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Technical Paper

Thermal Management of a Hybrid Vehicle Using a Heat Pump

2019-04-02
2019-01-0502
This paper presents the thermal management of a hybrid vehicle (HV) using a heat pump system in cold weather. One advantage of an HV is the high efficiency of the vehicle system provided by the coupling and optimal control of an electric motor and an engine. However, in a conventional HV, fuel economy degradation is observed in cold weather because delivering heat to the passenger cabin using the engine results in a reduced efficiency of the vehicle system. In this study, a heat pump, combined with an engine, was used for thermal management to decrease fuel economy degradation. The heat pump is equipped with an electrically driven compressor that pumps ambient heat into a water-cooled condenser. The heat generated by the engine and the heat pump is delivered to the engine and the passenger cabin because the engine needs to warm up quickly to reduce emissions and the cabin needs heat to provide thermal comfort.
Technical Paper

Research of Knocking Deterioration due to Accumulated Carbon Deposits on Piston Surfaces

2019-04-02
2019-01-1141
The quantity of heavy components in fuel is increasing as automotive fuels diversify, and engine oil formulations are becoming more complex. These trends result in the formation of larger amounts of carbon deposits as reaction byproducts during combustion, potentially worsening the susceptibility of the engine to knock [1]. The research described in this paper aimed to identify the mechanism that causes knocking to deteriorate due to carbon deposits in low to medium engine load ranges, which are mainly used when the vehicle drives off and accelerates. With this objective, the cylinder temperature and pressure with and without deposits were measured, and it was found that knocking deteriorates in a certain range of ignition timing.
Technical Paper

A Target Cascading Method Using Model Based Simulation in Early Stage of Vehicle Development

2019-04-02
2019-01-0836
In the early stages of vehicle development, it is important for decision makers to understand a feasible constraint region that satisfies all system level requirements. The purpose of this paper is to propose a target cascading method to solve for a feasible design region which satisfies all constraints of the system based on model based simulation. In this method, the feasible design region is explored by using both global optimization methods and active learning techniques. In optimization problems, the inverse problem for understanding feasibility for specific designs is defined and solved. To determine the objective functions of the inverse problem, an index representing the achievement level of constraints from system requirements is introduced. To predict feasible regions in the specific design space, a surrogate model of minimized values of the index is trained by using a kriging model.
Journal Article

A Study on Optimal Powertrain Sizing of Plugin Hybrid Vehicles for Minimizing Criteria Emissions Associated with Cold Starts

2018-04-03
2018-01-0406
Plugin hybrid electric vehicles (PHEVs) have several attractive features in terms of reduction of greenhouse gas (GHG) emissions. Compared to conventional vehicles (CVs) that only have an internal combustion engine (ICE), PHEVs have better energy efficiency like regular hybrids (HEVs), allow for electrifying an appreciable portion of traveled miles, and have no range anxiety issues like battery-only electric vehicles (BEVs). However, in terms of criteria emissions (e.g., NOx, NMOG, HC), it is unclear if PHEVs are any better than HEVs or CVs. Unlike GHG emissions, criteria emissions are not continuously emitted in proportional quantities to fossil fuel consumption. Rather, the amount and type of criteria emissions is a rather complex function of many factors, including type of fuel, ICE temperature, speed and torque, catalyst temperature, as well as the ICE controls (e.g., fuel-to-air ratio, valve and ignition timing).
Technical Paper

Development of CFD Inverse Analysis Technology Targeting Heat or Concentration Performance Using the Adjoint Method and Its Application to Actual Components

2018-04-03
2018-01-1033
To resolve two major problems of conventional CFD-based shape optimization technology: (1) dependence of the outcome on the selection of design parameters, and (2) high computational costs, two types of innovative inverse analysis technologies based on a mathematical theory called the Adjoint Method were developed in previous studies for maximizing an arbitrary hydrodynamic performance aspect as the cost function: surface geometry deformation sensitivity analysis to identify the locations to be modified, and topology optimization to generate an optimal shape. Furthermore, these technologies were extended to transient flows by the application of the transient Adjoint Method theory. However, there are many cases around flow path shapes in vehicles where performance with respect to heat or concentration, such as the total amount of heat transfer or the flow rate of a specific gas component, is very important.
Technical Paper

The Effect of Gasoline Metallic Additives on Low Speed Pre-Ignition

2018-04-03
2018-01-0936
Methylcyclopentadienyl manganese tricarbonyl (MMT) is used as an octane-enhancing metallic additive for unleaded gasoline which can prevent engine knock by proactive reaction with the hydrocarbon free radicals before starting the auto-ignition of hydrocarbons. However it has been pointed out that MMT causes automotive catalysts clogging and spark plug severely fouling. Therefore, many countries have fuel standards that prohibit or limit the usage of MMT. Nevertheless, some countries still use MMT as there are no restrictions imposed by fuel standards. As mentioned in several papers, metallic additives of engine oil such as calcium cause an abnormal combustion phenomenon called low-speed pre-ignition (LSPI) in turbocharged spark ignition engines. In contrast, the effect of metallic additives of gasoline such as MMT on LSPI has not been studied.
Journal Article

Development of Engine Lubrication System with New Internal Gear Fully Variable Discharge Oil Pump

2017-10-08
2017-01-2431
Over the past decades, the automotive industry has made significant efforts to improve engine fuel economy by reducing mechanical friction. Reducing friction under cold conditions is becoming more important in hybrid vehicle (HV) and plug-in hybrid vehicle (PHV) systems due to the lower oil temperatures of these systems, which results in higher friction loss. To help resolve this issue, a new internal gear fully variable discharge oil pump (F-VDOP) was developed. This new oil pump can control the oil pressure freely over a temperature range from -10°C to hot conditions. At 20°C, this pump lowers the minimum main gallery pressure to 100 kPa, thereby achieving a friction reduction effect of 1.4 Nm. The developed oil pump achieves a pressure response time constant of 0.17 seconds when changing the oil pressure from 120 kPa to 200 kPa at a temperature of 20°C and an engine speed of 1,600 rpm.
Technical Paper

Optimizing Transmission Loss for Lightweight Body Structures

2017-06-05
2017-01-1812
In an effort to reduce mass, future automotive bodies will feature lower gage steel or lighter weight materials such as aluminum. An unfortunate side effect of lighter weight bodies is a reduction in sound transmission loss (TL). For barrier based systems, as the total system mass (including the sheet metal, decoupler, and barrier) goes down the transmission loss is reduced. If the reduced surface density from the sheet metal is added to the barrier, however, performance can be restored (though, of course, this eliminates the mass savings). In fact, if all of the saved mass from the sheet metal is added to the barrier, the TL performance may be improved over the original system. This is because the optimum performance for a barrier based system is achieved when the sheet metal and the barrier have equal surface densities. That is not the case for standard steel constructions where the surface density of the sheet metal is higher than the barrier.
Technical Paper

Toyota New TNGA High-Efficiency Eight-Speed Automatic Transmission Direct Shift-8AT for FWD Vehicles

2017-03-28
2017-01-1093
The new eight-speed automatic transmission direct shift-8AT (UA80) is the first automatic transmission to be developed based on the Toyota New Global Architecture (TNGA) design philosophy. Commonizing or optimizing the main components of the UA80 enables compatibility with a wide torque range, including both inline 4-cylinder and V6 engines, while shortening development terms and minimizing investment. Additionally, it has superior packaging performance by optimizing the transmission size and arrangement achieving a low gravity center. It contributes to Vehicle’s attractiveness by improving driving performance and NVH. At the same time, it drastically improves fuel economy and quietness.
Journal Article

Development of New IGBT to Reduce Electrical Power Losses and Size of Power Control Unit for Hybrid Vehicles

2017-03-28
2017-01-1244
One way to improve the fuel efficiency of HVs is to reduce the losses and size of the Power Control Unit (PCU). To achieve this, it is important to reduce the losses of power devices (such as IGBTs and FWDs) used in the PCU since their losses account for about 20% of the total loss of an HV. Furthermore, another issue when reducing the size of power devices is ensuring the thermal feasibility of the downsized devices. To achieve the objectives of the 4th generation PCU, the following development targets were set for the IGBTs: reduce power losses by 19.8% and size by 30% compared to the 3rd generation. Power losses were reduced by the development of a new Super Body Layer (SBL) structure, which improved the trade-off relationship between switching and steady-state loss. This trade-off relationship was improved by optimizing the key SBL concentration parameter.
Journal Article

Development of Multi Stage Hybrid System for New Lexus Coupe

2017-03-28
2017-01-1173
Lexus launched the new hybrid luxury coupe LC500h in 2017 to help enhance its brand image and competitiveness for the new generation of Lexus. During the development of the LC500h, major improvements were made to the hybrid system by adopting the newly-developed Multi Stage Hybrid System, which combines a multi stage shift device with the transmission from the previous hybrid system to maximize the potential of the electrically-controlled continuously variable transmission. Optimum engine and electrical component specifications were designed for the new vehicle and transmission. As a result, the LC500h achieves a 0-to-60 mph acceleration time of 4.7 seconds, with a combined fuel economy of 30.0 mpg while satisfying SULEV emissions requirements. Two controls were constructed to help resolve the issues that arose due to adding the shift device.
Journal Article

Development of a New Ceramic Substrate with Gas Flow Control Functionality

2017-03-28
2017-01-0919
Emission regulations in many countries and regions around the world are becoming stricter in reaction to the increasing awareness of environment protections, and it has now become necessary to improve the performance of catalytic converters to achieve these goals. A catalytic converter is composed of a catalytically active material coated onto a ceramic honeycomb-structured substrate. Honeycomb substrates play the role of ensuring intimate contact between the exhaust gas and the catalyst within the substrate’s flow channels. In recent years, high-load test cycles have been introduced which require increased robustness to maintain low emissions during the wide range of load changes. Therefore, it is extremely important to increase the probability of contact between the exhaust gas and catalyst. To achieve this contact, several measures were considered such as increasing active sites or geometrical surface areas by utilizing substrates with higher cell densities or larger volumes.
Technical Paper

Internal Thrust Force Analysis of CVT Push Belt

2016-10-17
2016-01-2353
A CVT belt is composed of multiple elements and layered rings. Each of these component parts generates loss, including relative slippage caused by the geometrical relationship between the elements and innermost ring layer. An effective way of increasing CVT efficiency is to reduce this slippage. However, since the relative slippage also controls whether the rings transmit constant torque at all times, reducing the slippage will also have an effect on the torque transmission performance of the rings. Therefore, to improve CVT efficiency by reducing the relative slippage, it is first necessary to analyze the changes to torque transmission. However, this slippage is a phenomenon of the inner portion of the belt and it is extremely difficult to identify the internal thrust force when actual load is applied. This paper describes experiments carried out to analyze the changes in each torque transmission ratio when the relative slippage between the elements and innermost ring layer changes.
Journal Article

A Custom Integrated Circuit with On-chip Current-to-Digital Converters for Active Hydraulic Brake System

2016-04-05
2016-01-0091
This paper presents a custom integrated circuit (IC) on which circuit functions necessary for “Active Hydraulic Brake (AHB) system” are integrated, and its key component, “Current-to-Digital Converter” for solenoid current measurement. The AHB system, which realizes a seamless brake feeling for Antilock Brake System (ABS) and Regenerative Brake Cooperative Control of Hybrid Vehicle, and the custom IC are installed in the 4th-generation Prius released in 2015. In the AHB system, as linear solenoid valves are used for hydraulic brake pressure control, high-resolution and high-speed sensing of solenoid current with ripple components due to pulse width modulation (PWM) is one of the key technologies. The proposed current-to-digital converter directly samples the drain-source voltage of the sensing DMOS (double-diffused MOSFET) with an analog-to-digital (A/D) converter (ADC) on the IC, and digitizes it.
Technical Paper

Development of a Compact Adsorption Heat Pump System for Automotive Air Conditioning System

2016-04-05
2016-01-0181
In order to reduce the energy consumption of the automotive air conditioning system, adsorption heat pump (AHP) system is one of the key technologies. We have been developing compact AHP system utilizing the exhaust heat from the engine coolant system (80-100 °C), which can meet the requirements in the automotive application. However, AHP systems have not been practically used in automotive applications because of its low volumetric power density of the adsorber. The volumetric power density of the adsorber is proportional to sorption rate, packing density and latent heat. In general, the sorption rate is determined by mass transfer resistance in primary particle of an adsorbent and heat and mass transfer resistance in packed bed. In order to improve the volumetric power density of the adsorber, it is necessary to increase the production of the sorption rate and the packing density.
Technical Paper

Efficiency Improvement in Exhaust Heat Recirculation System

2016-04-05
2016-01-0184
In order to speed up engine coolant warm-up, the exhaust heat recirculation system collects and reuses the heat from exhaust gases by utilizing the heat exchanger. The conventional system improves actual fuel economy at the scene of the engine restart in winter season only. The heat recirculation system becomes more effective at the low outside temperature because it takes longer time to warm up engine coolant. However, the heat recirculation system becomes less effective at the high outside temperature because it takes shorter time to warm up engine coolant. Therefore, the new exhaust heat recirculation system is developed, which adopted as follows: 1) a fin-type heat exchanger in order to enhance exhaust recirculation efficiency 2) a thinner heat exchanger component and smaller amount of engine coolant capacity in the heat exchanger in order to reduce the heat mass As a result, the actual fuel economy is more improved in winter season.
Technical Paper

Development of a New Valvetrain Wear Test - The Sequence IVB Test

2016-04-05
2016-01-0891
The study described in this paper covers the development of the Sequence IVB low-temperature valvetrain wear test as a replacement test platform for the existing ASTM D6891 Sequence IVA for the new engine oil category, ILSAC GF-6. The Sequence IVB Test uses a Toyota engine with dual overhead camshafts, direct-acting mechanical lifter valvetrain system. The original intent for the new test was to be a direct replacement for the Sequence IVA. Due to inherent differences in valvetrain system design between the Sequence IVA and IVB engines, it was necessary to alter existing test conditions to ensure adequate wear was produced on the valvetrain components to allow discrimination among the different lubricant formulations. A variety of test conditions and wear parameters were evaluated in the test development. Radioactive tracer technique (RATT) was used to determine the wear response of the test platform to various test conditions.
Technical Paper

Research on the Measures for Improving Cycle-to-Cycle Variations under High Tumble Combustion

2016-04-05
2016-01-0694
Improving vehicle fuel economy is a central part of efforts toward achieving a sustainable society. An effective way for accomplishing this aim is to enhance the engine thermal efficiency. Measures to mitigate knocking and reduce engine cooling heat loss are important aspects of enhancing the engine thermal efficiency. Cooled exhaust gas recirculation (EGR) is regarded as a key technology because it is capable of achieving both of these objectives. For this reason, it has been adopted in a wide range of both hybrid and conventional vehicles in recent years. Toyota has been introducing these technologies as ESTEC (Economy with Superior Thermal Efficient Combustion). Improving cycle-to-cycle variations in combustion, in addition to fast combustion is essential for achieving high engine thermal efficiency.
Technical Paper

Development of High Tumble Intake-Port for High Thermal Efficiency Engines

2016-04-05
2016-01-0692
Improving vehicle fuel economy is a central part of efforts toward achieving a sustainable society. An effective way of accomplishing this is to enhance the engine thermal efficiency. Mitigating knock and reducing engine heat loss are important aspects of enhancing the thermal efficiency. Cooled exhaust gas recirculation (EGR) is regarded as a key technology because it is capable of achieving both of these objectives. For this reason, it has been adopted in a wide range of both hybrid vehicles and conventional vehicles in recent years. In EGR equipped engines, fast combustion is regarded as one of the most important technologies, since it realizes higher EGR ratio. To create fast combustion, generation of strong in-cylinder turbulence is necessary. Strong in-cylinder turbulence is achieved through swirl, squish, and tumble flows. Specifically high tumble flow has been adopted on a number of new engines because of the intense effect of promoting in-cylinder turbulence.
Technical Paper

Ball Behavior Analysis of Rzeppa Constant Velocity Joint

2016-04-05
2016-01-1135
Driveshafts are composed of a transmission side joint, wheel side joint, and shaft which connect the two joints. The Rzeppa type constant velocity joint (CVJ) is usually selected as the wheel side joint of a drive shaft for front wheel drive automobiles. Due to recent needs of fuel efficiency and lighter weight for vehicles, it is necessary to reduce the joint size and improve the efficiency of a CVJ. In order to reduce the weight, solving tribology details for long life under high contact pressure is an important issue for developing a CVJ. It is difficult to understand the characteristics of a contact surface, such as relative slip velocity or spin behavior, because the outer race, inner race, cage, and balls, act complicatedly and exchange loads at many points. Meanwhile, after joint endurance tests, ball spalling marks at pole of the ball are sometimes observed.
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