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Technical Paper

Thermal Management of a Hybrid Vehicle Using a Heat Pump

2019-04-02
2019-01-0502
This paper presents the thermal management of a hybrid vehicle (HV) using a heat pump system in cold weather. One advantage of an HV is the high efficiency of the vehicle system provided by the coupling and optimal control of an electric motor and an engine. However, in a conventional HV, fuel economy degradation is observed in cold weather because delivering heat to the passenger cabin using the engine results in a reduced efficiency of the vehicle system. In this study, a heat pump, combined with an engine, was used for thermal management to decrease fuel economy degradation. The heat pump is equipped with an electrically driven compressor that pumps ambient heat into a water-cooled condenser. The heat generated by the engine and the heat pump is delivered to the engine and the passenger cabin because the engine needs to warm up quickly to reduce emissions and the cabin needs heat to provide thermal comfort.
Technical Paper

Fatigue Life Prediction Method for Self-Piercing Rivets Considering Crack Propagation

2019-04-02
2019-01-0531
This paper describes a numerical prediction method for fatigue strength of Self Piercing Rivets (SPRs) using fracture mechanics. Recently, high strength steels and non-ferrous metals have been adopted to light weight automotive bodies. Various types of joining are proposed for multi-material bodies. It is important to predict the fatigue life of these joints using numerical simulation. However, the fatigue strength of these joints is related to sheet thickness, base materials, and loading conditions. Therefore, a large number of coupon tests are necessary to determine the S-N curve for the fatigue life prediction of joints in the automotive body. To reduce the amount of coupon testing, numerical simulation will be an efficient method in obtaining the S-N curve of these joints. The fatigue fracture process consists of two stages, crack initiation and crack growth. There are many studies about crack growth estimation methods using stress intensity factor.
Technical Paper

New Method to Achieve High Hydraulic Pressure and Improved Gear Pump Performance in Active Height Control (AHC) System

2019-04-02
2019-01-0854
Vehicle weight reduction is becoming more and more important as increasingly stringent fuel economy regulations are introduced around the world. This development improved the hydraulic gear pump performance of the next-generation Active Height Control (AHC) suspension and achieved significant weight reduction of 5 kg by eliminating the auxiliary pump accumulator. To realize the necessary high-pressure with a high flow rate, the sealing performance of the pump at the tips of the gear teeth is very important. This was achieved by developing “breaking-in” technology that shaves away the aluminum housing using the gear teeth and creates zero clearance between the teeth tips and the housing. To reduce the frictional loss torque of the pump, which was identified as an issue of this technology, it was necessary to completely shave away the initial clearance in the breaking-in process.
Journal Article

Development of Strength Distributed Hot Stamp Parts

2019-04-02
2019-01-0522
1 Structural parts, such as the center pillar, are a multi-layer structure. They are a combination of high-strength panels and high-toughness panels, to control the deformation mode during a crash. If we can make this multi-layered structure as one panel, consisting of different hardness within it, we will be able to make a lightweight part. In this study, we have developed a method to fabricate a ‘lightweight center pillar’ with the following processes. First, the whole panel is hardened by quenching within the hot stamp process. Next, certain areas of the panel are softened by partial tempering. We have found that the temperature zone for softening is between A1 and A3, and it is easy to perform a rapid and accurate tempering by utilizing induction heating around the Curie temperature between A1 and A3 transformation temperature.
Technical Paper

Reference PMHS Sled Tests to Assess Submarining of the Small Female

2018-11-12
2018-22-0003
In the last decade, extensive efforts have been made to understand the physics of submarining and its consequences in terms of abdominal injuries. For that purpose, 27 Post Mortem Human Subject (PMHS) tests were performed in well controlled conditions on a sled and response corridors were provided to assess the biofidelity of dummies or human body models. All these efforts were based on the 50th percentile male. In parallel, efforts were initiated to transfer the understanding of submarining and the prediction criteria to the THOR dummies. Both the biofidelity targets and the criteria were scaled down from the 50th percentile male to the 5th percentile THOR female. The objective of this project was to run a set of reference PMHS tests in order to check the biofidelity of the THOR F05 in terms of submarining. Three series of tests were performed on nine PMHS, the first one was designed to avoid submarining, the second and third ones were designed to result in submarining.
Technical Paper

Development of New Continuously Variable Transmission for 2.0-Liter Class Vehicles

2018-04-03
2018-01-1062
Toyota has developed a new continuously variable transmission (CVT) called "Direct Shift-CVT" which is for 2.0-liter class vehicles. This CVT provided not only power transmission by a metal belt held with a conventional pulley but also additional gear mechanism. This CVT is developed to improve fuel efficiency, acceleration characteristic, and quietness. At this CVT, the startup low gear ratio is achieved by gear mechanism and the power is switched by clutches. Since the belt-pulley portion can be realized to be wide range by using only high gear ratio range, the input load into belt-pulley portion is reduced and unprecedented compact and high efficient belt-pulley portion is established. Consequently, the high efficiency in all fields from startup acceleration to high speed driving is achieved to improve fuel efficiency.
Journal Article

Rubber Suspension Bushing Model Identified by General Design Parameters for Initial Design Phase

2018-04-03
2018-01-0693
This article proposes a rubber suspension bushing model considering amplitude dependence as a useful tool at the initial design phase. The purpose of this study is not to express physical phenomena accurately and in detail and to explore the truth academically, but to provide a useful design method for initial design phase. Experiments were carried out to verify several dynamic characteristics of rubber bushings under vibration up to a frequency of 100 Hz, which is an important frequency range when designing ride comfort performance. When dynamic characteristic theory and the geometrical properties of the force-displacement characteristic curve were considered using these dynamic characteristics as assumptions, an equation was derived that is capable of calculating the dynamic stiffness under an arbitrary amplitude by identifying only two general design parameters (dynamic stiffness and loss factor) under a reference amplitude.
Technical Paper

Development of New Hybrid Transaxle for Mid - Size Vehicle

2018-04-03
2018-01-0429
The new P710 hybrid transaxle for a mid-size 2.5-liter class vehicle was developed based on the Toyota New Global Architecture (TNGA) design philosophy to achieve a range of desired performance objects. A smaller and lighter transaxle with low mechanical loss was realized by incorporating a new gear train structure and a downsized motor. The noise of the P710 transaxle was also reduced by adopting a new damper structure.
Journal Article

Development of Engine Lubrication System with New Internal Gear Fully Variable Discharge Oil Pump

2017-10-08
2017-01-2431
Over the past decades, the automotive industry has made significant efforts to improve engine fuel economy by reducing mechanical friction. Reducing friction under cold conditions is becoming more important in hybrid vehicle (HV) and plug-in hybrid vehicle (PHV) systems due to the lower oil temperatures of these systems, which results in higher friction loss. To help resolve this issue, a new internal gear fully variable discharge oil pump (F-VDOP) was developed. This new oil pump can control the oil pressure freely over a temperature range from -10°C to hot conditions. At 20°C, this pump lowers the minimum main gallery pressure to 100 kPa, thereby achieving a friction reduction effect of 1.4 Nm. The developed oil pump achieves a pressure response time constant of 0.17 seconds when changing the oil pressure from 120 kPa to 200 kPa at a temperature of 20°C and an engine speed of 1,600 rpm.
Technical Paper

Toyota’s New Driveline for FR Passenger Vehicles

2017-03-28
2017-01-1130
The renewed platform of the upcoming flagship front-engine, rear-wheel drive (FR) vehicles demands high levels of driving performance, fuel efficiency and noise-vibration performance. The newly developed driveline system must balance these conflicting performance attributes by adopting new technologies. This article focuses on several technologies that were needed in order to meet the demand for noise-vibration performance and fuel efficiency. For noise-vibration performance, this article will focus on propeller shaft low frequency noise (booming noise). This noise level is determined by the propeller shaft’s excitation force and the sensitivity of differential mounting system. In regards to the propeller shaft’s excitation force, the contribution of the axial excitation force was clarified. This excitation force was decreased by adopting a double offset joint (DOJ) as the propeller shaft’s second joint and low stiffness rubber couplings as the first and third joints.
Journal Article

Development of Innovative Toyota 10-Speed Longitudinal Automatic Transmission

2017-03-28
2017-01-1099
Toyota Motor Corporation has developed an innovative 10-speed longitudinal automatic transmission called the Direct Shift-10AT. The Direct Shift-10AT is a significant contributor to the excellent dynamic performance of the Lexus LC500. A wide gear spread with close gear ratios allows for rhythmical shifting, smooth and powerful acceleration from a standing start, along with quiet and relaxed high- speed driving due to low engine speeds. The lock-up area is expanded to a wider range of vehicle speeds (excluding low-speed regions such as when starting off), by the adoption of a multi-plate lock-up clutch, a newly developed torque converter, and a high-precision controller. As a result, the shift control can match the driver's intended operation more directly because the main cause of the response delay (transient changes in engine speed (flare)) is eliminated. Furthermore, fuel economy is improved due to the adoption of low friction clutches.
Journal Article

Development of Multi Stage Hybrid Transmission

2017-03-28
2017-01-1156
Toyota Motor Corporation developed the Multi Stage Hybrid System for the Lexus flagship LC500h coupe with the aim of achieving an excellent balance between fuel economy and acceleration performance. The Multi Stage Hybrid Transmission used in this new hybrid system includes a shift device located immediately after the power split device and motor. Compared with previous hybrid systems, acceleration performance is improved by increasing the driving force at low and medium vehicle speeds in lower gears, fuel economy and heat management performance are improved by reducing electrical loss by selecting the optimal gear depending on the driving state. The Multi Stage Hybrid Transmission uses a shift device with a wide gear ratio range to maximize both fuel economy and acceleration performance. The transmission was designed to achieve the appropriate size to be mounted in a new platform, as well as class-leading low noise levels for adoption in luxury vehicles.
Technical Paper

Internal Thrust Force Analysis of CVT Push Belt

2016-10-17
2016-01-2353
A CVT belt is composed of multiple elements and layered rings. Each of these component parts generates loss, including relative slippage caused by the geometrical relationship between the elements and innermost ring layer. An effective way of increasing CVT efficiency is to reduce this slippage. However, since the relative slippage also controls whether the rings transmit constant torque at all times, reducing the slippage will also have an effect on the torque transmission performance of the rings. Therefore, to improve CVT efficiency by reducing the relative slippage, it is first necessary to analyze the changes to torque transmission. However, this slippage is a phenomenon of the inner portion of the belt and it is extremely difficult to identify the internal thrust force when actual load is applied. This paper describes experiments carried out to analyze the changes in each torque transmission ratio when the relative slippage between the elements and innermost ring layer changes.
Technical Paper

Friction Reduction Technology for Low Viscosity Engine Oil Compatible with LSPI Prevention Performance

2016-10-17
2016-01-2276
Increasing numbers of vehicles equipped with downsized, turbocharged engines have been introduced seeking for better fuel economy. LSPI (low speed pre-ignition), which can damage engine hardware, is a potential risk of the engines. We reported that engine oil formulation affects frequency of LSPI events, and formulating magnesium detergents into oil is a promising option to prevent LSPI events. From the viewpoint of achieving better fuel economy by engine oil, lowering viscosity is being required. However, it causes reduced oil film thickness and will expand boundary lubrication condition regions in some engine parts. Hence, a technology to reduce friction under boundary lubrication becomes important.
Journal Article

Low-viscosity Gear Oil Technology to Improve Wear at Tapered Roller Bearings in Differential Gear Unit

2016-10-17
2016-01-2204
Torque loss reduction at differential gear unit is important to improve the fuel economy of automobiles. One effective way is to decrease the viscosity of lubricants as it results in less churning loss. However, this option creates a higher potential for thin oil films, which could damage the mechanical parts. At tapered roller bearings, in particular, wear at the large end face of rollers and its counterpart, known as bearing bottom wear is one of major failure modes. To understand the wear mechanism, wear at the rolling contact surface of rollers and its counterpart, known as bearing side wear, was also observed to confirm the wear impact on the tapered roller bearings. Because gear oils are also required to avoid seizure under extreme pressure, the combination of a phosphorus anti-wear agent and a sulfurous extreme pressure agent are formulated.
Journal Article

A Custom Integrated Circuit with On-chip Current-to-Digital Converters for Active Hydraulic Brake System

2016-04-05
2016-01-0091
This paper presents a custom integrated circuit (IC) on which circuit functions necessary for “Active Hydraulic Brake (AHB) system” are integrated, and its key component, “Current-to-Digital Converter” for solenoid current measurement. The AHB system, which realizes a seamless brake feeling for Antilock Brake System (ABS) and Regenerative Brake Cooperative Control of Hybrid Vehicle, and the custom IC are installed in the 4th-generation Prius released in 2015. In the AHB system, as linear solenoid valves are used for hydraulic brake pressure control, high-resolution and high-speed sensing of solenoid current with ripple components due to pulse width modulation (PWM) is one of the key technologies. The proposed current-to-digital converter directly samples the drain-source voltage of the sensing DMOS (double-diffused MOSFET) with an analog-to-digital (A/D) converter (ADC) on the IC, and digitizes it.
Technical Paper

Analysis for Vibration Caused by Starter Shaft Resonance

2016-04-05
2016-01-1319
It is important for vehicle concept planning to estimate fuel economy and the influence of vehicle vibration using virtual engine specifications and a virtual vehicle frame. In our former study, we showed the 1D physical power plant model with electrical starter, battery that can predict combustion transient torque, combustion heat energy and fuel efficiency. The simulation result agreed with measured data. For idling stop system, the noise and vibration during start up is important factor for salability of the vehicle. In this paper, as an application of the 1D physical power plant model (engine model), we will show the result of analysis that is starter shaft resonance and the effect on the engine mount vibration of restarting from idle stop. First, an engine model for 3.5L 6cyl NA engine was developed by energy-based model using VHDL-AMS. Here, VHDL-AMS is modeling language registered in IEC international standard (IEC61691-6) to realize multi physics on 1D simulation.
Technical Paper

Solar Module Laminated Constitution for Automobiles

2016-04-05
2016-01-0351
Replacing the metal car roof with conventional solar modules results in the increase of total car weight and change of center of mass, which is not preferable for car designing. Therefore, weight reduction is required for solar modules to be equipped on vehicles. Exchanging glass to plastic for the cover plate of solar module is one of the major approaches to reduce weight; however, load bearing property, impact resistance, thermal deformation, and weatherability become new challenges. In this paper a new solar module structure that weighs as light as conventional steel car roofs, resolving these challenges is proposed.
Technical Paper

Development of Bicycle Carrier for Bicyclist Pre-Collision System Evaluation

2016-04-05
2016-01-1446
According to the U.S. National Highway Traffic Safety Administration, 743 pedal cyclists were killed and 48,000 were injured in motor vehicle crashes in 2013. As a novel active safety equipment to mitigate bicyclist crashes, bicyclist Pre-Collision Systems (PCSs) are being developed by many vehicle manufacturers. Therefore, developing equipment for evaluating bicyclist PCS is essential. This paper describes the development of a bicycle carrier for carrying the surrogate bicyclist in bicyclist PCS testing. An analysis on the United States national crash databases and videos from TASI 110 car naturalistic driving database was conducted to determine a set of most common crash scenarios, the motion speed and profile of bicycles. The bicycle carrier was designed to carry or pull the surrogate bicyclist for bicycle PCS evaluation. The carrier is a platform with a 4 wheel differential driving system.
Journal Article

High Efficiency Electromagnetic Torque Converter for Hybrid Electric Vehicles

2016-04-05
2016-01-1162
A new concept of an electromagnetic torque converter for hybrid electric vehicles is proposed. The electromagnetic torque converter, which is an electric system comprised of a set of double rotors and a stator, works as a high-efficiency transmission in the driving conditions of low gear ratio including a vehicle moving-off and as a starting device for an internal combustion engine. Moreover, it can be used for an electric vehicle driving as well as for a regenerative braking. In this concept, a high-efficiency drivetrain system for hybrid electric vehicles is constructed by replacing a fluid-type torque converter with the electromagnetic torque converter in the automatic transmission of a conventional vehicle. In this paper, we present the newly developed electromagnetic torque converter with a compact structure that enables mounting on a vehicle, and we evaluate its transmission efficiency by experiment.
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