide range of research has examined how direct yaw moment controls (DYCs) can enhance the handling performance of EVs equipped with multiple in-wheel motors (IWMs) or the like. Recently, this research has focused on reducing energy consumption through driving force distribution control. The first report proposed a method to minimize energy consumption through an efficient DYC for extending the cruising range of a vehicle installed with four IWMs, and described the vehicle behavior with this control. Since motors allow high design flexibility, EVs can be developed with a variety of drive systems. For this reason, various driving force distribution control methods can be considered based on the adopted system.
Technical Paper

Reduction of Longitudinal Vehicle Vibration Using In-Wheel Motors

2016-04-05
2016-01-1668
This study analyzed the longitudinal vibration of a vehicle body and unsprung mass. Calculations and tests verified that longitudinal vibration can be reduced using in-wheel motors, which generate torque very quickly. Despite increasing demand for measures to enhance ride comfort considering longitudinal vibration, this type of vibration cannot be absorbed or controlled using a conventional suspension. This paper describes the reduction of vehicle longitudinal vibration that cannot be controlled by conventional actuators.
Technical Paper

Efficient Direct Yaw Moment Control during Acceleration and Deceleration while Turning (First Report)

2016-04-05
2016-01-1674
The research described in this paper aimed to study the cornering resistance and dissipation power on the tire contact patch, and to develop an efficient direct yaw moment control (DYC) during acceleration and deceleration while turning. A previously reported method [1], which formulates the cornering resistance in steady-state cornering, was extended to so-called quasi steady-state cornering that includes acceleration and deceleration while turning. Simulations revealed that the direct yaw moment reduces the dissipation power due to the load shift between the front and rear wheels. In addition, the optimum direct yaw moment cancels out the understeer augmented by acceleration. In contrast, anti-direct yaw moment optimizes the dissipation power during decelerating to maximize kinetic energy recovery. The optimization method proved that the optimum direct yaw moment can be achieved by equalizing the slip vectors of all the wheels.
Technical Paper

Pre-Collision System for Toyota Safety Sense

2016-04-05
2016-01-1458
Toyota Safety Sense is a safety system package developed to help drivers avoid accident types with a high frequency of occurrence. This paper deals with pre-collision system which forms the core of Toyota Safety Sense, especially Toyota Safety Sense P which uses a combined sensor configuration consisting of a monocular camera paired with millimeter wave radar, in order to achieve both high recognition performance and reliability. The use of a wide-angle monocular camera, millimeter wave radar integrated in the front grill emblem, and a collision determination algorithm for pedestrian targets enabled the development of a pre-collision system comprising detection capability of crossing pedestrians. Toyota has developed warning and pre-collision brake assist for driver to assist in avoiding a collision effectively; In addition, Pre-collision brake has achieved high level of performance for the drivers who cannot avoid a collision.
Technical Paper

Verification of High Frequency SiC On-Board Vehicle Battery Charger for PHV

2016-04-05
2016-01-1210
This paper presents a new application of a vehicle on-board battery charger utilizing high frequency Silicon Carbide (SiC) power devices. SiC is one of the most promising alternatives to Silicon (Si) for power semiconductor devices due to its superior material characteristics such as lower on-state resistance, higher junction temperature, and higher switching frequency. An on-board charger prototype is developed demonstrating these advantages and a peak system efficiency of 95% is measured while operating with a switching frequency of 250 kHz. A maximum output power of 6.06 kW results in a gravimetric power density of 3.8 W/kg and a volumetric power density of 5.0 kW/L, which are about 10 times the densities compared with the current Prius Plug-In Si charger. SiC technology is indispensable to eco-friendly PHV/EV development.
Technical Paper

IGBT Gate Control Methods to Reduce Electrical Power Losses of Hybrid Vehicles

2016-04-05
2016-01-1224
Reducing the loss of the power control unit (PCU) in a hybrid vehicle (HV) is an important part of improving HV fuel efficiency. Furthermore the loss of power devices (insulated gate bipolar transistors (IGBTs) and diodes) used in the PCU must be reduced since this amounts to approximately 20% of the total electrical loss in an HV. One of the issues for reducing loss is the trade-off relationship with reducing voltage surge. To restrict voltage surge, it is necessary to slow down the switching speed of the IGBT. In contrast, the loss reduction requires the high speed switching. One widely known method to improve this trade-off relationship is to increase the gate voltage in two stages. However, accurate and high-speed operation of the IGBT gate control circuit is difficult to accomplish. This research clarifies a better condition of the two-stage control and designed a circuit that improves this trade-off relationship by increasing the speed of feedback control.
Technical Paper

Verification of Fuel Efficiency Improvement by Application of Highly Effective Silicon Carbide Power Semiconductor to HV Inverter

2016-04-05
2016-01-1230
A prototype power control unit (PCU) was manufactured using silicon carbide (SiC) power semiconductors (diodes and transistors), which have low power loss when switching on and off. This PCU was installed in a hybrid vehicle (HV) and driven on a test course and chassis dynamometer. The test results confirmed a fuel efficiency improvement of about 5 percent.
Journal Article

Multiplex Communication Protocol for Switch/Sensor/Actuator Network: “CXPI”

2016-04-05
2016-01-0057
The growing functionality and complexity of recent vehicle electronic systems have made inter-device communication (on-board LAN) technology vital to vehicle design. By field of application, the LAN (Local Area Network) systems currently in use are LIN (Local Interconnect Network) used for body systems, CAN (Controller Area Network) used for control systems, and MOST (Media Oriented Systems Transport ) used for multimedia and camera systems, and work to standardize the next-generation communication technology for each of those fields is underway. This paper provides a technical overview of the CXPI (Clock Extension Peripheral Interface) communication protocol, which satisfies the body system requirements (rapid response, system extensibility, high reliability, and low cost). It also presents the progress made on standardization at SAE and other organizations.
Technical Paper

Animal-Vehicle Encounter Naturalistic Driving Data Collection and Photogrammetric Analysis

2016-04-05
2016-01-0124
Animal-vehicle collision (AVC) is a significant safety issue on American roads. Each year approximately 1.5 million AVCs occur in the U.S., the majority of them involving deer. The increasing use of cameras and radar on vehicles provides opportunities for prevention or mitigation of AVCs, particularly those involving deer or other large animals. Developers of such AVC avoidance/mitigation systems require information on the behavior of encountered animals, setting characteristics, and driver response in order to design effective countermeasures. As part of a larger study, naturalistic driving data were collected in high AVC incidence areas using 48 participant-owned vehicles equipped with data acquisition systems (DAS). Continuous driving data including forward video, location information, and vehicle kinematics were recorded. The respective 11TB dataset contains 35k trips covering 360K driving miles.
Journal Article

Improvement of Temperature Prediction Method for Traction Contact

2016-04-05
2016-01-1110
This report proposes a method of improving the temperature prediction model for traction drive contact portion in order to improve prediction accuracy of the maximum traction coefficient, and then describes verification of this method. In our previous report, a method of estimating the maximum traction coefficient by expressing conditions inside the contact ellipse using a simple combination of viscosity and plasticity was proposed. For the rise in oil film temperature, a calculation model is used that considers maximum temperature to be the typical value. Furthermore, a thin film temperature sensor technology was developed to directly measure the temperature of traction contact of a four-roller experimental apparatus and a variator in an actual transmission, and its validity was confirmed.
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