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Technical Paper

Using Chemical Kinetics to Understand Effects of Fuel Type and Compression Ratio on Knock-Mitigation Effectiveness of Various EGR Constituents

2019-04-02
2019-01-1140
Exhaust gas recirculation (EGR) can be used to mitigate knock in SI engines. However, experiments have shown that the effectiveness of various EGR constituents to suppress knock varies with fuel type and compression ratio (CR). To understand some of the underlying mechanisms by which fuel composition, octane sensitivity (S), and CR affect the knock-mitigation effectiveness of EGR constituents, the current paper presents results from a chemical-kinetics modeling study. The numerical study was conducted with CHEMKIN, imposing experimentally acquired pressure traces on a closed reactor model. Simulated conditions include combinations of three RON-98 (Research Octane Number) fuels with two octane sensitivities and distinctive compositions, three EGR diluents, and two CRs (12:1 and 10:1). The experimental results point to the important role of thermal stratification in the end-gas to smooth peak heat-release rate (HRR) and prevent acoustic noise.
Technical Paper

Research of Knocking Deterioration due to Accumulated Carbon Deposits on Piston Surfaces

2019-04-02
2019-01-1141
The quantity of heavy components in fuel is increasing as automotive fuels diversify, and engine oil formulations are becoming more complex. These trends result in the formation of larger amounts of carbon deposits as reaction byproducts during combustion, potentially worsening the susceptibility of the engine to knock [1]. The research described in this paper aimed to identify the mechanism that causes knocking to deteriorate due to carbon deposits in low to medium engine load ranges, which are mainly used when the vehicle drives off and accelerates. With this objective, the cylinder temperature and pressure with and without deposits were measured, and it was found that knocking deteriorates in a certain range of ignition timing.
Technical Paper

Development of Low Pressure and High Performance GPF Catalyst

2018-04-03
2018-01-1261
Awareness of environmental protection with respect to the particulate number (PN) in the exhaust emissions of gasoline direct injection (GDI) engine vehicles has increased. In order to decrease the emission of particulate matter (PM), suppressing emissions by improving engine combustion, and/or filtering PM with a gasoline particulate filter (GPF) is effective. This paper describes the improvement of the coated GPF to reduce pressure drop while securing three-way performance and PN filtration efficiency. It was necessary to load a certain amount of washcoat on the GPF to add the three-way function, but this led to an increase in pressure drop that affected engine power. The pressure drop was influenced by the gas permeation properties of the filter wall.
Technical Paper

Development of CFD Inverse Analysis Technology Targeting Heat or Concentration Performance Using the Adjoint Method and Its Application to Actual Components

2018-04-03
2018-01-1033
To resolve two major problems of conventional CFD-based shape optimization technology: (1) dependence of the outcome on the selection of design parameters, and (2) high computational costs, two types of innovative inverse analysis technologies based on a mathematical theory called the Adjoint Method were developed in previous studies for maximizing an arbitrary hydrodynamic performance aspect as the cost function: surface geometry deformation sensitivity analysis to identify the locations to be modified, and topology optimization to generate an optimal shape. Furthermore, these technologies were extended to transient flows by the application of the transient Adjoint Method theory. However, there are many cases around flow path shapes in vehicles where performance with respect to heat or concentration, such as the total amount of heat transfer or the flow rate of a specific gas component, is very important.
Technical Paper

New 2.0L I4 Gasoline Direct Injection Engine with Toyota New Global Architecture Concept

2018-04-03
2018-01-0370
Toyota Motor Corporation has developed a new 2.0L Inline 4- Cylinder (I4) Gasoline Direct Injection Engine, the second Naturally Aspirated (NA) engine of the Toyota New Global Architecture (TNGA) engine series, to meet our customers’ expectations for drivability, performance, and fuel economy. The high speed combustion technologies adopted previously in our 2.5 L NA conventional and Hybrid Vehicle (HV) engines for the 2018 Toyota Camry are necessary for high engine power and thermal efficiency. To adopt our high speed combustion technology on engines with different displacements, the turbulence intensity has been defined as the target index of combustion speed. The basic engine structure has been revised by using Computational Fluid Dynamics (CFD) analysis to achieve the combustion target.
Technical Paper

Development of Three-Way Catalysts Enhanced NOx Purifying Activity

2018-04-03
2018-01-0942
Growing concerns about the depletion of raw materials as vehicle ownership continues to increase is prompting automakers to look for ways of decreasing the use of platinum-group metals (PGMs) in the exhaust systems. This research has developed a new catalyst with strong robustness against fluctuations in the exhaust gas and excellent nitrogen oxide (NOx) conversion performance. One of the key technologies is a new OSC material that has low surface area (SA) and high OSC performance. We enhanced the pyrochlore- ceria/zirconia (CZ) which has a very small SA. In order to enhance the heat resistance and promote the OSC reaction, we selected and optimized the additive element. This material showed high OSC performance especially in the temperature range of 400 degrees or less. Another key technology is washcoat structure that has high gas diffusivity by making connected pore in the washcoat (New pore forming technology).
Journal Article

Study of Oxide Supports for PEFC Catalyst

2017-03-28
2017-01-1179
Polymer electrolyte membrane fuel cell (PEFC) systems for fuel cell vehicles (FCVs) require both performance and durability. Carbon is the typical support material used for PEFC catalysts. However, hydrogen starvation at the anode causes high electrode potential states (e.g., 1.3 V with respect to the reversible hydrogen electrode) that result in severe carbon support corrosion. Serious damage to the carbon support due to hydrogen starvation can lead to irreversible performance loss in PEFC systems. To avoid such high electrode potentials, FCV PEFC systems often utilize cell voltage monitor systems (CVMs) that are expensive to use and install. Simplifying PEFC systems by removing these CVMs would help reduce costs, which is a vital part of popularizing FCVs. However, one precondition for removing CVMs is the adoption of a durable support material to replace carbon.
Journal Article

An Application of a Model-Prediction-Based Reference Modification Algorithm to Engine Air Path Control

2017-03-28
2017-01-0586
In real-world automotive control, there are many constraints to be considered. In order to explicitly treat the constraints, we introduce a model-prediction-based algorithm called a reference governor (RG). The RG generates modified references so that predicted future variables in a closed-loop system satisfy their constraints. One merit of introducing the RG is that effort required in control development and calibration would be reduced. In the preceding research work by Nakada et al., only a single reference case was considered. However, it is difficult to extend the previous work to more complicated systems with multiple references such as the air path control of a diesel engine due to interference between the boosting and exhaust gas recirculation (EGR) systems. Moreover, in the air path control, multiple constraints need to be considered to ensure hardware limits. Hence, it is quite beneficial to cultivate RG methodologies to deal with multiple references and constraints.
Journal Article

Development of a New Ceramic Substrate with Gas Flow Control Functionality

2017-03-28
2017-01-0919
Emission regulations in many countries and regions around the world are becoming stricter in reaction to the increasing awareness of environment protections, and it has now become necessary to improve the performance of catalytic converters to achieve these goals. A catalytic converter is composed of a catalytically active material coated onto a ceramic honeycomb-structured substrate. Honeycomb substrates play the role of ensuring intimate contact between the exhaust gas and the catalyst within the substrate’s flow channels. In recent years, high-load test cycles have been introduced which require increased robustness to maintain low emissions during the wide range of load changes. Therefore, it is extremely important to increase the probability of contact between the exhaust gas and catalyst. To achieve this contact, several measures were considered such as increasing active sites or geometrical surface areas by utilizing substrates with higher cell densities or larger volumes.
Technical Paper

New Exhaust Emission Control System with Two A/F Sensors

2017-03-28
2017-01-0917
Exhaust systems must satisfy a wide range of requirements, including lowering emissions to comply with future fuel economy and emissions regulations. To help meet these requirements, new emissions control systems have been developed today. In addition, since air-fuel ratio (hereafter, A/F) control has a major impact on emissions, a new two-A/F sensor system with A/F sensors provided both upstream and downstream of the catalyst was developed, incorporating an A/F control capable of further lowering emissions with greater robustness. This development identified the hysteresis characteristics of the O2 sensor downstream of the catalyst as an important factor affecting emissions during conventional A/F control. Subsequently, reaction analysis was carried out using sensor reaction models and by evaluating sensors under real-world operating conditions.
Technical Paper

New Combustion and Powertrain Control Technologies for Fun-to-Drive Dynamic Performance and Better Fuel Economy

2017-03-28
2017-01-0589
Toyota Motor Corporation has developed a new series of engines under the Toyota New Global Architecture (TNGA) design philosophy, which aims to satisfy customer requirements for both fun-to-drive dynamic performance and better fuel economy by adopting a high-speed combustion concept to improve thermal efficiency and specific power. This new engine series achieves a maximum engine thermal efficiency of 40%, a specific power ratio of 60 kW/l, and lower emissions by combining high-speed combustion and a high compression ratio with a high-tumble intake port, high-energy ignition coil, high-pressure multi-hole nozzle direct injector, and new electrical variable valve timing (VVT). The first engine in this series is a new 4-cylinder 2.5-liter gasoline naturally aspirated engine for use in passenger cars alongside a new TNGA 8-speed automatic transmission, which was introduced for minivans and SUVs in the U.S. market in 2016.
Technical Paper

Research on the Measures for Improving Cycle-to-Cycle Variations under High Tumble Combustion

2016-04-05
2016-01-0694
Improving vehicle fuel economy is a central part of efforts toward achieving a sustainable society. An effective way for accomplishing this aim is to enhance the engine thermal efficiency. Measures to mitigate knocking and reduce engine cooling heat loss are important aspects of enhancing the engine thermal efficiency. Cooled exhaust gas recirculation (EGR) is regarded as a key technology because it is capable of achieving both of these objectives. For this reason, it has been adopted in a wide range of both hybrid and conventional vehicles in recent years. Toyota has been introducing these technologies as ESTEC (Economy with Superior Thermal Efficient Combustion). Improving cycle-to-cycle variations in combustion, in addition to fast combustion is essential for achieving high engine thermal efficiency.
Technical Paper

Development of High Tumble Intake-Port for High Thermal Efficiency Engines

2016-04-05
2016-01-0692
Improving vehicle fuel economy is a central part of efforts toward achieving a sustainable society. An effective way of accomplishing this is to enhance the engine thermal efficiency. Mitigating knock and reducing engine heat loss are important aspects of enhancing the thermal efficiency. Cooled exhaust gas recirculation (EGR) is regarded as a key technology because it is capable of achieving both of these objectives. For this reason, it has been adopted in a wide range of both hybrid vehicles and conventional vehicles in recent years. In EGR equipped engines, fast combustion is regarded as one of the most important technologies, since it realizes higher EGR ratio. To create fast combustion, generation of strong in-cylinder turbulence is necessary. Strong in-cylinder turbulence is achieved through swirl, squish, and tumble flows. Specifically high tumble flow has been adopted on a number of new engines because of the intense effect of promoting in-cylinder turbulence.
Technical Paper

Enhancing PtCo Electrode Catalyst Performance for Fuel Cell Vehicle Application

2016-04-05
2016-01-1187
While carbon supported PtCo alloy nanoparticles emerged recently as the new standard catalyst for oxygen reduction reaction in polymer membrane electrolyte fuel cells, further improvement of catalyst performance is still of great importance to its application in fuel cell vehicles. Herein, we report two examples of such efforts, related to the improvements of catalyst preparation and carbon support design, respectively. First, by lowering acid treatment voltage, the effectiveness for the removal of unalloyed Co was enhanced significantly, leading to less Co dissolution during cell operation and about 40% higher catalyst mass activity. It has been also found that the use of nonporous carbon support material promoted mass transfer and resulted in substantial drop of overpotential at high current and low humidity. This result may suggest an effective strategy towards the development of fuel cell systems that operate without additional humidification.
Technical Paper

Analysis for Vibration Caused by Starter Shaft Resonance

2016-04-05
2016-01-1319
It is important for vehicle concept planning to estimate fuel economy and the influence of vehicle vibration using virtual engine specifications and a virtual vehicle frame. In our former study, we showed the 1D physical power plant model with electrical starter, battery that can predict combustion transient torque, combustion heat energy and fuel efficiency. The simulation result agreed with measured data. For idling stop system, the noise and vibration during start up is important factor for salability of the vehicle. In this paper, as an application of the 1D physical power plant model (engine model), we will show the result of analysis that is starter shaft resonance and the effect on the engine mount vibration of restarting from idle stop. First, an engine model for 3.5L 6cyl NA engine was developed by energy-based model using VHDL-AMS. Here, VHDL-AMS is modeling language registered in IEC international standard (IEC61691-6) to realize multi physics on 1D simulation.
Journal Article

Reduction of Heat Loss and Improvement of Thermal Efficiency by Application of “Temperature Swing” Insulation to Direct-Injection Diesel Engines

2016-04-05
2016-01-0661
The reduction of the heat loss from the in-cylinder gas to the combustion chamber wall is one of the key technologies for improving the thermal efficiency of internal combustion engines. This paper describes an experimental verification of the “temperature swing” insulation concept, whereby the surface temperature of the combustion chamber wall follows that of the transient gas. First, we focus on the development of “temperature swing” insulation materials and structures with the thermo-physical properties of low thermal conductivity and low volumetric heat capacity. Heat flux measurements for the developed insulation coating show that a new insulation material formed from silica-reinforced porous anodized aluminum (SiRPA) offers both heat-rejecting properties and reliability in an internal combustion engine. Furthermore, a laser-induced phosphorescence technique was used to verify the temporal changes in the surface temperature of the developed insulation coating.
Journal Article

Combustion Development to Realize High Thermal Efficiency Engines

2016-04-05
2016-01-0693
Improving vehicle fuel economy is a central part of efforts toward achieving a sustainable society, and an effective way of accomplishing this aim is to enhance the engine thermal efficiency. Measures to mitigate knocking and reduce engine cooling heat loss are important aspects of enhancing the engine thermal efficiency. Cooled exhaust gas recirculation (EGR) is regarded as a key technology because it is capable of achieving both of these objectives. For this reason, it has been adopted in a wide range of both hybrid vehicles and conventional vehicles in recent years. Cooled EGR has the potential to achieve further lower fuel consumption if the EGR ratio can be increased. Fast combustion is an important and effective way for expanding the EGR ratio. The engine combustion enhancement can be categorized into measures to improve ignition characteristics and methods to promote flame propagation.
Journal Article

In-Situ Liquid TEM Study on the Degradation Mechanism of Fuel Cell Catalysts

2016-04-05
2016-01-1192
Electrode catalyst (platinum) degradation represents a major challenge to the performance and durability of polymer electrolyte membrane fuel cells (PEMFCs) in Fuel Cell Vehicles (FCVs). While various mechanisms have been proposed and investigated previously, there is still a need to develop in situ imaging techniques that can characterize and provide direct evidence to confirm the degradation process. In the present study, we report an in situ transmission electron microscopy (TEM) method that enables real time, high-resolution observation of carbon-supported platinum nanoparticles in liquid electrolyte under working conditions. By improving the design of the Micro Electro Mechanical Systems (MEMS) sample holder, the migration and aggregation of neighboring platinum nanoparticles could be visualized consistently and correlated to applied electrode potentials during aging process (i.e., cyclic voltammetry cycles).
Technical Paper

Development of an Electronically Controlled Brake System for Fuel-efficient Vehicles

2016-04-05
2016-01-1664
To solve various environmental problems, fuel-efficient vehicles that reduce CO2 emissions as well as exhaust gas emissions have been developed. In such vehicles, a regenerative brake is used to further reduce fuel consumption. Because the market size for such vehicles is expanding, a brake system is required that can be used in a wide range of vehicles extending from internal combustion engine vehicles (ICEVs) to electric vehicles (EVs). In addition, issues such as deceleration fluctuation and brake pedal fluctuation arise because the regenerative brake force is dependent on the vehicle speed. This paper presents a brake system configuration and its element technologies that can replace existing brake systems in different vehicles ranging from ICEVs to EVs. The proposed system can realize a regenerative cooperative brake not only by replacing the brake booster unit but also without replacing the modulator.
Technical Paper

Development of Instantaneous Temperature Measurement Technique for Combustion Chamber Surface and Verification of Temperature Swing Concept

2016-04-05
2016-01-0675
To improve the thermal efficiency of an internal combustion engine, the application of ceramics to heat loss reduction in the cylinders has been studied [1-2]. The approach taken has focused on the low heat conductivity and high heat resistance of the ceramic. However, since the heat capacity of the ceramic is so large, there is a problem in that the wall temperature increases during the combustion cycle. This leads to a decrease in the charging efficiency, as well as knocking in gasoline engines. To overcome these problems, the application of thermal insulation without raising the gas temperature during the intake stroke has been proposed [3-4]. As a means of achieving this, we developed a "temperature swing heat insulation coating" [5, 6, 7, 8, 9]. This reduces the heat flux from the combustion chamber into the cooling water by making the wall temperature follow the gas temperature as much as possible during the expansion and exhaust strokes.
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