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Technical Paper

Research of Knocking Deterioration due to Accumulated Carbon Deposits on Piston Surfaces

2019-04-02
2019-01-1141
The quantity of heavy components in fuel is increasing as automotive fuels diversify, and engine oil formulations are becoming more complex. These trends result in the formation of larger amounts of carbon deposits as reaction byproducts during combustion, potentially worsening the susceptibility of the engine to knock [1]. The research described in this paper aimed to identify the mechanism that causes knocking to deteriorate due to carbon deposits in low to medium engine load ranges, which are mainly used when the vehicle drives off and accelerates. With this objective, the cylinder temperature and pressure with and without deposits were measured, and it was found that knocking deteriorates in a certain range of ignition timing.
Technical Paper

Reference PMHS Sled Tests to Assess Submarining of the Small Female

2018-11-12
2018-22-0003
In the last decade, extensive efforts have been made to understand the physics of submarining and its consequences in terms of abdominal injuries. For that purpose, 27 Post Mortem Human Subject (PMHS) tests were performed in well controlled conditions on a sled and response corridors were provided to assess the biofidelity of dummies or human body models. All these efforts were based on the 50th percentile male. In parallel, efforts were initiated to transfer the understanding of submarining and the prediction criteria to the THOR dummies. Both the biofidelity targets and the criteria were scaled down from the 50th percentile male to the 5th percentile THOR female. The objective of this project was to run a set of reference PMHS tests in order to check the biofidelity of the THOR F05 in terms of submarining. Three series of tests were performed on nine PMHS, the first one was designed to avoid submarining, the second and third ones were designed to result in submarining.
Journal Article

Effect of Fuel-Air Mixture Dilution on Knock Intensity in an SI Engine

2018-04-03
2018-01-0211
Occurrence of knock in spark ignition (SI) engines is usually suppressed by inhibiting auto-ignition of the fuel-air mixture. A steep increase in pressure by auto-ignition of the local mixture is thought to initiate the pressure oscillation, which results in knock. Therefore, in order to prevent knock, the strength of the pressure oscillation would be decreased by reducing the local heat release of the end gas. In this study, the oxidation reaction rate of the auto-ignition was attempted to be reduced by dilution of the mixture. The effect of mixture dilution on the strength of pressure oscillation, that is knock intensity, was examined using a rapid compression machine (RCM) and a single cylinder SI engine. The test result of compression ignition of homogeneous mixture using RCM showed that increase in dilution ratio could decrease the knock intensity even if the input heat increased and the auto-ignition timing advanced.
Technical Paper

Toyota’s New Driveline for FR Passenger Vehicles

2017-03-28
2017-01-1130
The renewed platform of the upcoming flagship front-engine, rear-wheel drive (FR) vehicles demands high levels of driving performance, fuel efficiency and noise-vibration performance. The newly developed driveline system must balance these conflicting performance attributes by adopting new technologies. This article focuses on several technologies that were needed in order to meet the demand for noise-vibration performance and fuel efficiency. For noise-vibration performance, this article will focus on propeller shaft low frequency noise (booming noise). This noise level is determined by the propeller shaft’s excitation force and the sensitivity of differential mounting system. In regards to the propeller shaft’s excitation force, the contribution of the axial excitation force was clarified. This excitation force was decreased by adopting a double offset joint (DOJ) as the propeller shaft’s second joint and low stiffness rubber couplings as the first and third joints.
Technical Paper

Development of Shift Control System for Multi Stage Hybrid Transmission

2017-03-28
2017-01-1150
Toyota Motor Corporation developed a new hybrid system, Multi Stage Hybrid System, for the Lexus flagship coupe LC500h with the aim of achieving an excellent balance between fuel economy and acceleration performance. The Multi Stage Hybrid Transmission used in this new hybrid system includes a shift device located immediately after the power split device and motor. Compared with previous hybrid systems, the new hybrid system improves fuel economy by reducing electrical loss in the optimal gears, which are selected depending on the driving state. The system also improves acceleration performance by increasing the driving force at low and medium vehicle speeds in lower gears. In addition, the range of the power split device that cooperates with the shift device was widened to enable both an electrically-controlled continuously variable transmission mode and a ten-speed transmission mode, which creates a direct shift feeling to improve driving pleasure.
Technical Paper

Development of New Shift Control System using a Model-based Control Method for Toyota Stepped Automatic Transmissions

2017-03-28
2017-01-1632
A new shift control system using a model-based control method for stepped automatic transmissions. Using a gear train numerical formula model, the model-based shift control system is constructed using minimum calibration parameters with feedforward and feedback controllers. It also adopts control target values for the input shaft revolution and output shaft torque, thus enabling precise control that provides the most suitable shift feeling in various driving situations and for various vehicle characteristics. Furthermore, the model-based shift control system improves robustness in terms of disturbance elements such as production tolerance, time degradation, and use environment. Toyota has adopted this model-based shift control system in its UA80/UB80 8-speed automatic transmissions for front-wheel-drive vehicles and its AGA0 10-speed automatic transmission for rear-wheel-drive vehicles. This paper describes the details of this model-based shift control system.
Technical Paper

New Combustion and Powertrain Control Technologies for Fun-to-Drive Dynamic Performance and Better Fuel Economy

2017-03-28
2017-01-0589
Toyota Motor Corporation has developed a new series of engines under the Toyota New Global Architecture (TNGA) design philosophy, which aims to satisfy customer requirements for both fun-to-drive dynamic performance and better fuel economy by adopting a high-speed combustion concept to improve thermal efficiency and specific power. This new engine series achieves a maximum engine thermal efficiency of 40%, a specific power ratio of 60 kW/l, and lower emissions by combining high-speed combustion and a high compression ratio with a high-tumble intake port, high-energy ignition coil, high-pressure multi-hole nozzle direct injector, and new electrical variable valve timing (VVT). The first engine in this series is a new 4-cylinder 2.5-liter gasoline naturally aspirated engine for use in passenger cars alongside a new TNGA 8-speed automatic transmission, which was introduced for minivans and SUVs in the U.S. market in 2016.
Technical Paper

New Exhaust Emission Control System with Two A/F Sensors

2017-03-28
2017-01-0917
Exhaust systems must satisfy a wide range of requirements, including lowering emissions to comply with future fuel economy and emissions regulations. To help meet these requirements, new emissions control systems have been developed today. In addition, since air-fuel ratio (hereafter, A/F) control has a major impact on emissions, a new two-A/F sensor system with A/F sensors provided both upstream and downstream of the catalyst was developed, incorporating an A/F control capable of further lowering emissions with greater robustness. This development identified the hysteresis characteristics of the O2 sensor downstream of the catalyst as an important factor affecting emissions during conventional A/F control. Subsequently, reaction analysis was carried out using sensor reaction models and by evaluating sensors under real-world operating conditions.
Journal Article

Low-viscosity Gear Oil Technology to Improve Wear at Tapered Roller Bearings in Differential Gear Unit

2016-10-17
2016-01-2204
Torque loss reduction at differential gear unit is important to improve the fuel economy of automobiles. One effective way is to decrease the viscosity of lubricants as it results in less churning loss. However, this option creates a higher potential for thin oil films, which could damage the mechanical parts. At tapered roller bearings, in particular, wear at the large end face of rollers and its counterpart, known as bearing bottom wear is one of major failure modes. To understand the wear mechanism, wear at the rolling contact surface of rollers and its counterpart, known as bearing side wear, was also observed to confirm the wear impact on the tapered roller bearings. Because gear oils are also required to avoid seizure under extreme pressure, the combination of a phosphorus anti-wear agent and a sulfurous extreme pressure agent are formulated.
Technical Paper

Finite Element Modeling Method of Vibro-Acoustic Systems for Mid-Frequency Simulation

2016-04-05
2016-01-1355
Current vehicle acoustic performance prediction methods, CAE (computer aided engineering) or physical testing, have some difficulty predicting interior sound in the mid-frequency range (300 to 1000 Hz). It is in this frequency range where the overall acoustic performance becomes sensitive to not only the contributions of structure-borne sources, which can be studied using traditional finite element analysis (FEA) methods, but also the contribution of airborne noise sources which increase proportional to frequency. It is in this higher frequency range (>1000 Hz) that physical testing and statistical CAE methods are traditionally used for performance studies. This paper will discuss a study that was undertaken to test the capability of a finite element modeling method that can accurately simulate air-borne noise phenomena in the mid-frequency range.
Technical Paper

Analysis for Vibration Caused by Starter Shaft Resonance

2016-04-05
2016-01-1319
It is important for vehicle concept planning to estimate fuel economy and the influence of vehicle vibration using virtual engine specifications and a virtual vehicle frame. In our former study, we showed the 1D physical power plant model with electrical starter, battery that can predict combustion transient torque, combustion heat energy and fuel efficiency. The simulation result agreed with measured data. For idling stop system, the noise and vibration during start up is important factor for salability of the vehicle. In this paper, as an application of the 1D physical power plant model (engine model), we will show the result of analysis that is starter shaft resonance and the effect on the engine mount vibration of restarting from idle stop. First, an engine model for 3.5L 6cyl NA engine was developed by energy-based model using VHDL-AMS. Here, VHDL-AMS is modeling language registered in IEC international standard (IEC61691-6) to realize multi physics on 1D simulation.
Journal Article

Clarification of Transient Characteristics by Coupled Analysis of Powertrains and Vehicles

2016-04-05
2016-01-1314
With the goal of improving drivability, this research aimed to clarify the mechanism of vehicle longitudinal acceleration, focusing on tip-in acceleration. Conventional typical analysis methods include experimental modal and model-based analysis. However, since the former requires the measurement of impulses and other input forces while the vehicle is stopped, measurement under actual driving conditions is difficult. The latter requires characteristic values such as the stiffness and damping coefficients to be identified in advance, which cannot be achieved either easily or precisely. Therefore, this paper proposes a new experiment-based analysis method. This method enables the acquisition of engine torque and transmission torque/force by measuring only the acceleration values of some components under driving conditions.
Technical Paper

ST-Lib: A Library for Specifying and Classifying Model Behaviors

2016-04-05
2016-01-0621
Test and verification procedures are a vital aspect of the development process for embedded control systems in the automotive domain. Formal requirements can be used in automated procedures to check whether simulation or experimental results adhere to design specifications and even to perform automatic test and formal verification of design models; however, developing formal requirements typically requires significant investment of time and effort for control software designers. We propose Signal Template Library (ST-Lib), a uniform modeling language to encapsulate a number of useful signal patterns in a formal requirement language with the goal of facilitating requirement formulation for automotive control applications. ST-Lib consists of basic modules known as signal templates. Informally, these specify a characteristic signal shape and provide numerical parameters to tune the shape.
Technical Paper

Model-Based OBD Logic Utilizing Adsorption and Desorption Model of NH3 in SCR Catalyst

2016-04-05
2016-01-0960
Urea selective catalytic reduction (SCR) systems are a promising technology for helping to lower NOx emissions from diesel engines. These systems also require on-board diagnostic (OBD) systems to detect malfunctioning catalysts. Conventional OBD methodology for a SCR catalyst involves the measurement of NOx concentration downstream of the catalyst. However, considering future OBD regulations, erroneous diagnostics may occur due to variations in the actual environment. Therefore, to enhance OBD accuracy, a new methodology was examined that utilizes NH3 slip as a new diagnostic parameter in addition to NOx. NH3 slip increases as the NOx reduction performance degrades, because both phenomena are based on deterioration in the capability of the SCR catalyst to adsorb NH3. Furthermore, NH3 can be measured by existing NOx sensors because NH3 is oxidized to NO internally. To make use of NH3 slip, an estimation model was developed.
Technical Paper

Study of Unsteady Aerodynamics of a Car Model in Dynamic Pitching Motion

2016-04-05
2016-01-1609
The unsteady aerodynamic loads produced due to vehicle dynamic motions affect vehicle dynamic performance attributes such as straight-line stability or handling characteristics. To improve these dynamic performances, understanding the detailed mechanisms by which unsteady aerodynamic loads are caused during dynamic motions and the effects of unsteady aerodynamic loads on vehicle dynamic performance are needed. This paper describes the numerical study of unsteady aerodynamics of a 1/4 scale car model in dynamic pitching motion to clarify the detailed mechanisms by which unsteady aerodynamic loads are caused during the motion. Vortical structures around front wheelhouse and front under side of the body are analyzed by introducing schematic views to understand the mechanisms of unsteady flow fields. Furthermore, effects of aerodynamic devices devised based on the analyses on unsteady aerodynamics are discussed.
Technical Paper

Development of Bicycle Carrier for Bicyclist Pre-Collision System Evaluation

2016-04-05
2016-01-1446
According to the U.S. National Highway Traffic Safety Administration, 743 pedal cyclists were killed and 48,000 were injured in motor vehicle crashes in 2013. As a novel active safety equipment to mitigate bicyclist crashes, bicyclist Pre-Collision Systems (PCSs) are being developed by many vehicle manufacturers. Therefore, developing equipment for evaluating bicyclist PCS is essential. This paper describes the development of a bicycle carrier for carrying the surrogate bicyclist in bicyclist PCS testing. An analysis on the United States national crash databases and videos from TASI 110 car naturalistic driving database was conducted to determine a set of most common crash scenarios, the motion speed and profile of bicycles. The bicycle carrier was designed to carry or pull the surrogate bicyclist for bicycle PCS evaluation. The carrier is a platform with a 4 wheel differential driving system.
Technical Paper

Solar Module Laminated Constitution for Automobiles

2016-04-05
2016-01-0351
Replacing the metal car roof with conventional solar modules results in the increase of total car weight and change of center of mass, which is not preferable for car designing. Therefore, weight reduction is required for solar modules to be equipped on vehicles. Exchanging glass to plastic for the cover plate of solar module is one of the major approaches to reduce weight; however, load bearing property, impact resistance, thermal deformation, and weatherability become new challenges. In this paper a new solar module structure that weighs as light as conventional steel car roofs, resolving these challenges is proposed.
Journal Article

Multiplex Communication Protocol for Switch/Sensor/Actuator Network: “CXPI”

2016-04-05
2016-01-0057
The growing functionality and complexity of recent vehicle electronic systems have made inter-device communication (on-board LAN) technology vital to vehicle design. By field of application, the LAN (Local Area Network) systems currently in use are LIN (Local Interconnect Network) used for body systems, CAN (Controller Area Network) used for control systems, and MOST (Media Oriented Systems Transport ) used for multimedia and camera systems, and work to standardize the next-generation communication technology for each of those fields is underway. This paper provides a technical overview of the CXPI (Clock Extension Peripheral Interface) communication protocol, which satisfies the body system requirements (rapid response, system extensibility, high reliability, and low cost). It also presents the progress made on standardization at SAE and other organizations.
Journal Article

High Efficiency Electromagnetic Torque Converter for Hybrid Electric Vehicles

2016-04-05
2016-01-1162
A new concept of an electromagnetic torque converter for hybrid electric vehicles is proposed. The electromagnetic torque converter, which is an electric system comprised of a set of double rotors and a stator, works as a high-efficiency transmission in the driving conditions of low gear ratio including a vehicle moving-off and as a starting device for an internal combustion engine. Moreover, it can be used for an electric vehicle driving as well as for a regenerative braking. In this concept, a high-efficiency drivetrain system for hybrid electric vehicles is constructed by replacing a fluid-type torque converter with the electromagnetic torque converter in the automatic transmission of a conventional vehicle. In this paper, we present the newly developed electromagnetic torque converter with a compact structure that enables mounting on a vehicle, and we evaluate its transmission efficiency by experiment.
Journal Article

Vibration Torque Interception using Multi-Functional Electromagnetic Coupling in a HEV Drive Line

2016-04-05
2016-01-1181
In the present paper, we introduce a drivetrain system using an electromagnetic coupling for hybrid electric vehicles, and propose a new control concept of vibration torque interception. The electromagnetic coupling is an electric machine that is composed of a pair of rotors, and electromagnetic torque acts mutually between the rotors. In the drivetrain system, the electromagnetic coupling works as a torque transmission device with a rotational-speed-converting function. We demonstrate that, by using this control, the electromagnetic coupling also works as a damping device that intercepts the vibration torque of the internal combustion engine, while transmitting the smooth torque to its drive line. Using a model of a two-inertia resonance system, a control system is designed such that a transfer function representing input-to-output torque is shaped in the frequency domain.
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