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Technical Paper

Thermal Management of a Hybrid Vehicle Using a Heat Pump

2019-04-02
2019-01-0502
This paper presents the thermal management of a hybrid vehicle (HV) using a heat pump system in cold weather. One advantage of an HV is the high efficiency of the vehicle system provided by the coupling and optimal control of an electric motor and an engine. However, in a conventional HV, fuel economy degradation is observed in cold weather because delivering heat to the passenger cabin using the engine results in a reduced efficiency of the vehicle system. In this study, a heat pump, combined with an engine, was used for thermal management to decrease fuel economy degradation. The heat pump is equipped with an electrically driven compressor that pumps ambient heat into a water-cooled condenser. The heat generated by the engine and the heat pump is delivered to the engine and the passenger cabin because the engine needs to warm up quickly to reduce emissions and the cabin needs heat to provide thermal comfort.
Technical Paper

Development of Strength Distributed Hot Stamp Parts

2019-04-02
2019-01-0522
1 Structural parts, such as the center pillar, are a multi-layer structure. They are a combination of high-strength panels and high-toughness panels, to control the deformation mode during a crash. If we can make this multi-layered structure as one panel, consisting of different hardness within it, we will be able to make a lightweight part. In this study, we have developed a method to fabricate a ‘lightweight center pillar’ with the following processes. First, the whole panel is hardened by quenching within the hot stamp process. Next, certain areas of the panel are softened by partial tempering. We have found that the temperature zone for softening is between A1 and A3, and it is easy to perform a rapid and accurate tempering by utilizing induction heating around the Curie temperature between A1 and A3 transformation temperature.
Technical Paper

Highly Decorative, Lightweight Flexible Solar Cells for Automotive Applications

2019-04-02
2019-01-0863
The strict CO2 emission limit for passenger cars have been set by US, EU, Japan, China and other countries. In order to meet the requirement, it is essential to develop an alternative power source for the future cars. Power generation by solar panels is a promising renewable energy candidate because the most environmentally friendly vehicles such as electric vehicles and plug-in hybrid vehicles are equipped with large-capacity batteries that can be charged with electricity generated by solar panels. The requirements for the solar panels are paintable with desired color and to be lightweight. In this study, we developed a simple lift-off process for producing colorful and lightweight Cu(In,Ga)Se2 (CIGS) solar cells for future automotive application. Our measurements show that the developed lift-off process can provide the lightweight solar panel that have nearly identical performance compared to that of the cell before the lift-off process.
Technical Paper

Using Chemical Kinetics to Understand Effects of Fuel Type and Compression Ratio on Knock-Mitigation Effectiveness of Various EGR Constituents

2019-04-02
2019-01-1140
Exhaust gas recirculation (EGR) can be used to mitigate knock in SI engines. However, experiments have shown that the effectiveness of various EGR constituents to suppress knock varies with fuel type and compression ratio (CR). To understand some of the underlying mechanisms by which fuel composition, octane sensitivity (S), and CR affect the knock-mitigation effectiveness of EGR constituents, the current paper presents results from a chemical-kinetics modeling study. The numerical study was conducted with CHEMKIN, imposing experimentally acquired pressure traces on a closed reactor model. Simulated conditions include combinations of three RON-98 (Research Octane Number) fuels with two octane sensitivities and distinctive compositions, three EGR diluents, and two CRs (12:1 and 10:1). The experimental results point to the important role of thermal stratification in the end-gas to smooth peak heat-release rate (HRR) and prevent acoustic noise.
Technical Paper

Theory of Collision Avoidance Capability in Automated Driving Technologies

2018-04-03
2018-01-0044
This paper proposes a theory to analyze the collision avoidance capability of automated driving technologies. The theory gives answers to a fundamental question whether automated vehicles fall into extreme conditions at all rather than another question how a vehicle reacts under extreme conditions (is it as safe as driver?). The theory clarifies the following matters: There are two types of hazards to cause collisions, cognitive hazards and behavioral hazards. Cognitive hazards are handled by controlling the upper limit speed of the automated vehicle including when stopped. There are two methods for handling behavioral hazards, preparation and response. The response known well is the coping method activated when the hazard is detected in the dynamic (operational) level. The preparation is the coping method operating at all time in the semantic (tactical) level.
Journal Article

A Study on Optimal Powertrain Sizing of Plugin Hybrid Vehicles for Minimizing Criteria Emissions Associated with Cold Starts

2018-04-03
2018-01-0406
Plugin hybrid electric vehicles (PHEVs) have several attractive features in terms of reduction of greenhouse gas (GHG) emissions. Compared to conventional vehicles (CVs) that only have an internal combustion engine (ICE), PHEVs have better energy efficiency like regular hybrids (HEVs), allow for electrifying an appreciable portion of traveled miles, and have no range anxiety issues like battery-only electric vehicles (BEVs). However, in terms of criteria emissions (e.g., NOx, NMOG, HC), it is unclear if PHEVs are any better than HEVs or CVs. Unlike GHG emissions, criteria emissions are not continuously emitted in proportional quantities to fossil fuel consumption. Rather, the amount and type of criteria emissions is a rather complex function of many factors, including type of fuel, ICE temperature, speed and torque, catalyst temperature, as well as the ICE controls (e.g., fuel-to-air ratio, valve and ignition timing).
Technical Paper

Development of CFD Inverse Analysis Technology Targeting Heat or Concentration Performance Using the Adjoint Method and Its Application to Actual Components

2018-04-03
2018-01-1033
To resolve two major problems of conventional CFD-based shape optimization technology: (1) dependence of the outcome on the selection of design parameters, and (2) high computational costs, two types of innovative inverse analysis technologies based on a mathematical theory called the Adjoint Method were developed in previous studies for maximizing an arbitrary hydrodynamic performance aspect as the cost function: surface geometry deformation sensitivity analysis to identify the locations to be modified, and topology optimization to generate an optimal shape. Furthermore, these technologies were extended to transient flows by the application of the transient Adjoint Method theory. However, there are many cases around flow path shapes in vehicles where performance with respect to heat or concentration, such as the total amount of heat transfer or the flow rate of a specific gas component, is very important.
Technical Paper

New 2.0L I4 Gasoline Direct Injection Engine with Toyota New Global Architecture Concept

2018-04-03
2018-01-0370
Toyota Motor Corporation has developed a new 2.0L Inline 4- Cylinder (I4) Gasoline Direct Injection Engine, the second Naturally Aspirated (NA) engine of the Toyota New Global Architecture (TNGA) engine series, to meet our customers’ expectations for drivability, performance, and fuel economy. The high speed combustion technologies adopted previously in our 2.5 L NA conventional and Hybrid Vehicle (HV) engines for the 2018 Toyota Camry are necessary for high engine power and thermal efficiency. To adopt our high speed combustion technology on engines with different displacements, the turbulence intensity has been defined as the target index of combustion speed. The basic engine structure has been revised by using Computational Fluid Dynamics (CFD) analysis to achieve the combustion target.
Technical Paper

Development of Three-Way Catalysts Enhanced NOx Purifying Activity

2018-04-03
2018-01-0942
Growing concerns about the depletion of raw materials as vehicle ownership continues to increase is prompting automakers to look for ways of decreasing the use of platinum-group metals (PGMs) in the exhaust systems. This research has developed a new catalyst with strong robustness against fluctuations in the exhaust gas and excellent nitrogen oxide (NOx) conversion performance. One of the key technologies is a new OSC material that has low surface area (SA) and high OSC performance. We enhanced the pyrochlore- ceria/zirconia (CZ) which has a very small SA. In order to enhance the heat resistance and promote the OSC reaction, we selected and optimized the additive element. This material showed high OSC performance especially in the temperature range of 400 degrees or less. Another key technology is washcoat structure that has high gas diffusivity by making connected pore in the washcoat (New pore forming technology).
Technical Paper

A Java Implementation of Future Automotive Systems Technology Simulator (FASTSim) Fuel Economy Simulation Code Modules

2018-04-03
2018-01-0412
Future Automotive Systems Technology Simulator (FASTSim) is a free and open-source tool developed by National Renewable Energy Lab (NREL). Among the attractive capabilities of the FASTSim is that it can perform computationally efficient fuel economy simulations of automotive vehicles with reasonable accuracy for standard or arbitrary drive cycles. The modeling capability includes vehicles with various types of powertrains such as: conventional vehicles (CVs), hybrid-electric vehicles (HEVs), plugin hybrid electric vehicles (PHEVs) and battery-only electric vehicles (BEVs). The public version of FASTSim available from NREL is implemented in Excel, which achieves the goal of good accessibility to a broad audience, but has some limitations, including: i) bottleneck in computations when importing arbitrary drive cycles, ii) slower computations in general than other scripting or programming languages, and iii) less portable to integration with other applications and/or other platforms.
Technical Paper

Development of New Hybrid Transaxle for Mid - Size Vehicle

2018-04-03
2018-01-0429
The new P710 hybrid transaxle for a mid-size 2.5-liter class vehicle was developed based on the Toyota New Global Architecture (TNGA) design philosophy to achieve a range of desired performance objects. A smaller and lighter transaxle with low mechanical loss was realized by incorporating a new gear train structure and a downsized motor. The noise of the P710 transaxle was also reduced by adopting a new damper structure.
Journal Article

Development of Engine Lubrication System with New Internal Gear Fully Variable Discharge Oil Pump

2017-10-08
2017-01-2431
Over the past decades, the automotive industry has made significant efforts to improve engine fuel economy by reducing mechanical friction. Reducing friction under cold conditions is becoming more important in hybrid vehicle (HV) and plug-in hybrid vehicle (PHV) systems due to the lower oil temperatures of these systems, which results in higher friction loss. To help resolve this issue, a new internal gear fully variable discharge oil pump (F-VDOP) was developed. This new oil pump can control the oil pressure freely over a temperature range from -10°C to hot conditions. At 20°C, this pump lowers the minimum main gallery pressure to 100 kPa, thereby achieving a friction reduction effect of 1.4 Nm. The developed oil pump achieves a pressure response time constant of 0.17 seconds when changing the oil pressure from 120 kPa to 200 kPa at a temperature of 20°C and an engine speed of 1,600 rpm.
Technical Paper

Efficient Heat Pump System for PHEV/BEV

2017-03-28
2017-01-0188
As vehicle emission regulations become increasingly rigorous, the automotive industry is accelerating the development of electrified vehicle platforms such as Battery Electric Vehicles (BEV) and Plug-in Hybrid Electric Vehicles (PHEV). Since the available waste heat from these vehicles is limited, additional heat sources such as electric heaters are needed for cabin heating operation. The use of a heat pump system is one of the solutions to improve EV driving range at cold ambient conditions. In this study, an efficient gas-injection heat pump system has been developed, which achieves high cabin heating performance at low ambient temperature and dehumidification operation without the assistance of electric heaters in ’17 model year Prius Prime.
Technical Paper

Driveability Improvement with Innovative Toyota 8 Speed Automatic Transmission Control

2017-03-28
2017-01-1109
To meet increasing driveability expectation and government stringent fuel economy regulations reducing CO2 emissions of passenger cars; Toyota developed a new 8-speed automatic transmission "Direct Shift-8AT". Direct Shift-8AT is the first stepped automatic transmission model based on “TNGA” philosophy. New models which received Direct Shift-8AT are the new Camry, Highlander and Sienna. Direct Shift-8AT has an innovative control method with gear train and torque converter models, providing enhanced driveability and fuel economy performance through high efficiency transmission technology. This paper describes details of the new technology and vehicle performance.
Technical Paper

Development of Fuel Cell System Control for Sub-Zero Ambient Conditions

2017-03-28
2017-01-1189
Toyota Motor Corporation (TMC) has been developing fuel cell vehicles (FCVs) since 1992. As part of a demonstration program, TMC launched the FCHV-adv in 2008, which established major technical improvements in key performance areas such as efficiency, driving range, durability, and operation in sub-zero conditions. However, to encourage commercialization and widespread adoption of FCVs, further improvements in performance were required. During sub-zero operating conditions, the FC system output power was lower than under normal operating conditions. The FC stack in the FCHV-adv needed to dry the electrolyte membrane to remove unneeded water from the stack. This increased the stack resistance and caused low output power. In December 2014, TMC launched the world’s first commercially available FCV named the Mirai, which greatly improved output power even after start-up in sub-zero conditions.
Journal Article

Development of Innovative Toyota 10-Speed Longitudinal Automatic Transmission

2017-03-28
2017-01-1099
Toyota Motor Corporation has developed an innovative 10-speed longitudinal automatic transmission called the Direct Shift-10AT. The Direct Shift-10AT is a significant contributor to the excellent dynamic performance of the Lexus LC500. A wide gear spread with close gear ratios allows for rhythmical shifting, smooth and powerful acceleration from a standing start, along with quiet and relaxed high- speed driving due to low engine speeds. The lock-up area is expanded to a wider range of vehicle speeds (excluding low-speed regions such as when starting off), by the adoption of a multi-plate lock-up clutch, a newly developed torque converter, and a high-precision controller. As a result, the shift control can match the driver's intended operation more directly because the main cause of the response delay (transient changes in engine speed (flare)) is eliminated. Furthermore, fuel economy is improved due to the adoption of low friction clutches.
Journal Article

Shift-by-Wire System for Lexus RWD Vehicles

2017-03-28
2017-01-1094
Shift selection devices are desired to be flexible for design and layout, in order to realize the next generation of cockpits for Lexus vehicles. In addition, refined shift operation feelings are also required to be suitable for Lexus vehicles. To meet these demands, the Lexus LC500 has been equipped with a shift-by-wire system, which replaces the mechanical linkage between the shift selector and transmission with electrical signals and an actuator. This shift-by-wire system will be installed in a wide variety of Lexus powertrain lineup, including conventional gas vehicles and hybrid vehicles. Therefore, the next generation shift-by-wire system for Lexus has been developed with high reliability and applicability. This technology will be essential when autonomous driving and autonomous parking systems are realized in the near future.
Journal Article

Study of Oxide Supports for PEFC Catalyst

2017-03-28
2017-01-1179
Polymer electrolyte membrane fuel cell (PEFC) systems for fuel cell vehicles (FCVs) require both performance and durability. Carbon is the typical support material used for PEFC catalysts. However, hydrogen starvation at the anode causes high electrode potential states (e.g., 1.3 V with respect to the reversible hydrogen electrode) that result in severe carbon support corrosion. Serious damage to the carbon support due to hydrogen starvation can lead to irreversible performance loss in PEFC systems. To avoid such high electrode potentials, FCV PEFC systems often utilize cell voltage monitor systems (CVMs) that are expensive to use and install. Simplifying PEFC systems by removing these CVMs would help reduce costs, which is a vital part of popularizing FCVs. However, one precondition for removing CVMs is the adoption of a durable support material to replace carbon.
Journal Article

Unsteady Aerodynamic Response of a Vehicle by Natural Wind Generator of a Full-Scale Wind Tunnel

2017-03-28
2017-01-1549
In recent years, the automotive manufacturers have been working to reduce fuel consumption in order to cut down on CO2 emissions, promoting weight reduction as one of the fuel saving countermeasures. On the other hand, this trend of weight reduction is well known to reduce vehicle stability in response to disturbances. Thus, automotive aerodynamic development is required not only to reduce aerodynamic drag, which contributes directly to lower fuel consumption, but also to develop technology for controlling unstable vehicle behavior caused by natural wind. In order to control the unstable vehicle motion changed by external contour modification, it is necessary to understand unsteady aerodynamic forces that fluctuating natural wind in real-world environments exerts on vehicles. In the past, some studies have reported the characteristics of unsteady aerodynamic forces induced by natural winds, comparing to steady aerodynamic forces obtained from conventional wind tunnel tests.
Journal Article

Experimental Investigation of Aeroacoustic Cabin Noise in Unsteady Flow by Means of a New Turbulence Generating Device

2017-03-28
2017-01-1545
With advancement of aeroacoustic wind tunnels and CAE technology, aeroacoustic cabin noise in steady flow has been improved. On the other hand, passenger comfort is also impacted by aeroacoustic noise in unsteady flow. There have been comparatively few studies into this area, and the mechanism remains unclear. Considering the future proliferation of autonomous driving, drivers will pay more attention to cabin noise than previously, and aeroacoustic noise is expected to become more prominent. Thus, the reduction of fluctuating aeroacoustic noise is important. Most of the previous research relied on road tests, which don’t provide reproducible conditions due to changing atmospheric and traffic conditions. To solve these problems, research using devices that generate turbulence are being conducted. However, the fluctuations of flow generated in previous studies were small, failing to simulate on-road conditions sufficiently.
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