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Technical Paper

Research of Knocking Deterioration due to Accumulated Carbon Deposits on Piston Surfaces

2019-04-02
2019-01-1141
The quantity of heavy components in fuel is increasing as automotive fuels diversify, and engine oil formulations are becoming more complex. These trends result in the formation of larger amounts of carbon deposits as reaction byproducts during combustion, potentially worsening the susceptibility of the engine to knock [1]. The research described in this paper aimed to identify the mechanism that causes knocking to deteriorate due to carbon deposits in low to medium engine load ranges, which are mainly used when the vehicle drives off and accelerates. With this objective, the cylinder temperature and pressure with and without deposits were measured, and it was found that knocking deteriorates in a certain range of ignition timing.
Technical Paper

Reference PMHS Sled Tests to Assess Submarining of the Small Female

2018-11-12
2018-22-0003
In the last decade, extensive efforts have been made to understand the physics of submarining and its consequences in terms of abdominal injuries. For that purpose, 27 Post Mortem Human Subject (PMHS) tests were performed in well controlled conditions on a sled and response corridors were provided to assess the biofidelity of dummies or human body models. All these efforts were based on the 50th percentile male. In parallel, efforts were initiated to transfer the understanding of submarining and the prediction criteria to the THOR dummies. Both the biofidelity targets and the criteria were scaled down from the 50th percentile male to the 5th percentile THOR female. The objective of this project was to run a set of reference PMHS tests in order to check the biofidelity of the THOR F05 in terms of submarining. Three series of tests were performed on nine PMHS, the first one was designed to avoid submarining, the second and third ones were designed to result in submarining.
Technical Paper

Development of a New 6-Speed FWD Manual Transmission

2018-04-03
2018-01-0392
Environmental awareness has increased on a global scale which pushed for a heavier demand for weight reduction and high transmission efficiency on manual transmissions (hereafter referred to as the “MT”) in improving vehicle driving and fuel economy performance. Comfortable shift feel is also continuously in demand by the customer because its sensitive performance can be directly recognized by the driver which may determine the transmission’s merchantability. The newly developed 6-speed MT (hereafter referred to as the “6MT”) has achieved size reduction (compact size), weight reduced, better fuel efficiency, and improvement in the shift feel which will continue to maintain its’ competitiveness in the future.
Technical Paper

Toyota’s New Driveline for FR Passenger Vehicles

2017-03-28
2017-01-1130
The renewed platform of the upcoming flagship front-engine, rear-wheel drive (FR) vehicles demands high levels of driving performance, fuel efficiency and noise-vibration performance. The newly developed driveline system must balance these conflicting performance attributes by adopting new technologies. This article focuses on several technologies that were needed in order to meet the demand for noise-vibration performance and fuel efficiency. For noise-vibration performance, this article will focus on propeller shaft low frequency noise (booming noise). This noise level is determined by the propeller shaft’s excitation force and the sensitivity of differential mounting system. In regards to the propeller shaft’s excitation force, the contribution of the axial excitation force was clarified. This excitation force was decreased by adopting a double offset joint (DOJ) as the propeller shaft’s second joint and low stiffness rubber couplings as the first and third joints.
Technical Paper

Development of Shift Control System for Multi Stage Hybrid Transmission

2017-03-28
2017-01-1150
Toyota Motor Corporation developed a new hybrid system, Multi Stage Hybrid System, for the Lexus flagship coupe LC500h with the aim of achieving an excellent balance between fuel economy and acceleration performance. The Multi Stage Hybrid Transmission used in this new hybrid system includes a shift device located immediately after the power split device and motor. Compared with previous hybrid systems, the new hybrid system improves fuel economy by reducing electrical loss in the optimal gears, which are selected depending on the driving state. The system also improves acceleration performance by increasing the driving force at low and medium vehicle speeds in lower gears. In addition, the range of the power split device that cooperates with the shift device was widened to enable both an electrically-controlled continuously variable transmission mode and a ten-speed transmission mode, which creates a direct shift feeling to improve driving pleasure.
Technical Paper

Feasibility Study of Drowsy Driving Prediction based on Eye Opening Time

2017-03-28
2017-01-1398
Since drowsy driving is a major cause of serious traffic accidents, there is a growing requirement for drowsiness prevention technologies. This study proposes a drowsy driving prediction method based on eye opening time. One issue of using eye opening time is predicting strong drowsiness before the driver actually feels sleepy. Because overlooking potential hazards is one of the causes of traffic accidents and is closely related to driver cognition and drowsiness, this study focuses on eye opening movements during driving. First, this report describes hypotheses concerning drowsiness and eye opening time based on the results of previous studies. It is assumed that the standard deviation of eye opening time (SDEOP) indicates driver drowsiness and the following two transitions are considered: increasing and decreasing SDEOP. To confirm the hypotheses, the relationship between drowsiness and SDEOP was investigated.
Technical Paper

Development of New Shift Control System using a Model-based Control Method for Toyota Stepped Automatic Transmissions

2017-03-28
2017-01-1632
A new shift control system using a model-based control method for stepped automatic transmissions. Using a gear train numerical formula model, the model-based shift control system is constructed using minimum calibration parameters with feedforward and feedback controllers. It also adopts control target values for the input shaft revolution and output shaft torque, thus enabling precise control that provides the most suitable shift feeling in various driving situations and for various vehicle characteristics. Furthermore, the model-based shift control system improves robustness in terms of disturbance elements such as production tolerance, time degradation, and use environment. Toyota has adopted this model-based shift control system in its UA80/UB80 8-speed automatic transmissions for front-wheel-drive vehicles and its AGA0 10-speed automatic transmission for rear-wheel-drive vehicles. This paper describes the details of this model-based shift control system.
Journal Article

Development of Innovative Toyota 10-Speed Longitudinal Automatic Transmission

2017-03-28
2017-01-1099
Toyota Motor Corporation has developed an innovative 10-speed longitudinal automatic transmission called the Direct Shift-10AT. The Direct Shift-10AT is a significant contributor to the excellent dynamic performance of the Lexus LC500. A wide gear spread with close gear ratios allows for rhythmical shifting, smooth and powerful acceleration from a standing start, along with quiet and relaxed high- speed driving due to low engine speeds. The lock-up area is expanded to a wider range of vehicle speeds (excluding low-speed regions such as when starting off), by the adoption of a multi-plate lock-up clutch, a newly developed torque converter, and a high-precision controller. As a result, the shift control can match the driver's intended operation more directly because the main cause of the response delay (transient changes in engine speed (flare)) is eliminated. Furthermore, fuel economy is improved due to the adoption of low friction clutches.
Technical Paper

New Combustion and Powertrain Control Technologies for Fun-to-Drive Dynamic Performance and Better Fuel Economy

2017-03-28
2017-01-0589
Toyota Motor Corporation has developed a new series of engines under the Toyota New Global Architecture (TNGA) design philosophy, which aims to satisfy customer requirements for both fun-to-drive dynamic performance and better fuel economy by adopting a high-speed combustion concept to improve thermal efficiency and specific power. This new engine series achieves a maximum engine thermal efficiency of 40%, a specific power ratio of 60 kW/l, and lower emissions by combining high-speed combustion and a high compression ratio with a high-tumble intake port, high-energy ignition coil, high-pressure multi-hole nozzle direct injector, and new electrical variable valve timing (VVT). The first engine in this series is a new 4-cylinder 2.5-liter gasoline naturally aspirated engine for use in passenger cars alongside a new TNGA 8-speed automatic transmission, which was introduced for minivans and SUVs in the U.S. market in 2016.
Technical Paper

New Exhaust Emission Control System with Two A/F Sensors

2017-03-28
2017-01-0917
Exhaust systems must satisfy a wide range of requirements, including lowering emissions to comply with future fuel economy and emissions regulations. To help meet these requirements, new emissions control systems have been developed today. In addition, since air-fuel ratio (hereafter, A/F) control has a major impact on emissions, a new two-A/F sensor system with A/F sensors provided both upstream and downstream of the catalyst was developed, incorporating an A/F control capable of further lowering emissions with greater robustness. This development identified the hysteresis characteristics of the O2 sensor downstream of the catalyst as an important factor affecting emissions during conventional A/F control. Subsequently, reaction analysis was carried out using sensor reaction models and by evaluating sensors under real-world operating conditions.
Journal Article

Low-viscosity Gear Oil Technology to Improve Wear at Tapered Roller Bearings in Differential Gear Unit

2016-10-17
2016-01-2204
Torque loss reduction at differential gear unit is important to improve the fuel economy of automobiles. One effective way is to decrease the viscosity of lubricants as it results in less churning loss. However, this option creates a higher potential for thin oil films, which could damage the mechanical parts. At tapered roller bearings, in particular, wear at the large end face of rollers and its counterpart, known as bearing bottom wear is one of major failure modes. To understand the wear mechanism, wear at the rolling contact surface of rollers and its counterpart, known as bearing side wear, was also observed to confirm the wear impact on the tapered roller bearings. Because gear oils are also required to avoid seizure under extreme pressure, the combination of a phosphorus anti-wear agent and a sulfurous extreme pressure agent are formulated.
Technical Paper

Finite Element Modeling Method of Vibro-Acoustic Systems for Mid-Frequency Simulation

2016-04-05
2016-01-1355
Current vehicle acoustic performance prediction methods, CAE (computer aided engineering) or physical testing, have some difficulty predicting interior sound in the mid-frequency range (300 to 1000 Hz). It is in this frequency range where the overall acoustic performance becomes sensitive to not only the contributions of structure-borne sources, which can be studied using traditional finite element analysis (FEA) methods, but also the contribution of airborne noise sources which increase proportional to frequency. It is in this higher frequency range (>1000 Hz) that physical testing and statistical CAE methods are traditionally used for performance studies. This paper will discuss a study that was undertaken to test the capability of a finite element modeling method that can accurately simulate air-borne noise phenomena in the mid-frequency range.
Technical Paper

Analysis for Vibration Caused by Starter Shaft Resonance

2016-04-05
2016-01-1319
It is important for vehicle concept planning to estimate fuel economy and the influence of vehicle vibration using virtual engine specifications and a virtual vehicle frame. In our former study, we showed the 1D physical power plant model with electrical starter, battery that can predict combustion transient torque, combustion heat energy and fuel efficiency. The simulation result agreed with measured data. For idling stop system, the noise and vibration during start up is important factor for salability of the vehicle. In this paper, as an application of the 1D physical power plant model (engine model), we will show the result of analysis that is starter shaft resonance and the effect on the engine mount vibration of restarting from idle stop. First, an engine model for 3.5L 6cyl NA engine was developed by energy-based model using VHDL-AMS. Here, VHDL-AMS is modeling language registered in IEC international standard (IEC61691-6) to realize multi physics on 1D simulation.
Journal Article

Clarification of Transient Characteristics by Coupled Analysis of Powertrains and Vehicles

2016-04-05
2016-01-1314
With the goal of improving drivability, this research aimed to clarify the mechanism of vehicle longitudinal acceleration, focusing on tip-in acceleration. Conventional typical analysis methods include experimental modal and model-based analysis. However, since the former requires the measurement of impulses and other input forces while the vehicle is stopped, measurement under actual driving conditions is difficult. The latter requires characteristic values such as the stiffness and damping coefficients to be identified in advance, which cannot be achieved either easily or precisely. Therefore, this paper proposes a new experiment-based analysis method. This method enables the acquisition of engine torque and transmission torque/force by measuring only the acceleration values of some components under driving conditions.
Journal Article

Smart Lighting for Enhancing Perception of Pedestrians based on Visual Properties

2016-04-05
2016-01-1414
We investigated a lighting method that supports pedestrian perception by vehicle drivers. This lighting method makes active use of visual characteristics such as the spatio-temporal frequency of contrast sensitivity. Using reasonable parameter values derived from preliminary experiments using a Campbell-Robson chart, we determined a suitable lighting pattern that improves the driver's pedestrian perception. In order to assess the influence of visual characteristics on a reaction-time-dependent task, such as pedestrian perception in nighttime, tests were performed in the target environment, the results of which validated the proposed method.
Journal Article

Improvement of Ride Comfort by Unsprung Negative Skyhook Damper Control Using In-Wheel Motors

2016-04-05
2016-01-1678
Vehicles equipped with in-wheel motors (IWMs) are capable of independent control of the driving force at each wheel. These vehicles can also control the motion of the sprung mass by driving force distribution using the suspension reaction force generated by IWM drive. However, one disadvantage of IWMs is an increase in unsprung mass. This has the effect of increasing vibrations in the 4 to 8 Hz range, which is reported to be uncomfortable to vehicle occupants, thereby reducing ride comfort. This research aimed to improve ride comfort through driving force control. Skyhook damper control is a typical ride comfort control method. Although this control is generally capable of reducing vibration around the resonance frequency of the sprung mass, it also has the trade-off effect of worsening vibration in the targeted mid-frequency 4 to 8 Hz range. This research aimed to improve mid-frequency vibration by identifying the cause of this adverse effect through the equations of motion.
Technical Paper

Indoor Pass-by Noise Evaluation System Capable of Reproducing ISO Actual Road Surface Tire Noise

2016-04-05
2016-01-0479
Generally, pass-by noise levels measured outdoors vary according to the influence of weather conditions, background noise and the driver’s skill. Manufactures, therefore, are trying to reproduce proving ground driving conditions on a chassis dynamometer. The tire noise that occurs on actual road surfaces, however, is difficult to reproduce in indoor tests. In 2016, new pass-by noise regulations (UN R51-03) will take effect in Europe, Japan and other countries. Furthermore, stricter regulations (2dB) will take effect in 2020. In addition to the acceleration runs required under current regulations, UN R51-03 will require constant speed runs. Therefore, an efficient measurement methods are necessary for vehicle development. To solve the above mentioned issues, an indoor evaluation system capable of reproducing the tire noise that occurs on road surfaces has been developed.
Technical Paper

ST-Lib: A Library for Specifying and Classifying Model Behaviors

2016-04-05
2016-01-0621
Test and verification procedures are a vital aspect of the development process for embedded control systems in the automotive domain. Formal requirements can be used in automated procedures to check whether simulation or experimental results adhere to design specifications and even to perform automatic test and formal verification of design models; however, developing formal requirements typically requires significant investment of time and effort for control software designers. We propose Signal Template Library (ST-Lib), a uniform modeling language to encapsulate a number of useful signal patterns in a formal requirement language with the goal of facilitating requirement formulation for automotive control applications. ST-Lib consists of basic modules known as signal templates. Informally, these specify a characteristic signal shape and provide numerical parameters to tune the shape.
Technical Paper

Model-Based OBD Logic Utilizing Adsorption and Desorption Model of NH3 in SCR Catalyst

2016-04-05
2016-01-0960
Urea selective catalytic reduction (SCR) systems are a promising technology for helping to lower NOx emissions from diesel engines. These systems also require on-board diagnostic (OBD) systems to detect malfunctioning catalysts. Conventional OBD methodology for a SCR catalyst involves the measurement of NOx concentration downstream of the catalyst. However, considering future OBD regulations, erroneous diagnostics may occur due to variations in the actual environment. Therefore, to enhance OBD accuracy, a new methodology was examined that utilizes NH3 slip as a new diagnostic parameter in addition to NOx. NH3 slip increases as the NOx reduction performance degrades, because both phenomena are based on deterioration in the capability of the SCR catalyst to adsorb NH3. Furthermore, NH3 can be measured by existing NOx sensors because NH3 is oxidized to NO internally. To make use of NH3 slip, an estimation model was developed.
Technical Paper

Analysis of Occupant Kinematics of Rollover Buck Test

2016-04-05
2016-01-1516
Approximately 20% of traffic fatalities in United States 2012 were caused by rollover accidents. Mostly injured parts were head, chest, backbone and arms. In order to clarify the injury mechanism of rollover accidents, kinematics of six kinds of Anthropomorphic Test Devices (ATD) and Post Mortem Human Subjects (PMHS) in the rolling compartment, whose body size is 50th percentile male (AM50), were researched by Zhang et al.(2014) using rollover buck testing system. It was clarified from the research that flexibility of the backbone and thoracic vertebra affected to occupant’s kinematics. On the other hand, the kinematics research of body size except AM50 will be needed in order to decrease traffic fatalities. There were few reports about the researches of occupant kinematics using FE models of body sizes except AM50.
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