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Journal Article

An Application of a Model-Prediction-Based Reference Modification Algorithm to Engine Air Path Control

2017-03-28
2017-01-0586
In real-world automotive control, there are many constraints to be considered. In order to explicitly treat the constraints, we introduce a model-prediction-based algorithm called a reference governor (RG). The RG generates modified references so that predicted future variables in a closed-loop system satisfy their constraints. One merit of introducing the RG is that effort required in control development and calibration would be reduced. In the preceding research work by Nakada et al., only a single reference case was considered. However, it is difficult to extend the previous work to more complicated systems with multiple references such as the air path control of a diesel engine due to interference between the boosting and exhaust gas recirculation (EGR) systems. Moreover, in the air path control, multiple constraints need to be considered to ensure hardware limits. Hence, it is quite beneficial to cultivate RG methodologies to deal with multiple references and constraints.
Journal Article

Theoretical Study on Spray Design for Small-Bore Diesel Engine (Second Report)

2017-03-28
2017-01-0704
Generally, soot emissions increase in diesel engines with smaller bore sizes due to larger spray impingement on the cavity wall at a constant specific output power. The objective of this study is to clarify the constraints for engine/nozzle specifications and injection conditions to achieve the same combustion characteristics (such as heat release rate and emissions) in diesel engines with different bore sizes. The first report applied the geometrical similarity concept to two engines with different bore sizes and similar piston cavity shapes. The smaller engine emitted more smoke because air entrainment decreases due to the narrower spray angle. A new spray design method called spray characteristics similarity was proposed to suppress soot emissions. However, a smaller nozzle diameter and a larger number of nozzle holes are required to maintain the same spray characteristics (such as specific air-entrainment and penetration) when the bore size decreases.
Technical Paper

High Efficiency Diesel Engine with Low Heat Loss Combustion Concept - Toyota’s Inline 4-Cylinder 2.8-Liter ESTEC 1GD-FTV Engine -

2016-04-05
2016-01-0658
A highly efficient new 2.8-liter inline 4-cylinder diesel engine has been developed in response to growing demand for diesel engines and to help save energy while providing high-torque performance. Engine efficiency was improved by reducing cooling loss based on an innovative combustion concept applied across the whole engine. Cooling loss was reduced by restricting in-cylinder gas flows and improving combustion chamber insulation. To prevent the restricted gas flows from affecting emissions, a new combustion chamber shape was developed that increased air utilization in the cylinder through optimizing the in-cylinder fuel distribution. Combustion chamber insulation was improved by a new insulation coat that changes the wall surface temperature in accordance with the gas temperature. This reduces cooling loss and avoids the trade-off effect of intake air heating.
Technical Paper

Theoretical Study on Spray Design for Small-Bore Diesel Engine

2016-04-05
2016-01-0740
1 Recently, demand for small-bore compact vehicle engines has been increasing from the standpoint of further reducing CO2 emissions. The generalization and formulation of combustion processes, including those related to emissions formation, based on a certain similarity of physical phenomena regardless of engine size, would be extremely beneficial for the unification of development processes for various sizes of engines. The objective of this study is to clarify what constraints are necessary for engine/nozzle specifications and injection conditions to achieve the same combustion characteristics (such as heat release rate and emissions) in diesel engines with different bore sizes.
Journal Article

Reduction of Heat Loss and Improvement of Thermal Efficiency by Application of “Temperature Swing” Insulation to Direct-Injection Diesel Engines

2016-04-05
2016-01-0661
The reduction of the heat loss from the in-cylinder gas to the combustion chamber wall is one of the key technologies for improving the thermal efficiency of internal combustion engines. This paper describes an experimental verification of the “temperature swing” insulation concept, whereby the surface temperature of the combustion chamber wall follows that of the transient gas. First, we focus on the development of “temperature swing” insulation materials and structures with the thermo-physical properties of low thermal conductivity and low volumetric heat capacity. Heat flux measurements for the developed insulation coating show that a new insulation material formed from silica-reinforced porous anodized aluminum (SiRPA) offers both heat-rejecting properties and reliability in an internal combustion engine. Furthermore, a laser-induced phosphorescence technique was used to verify the temporal changes in the surface temperature of the developed insulation coating.
Technical Paper

Low Cooling Losses and Low Emission Analysis of Small Bore Diesel Engine Combustion

2015-09-01
2015-01-1824
Small bore diesel engines often adopt a two-valve cylinder head and a non-central injector layout to expand the port flow passage area. This non-central injector layout causes asymmetrical gas flow and fuel distribution, resulting in worse heat losseses and a less homogenous fuel-air mixture than an equivalent four-valve cylinder head layout with a central injector. To improve these problems Toyota applied a new concept which was characterized by tapered shape design on the upper portion of the piston and low compression ratio to achieve more homogeneous gas flow and fuel-air mixture. This paper describes the impact of new combustion concept and the mechanism of the improvement by 3D-CFD analysis and optical measurement.
Technical Paper

Examination of Discrete Dynamics Model for Diesel Combustion and Model-Based Feedback Control System (Second Report)

2015-09-01
2015-01-1848
The dynamics model and model-based controller (LQG servo controller) have been constructed to improve performance of diesel engine in transient condition. The input parameters of the model are fuel quantity of main injection, timing of main injection, fuel quantity of pilot injection, timing of pilot injection, external EGR ratio and boost pressure. The parameters that are succeeded between cycles to express transient condition are residual gas temperature and of residual oxygen. In the model, one cycle is discretized into 10 representative points. The precision of the accuracy of the model and the responsiveness of the controller were confirmed.
Technical Paper

Effects of Next-Generation Bio Diesel Fuel on the Engine Performance

2015-09-01
2015-01-1928
Hydrotreated Vegetable Oil (HVO) and Sugar-to-Diesel as next-generation bio diesel fuels consist of normal and iso-paraffin, and those carbon number of paraffinic hydrocarbons and distillation characteristics are narrow distribution. These characteristics would cause to deteriorate the evaporation and mixture with air and fuel. Therefore, in this study, the effects of normal paraffin (Tridecane) and iso-paraffin (HVO) on emission characteristics and cold start performance in a diesel engine were investigated by engine dynamometer tests, cold start vehicle tests, and spray analyzer tests. From the results, it was found that normal and iso-paraffin are beneficial for HC, CO, Smoke emission reduction. In addition, isomerization is effective for the diesel engine to fulfill cold start performance, since normal paraffin of narrow carbon number distribution became solidified under low temperature and high pressure condition in a common rail system.
Technical Paper

Analysis of Sulfur-Related White Smoke Emissions from DPF System

2015-09-01
2015-01-2023
In a Diesel engine with a Diesel particulate filter (DPF) system, high-sulfur fuel causes white smoke containing odorous and harmful pollutants during DPF regeneration. This study investigates the conditions and mechanisms of sulfur-related white smoke generation. Engine and vehicle tests found that sulfur compounds emitted from the engine accumulated on the catalysts in the DPF system and were emitted as white smoke during DPF regeneration. The white smoke was observed when the catalyst temperature was more than 450°C, under conditions such as the early stage of DPF regeneration. Model gas tests were conducted to clarify the mechanism of the white smoke. It was found that SO2 emitted from the engine was oxidized to SO3 on the catalyst, which was then mainly absorbed on the oxidation catalyst support (Al2O3). Then, the absorbed SO3 was desorbed and converted into white smoke.
Journal Article

Development of New Toyota D-Series Turbocharger for GD Diesel Engine

2015-09-01
2015-01-1969
There is increasing demand for highly functional diesel engine turbochargers capable of meeting Euro 6 emissions regulations while improving dynamic performance and fuel economy. However, since these requirements cannot be easily satisfied through refinements of existing technology, Toyota Motor Corporation has developed the new D-series turbocharger for initial installation in its GD diesel engine. The higher efficiency and wider operation range of the new turbocharger enabled the amount of the turbine flow capacity to be reduced by 30%, while helping to improve dynamic response and fuel economy. The mechanism causing the generation of fuel deposits in the fuel injection system upstream of the turbocharger, which was adopted for compliance with emissions regulations, was analyzed and fundamental countermeasures were applied. The result is a new highly functional turbocharger with greatly enhanced reliability.
Technical Paper

Small Bore Diesel Engine Combustion Concept

2015-04-14
2015-01-0788
Small bore diesel engines often adopt a two-valve cylinder head and a non-central injector layout to expand the port flow passage area. This non-central injector layout causes asymmetrical gas flow and fuel distribution, resulting in worse heat losses and a less homogenous fuel-air mixture than an equivalent four-valve cylinder head layout with a central injector. This paper describes the improvement of piston bowl geometry to achieve a more homogeneous gas flow and fuel-air mixture. This concept reduced fuel consumption by 2.5% compared to the original piston bowl geometry, while also reducing NOx emissions by 10%.
Technical Paper

Universal Diesel Engine Simulator (UniDES) 2nd Report: Prediction of Engine Performance in Transient Driving Cycle Using One Dimensional Engine Model

2013-04-08
2013-01-0881
The aim of this research is to develop the diesel combustion simulation (UniDES: Universal Diesel Engine Simulator) that incorporates multiple-injection strategies and in-cylinder composition changes due to exhaust gas recirculation (EGR), and that is capable of high speed calculation. The model is based on a zero-dimensional (0D) cycle simulation, and represents a multiple-injection strategy using a multi-zone model and inhomogeneity using a probability density function (PDF) model. Therefore, the 0D cycle simulation also enables both high accuracy and high speed. This research considers application to actual development. To expand the applicability of the simulation, a model that accurately estimates nozzle sac pressure with various injection quantities and common rail pressures, a model that accounts for the effects of adjacent spray interaction, and a model that considers the NOx reduction phenomenon under high load conditions were added.
Technical Paper

Development of a New 2.0-Liter Fuel-Efficient Diesel Engine

2013-04-08
2013-01-0310
Toyota Motor Corporation aims to develop vehicles that are both fun to drive and fuel efficient, using highly reliable, low cost, and fundamental technology. This approach focuses on the accumulation of incremental improvements to combustion characteristics and friction, making the best use of the maximum potential of the displacement of a new 2.0-liter fuel-efficient diesel engine. This new engine has been launched in several markets around the world for the Avensis, the Auris, the RAV4, and the Verso since November of 2011. This paper presents an outline of this new engine and its technology.
Journal Article

Application of Reference Governor Using Soft Constraints and Steepest Descent Method to Diesel Engine Aftertreatment Temperature Control

2013-04-08
2013-01-0350
This paper considers an application of reference governor (RG) to automotive diesel aftertreatment temperature control. Recently, regulations on vehicle emissions have become more stringent, and engine hardware and software are expected to be more complicated. It is getting more difficult to guarantee constraints in control systems as well as good control performance. Among model-based control methods that can directly treat constraints, this paper focuses on the RG, which has recently attracted a lot of attention as one method of model prediction-based control. In the RG, references in tracking control are modified based on future prediction so that the predicted outputs in a closed-loop system satisfy the constraints. This paper proposes an online RG algorithm, taking account of the real-time implementation on engine embedded controllers.
Technical Paper

Feasibility Study of Exhaust Emissions in a Natural Gas Diesel Dual Fuel (DDF) Engine

2012-09-10
2012-01-1649
The Diesel Dual Fuel (DDF) vehicle is one of the technologies to convert diesel vehicles for natural gas usage. The purpose of this research was to study the possibility of a DDF vehicle to meet emission standards for diesel vehicles. This research was done for small passenger vehicles and commercial vehicles. The exhaust emissions compliance of such vehicles in a New European Driving Cycle (NEDC) mode which was composed of Urban Driving Cycles (UDC) and an Extra Urban Driving Cycle (EUDC) was evaluated. (see APPENDIXFigure A1) In this study, the passenger vehicle engine, compliant with the EURO4 standard, was converted to a DDF engine. Engine bench tests under steady state conditions showed similar result to previous papers. Total hydrocarbon (HC) emission was extremely high, compared to diesel engine. The NEDC mode emissions of the DDF vehicle were estimated based on these engine bench test results.
Journal Article

Cooling Loss Reduction of Highly Dispersed Spray Combustion with Restricted In-Cylinder Swirl and Squish Flow in Diesel Engine

2012-04-16
2012-01-0689
In diesel engines with a straight intake port and a lipless cavity to restrict in-cylinder flow, an injector with numerous small-diameter orifices with a narrow angle can be used to create a highly homogeneous air-fuel mixture that, during PCCI combustion, dramatically reduces the NOX and soot without the addition of expensive new devices. To further improve this new combustion concept, this research focused on cooling losses, which are generally thought to account for 16 to 35% of the total energy of the fuel, and approaches to reducing fuel consumption were explored. First, to clarify the proportions of convective heat transfer and radiation in the cooling losses, a Rapid Compression Machine (RCM) was used to measure the local heat flux and radiation to the combustion chamber wall. The results showed that though larger amounts of injected fuel increased the proportion of heat losses from radiation, the primary factor in cooling losses is convective heat transfer.
Technical Paper

Development of Low Pressure Loop EGR System for Diesel Engines

2011-04-12
2011-01-1413
Low pressure loop (LPL) EGR systems are effective means of simultaneously reducing the NOx emissions and fuel consumption of diesel engines. Further lower emission levels can be achieved by adopting a system that combines LPL EGR with a NOx storage and reduction (NSR) catalyst. However, this combined system has to overcome the issue of combustion fluctuations resulting from changes in the air-fuel ratio due to EGR gas recirculation from either NOx reduction control or diesel particulate filter (DPF) regeneration. The aim of this research was to reduce combustion fluctuations by developing LPL EGR control logic. In order to control the combustion fluctuations caused by LPL EGR, it is necessary to estimate the recirculation time. First, recirculation delay was investigated. It was found that recirculation delay becomes longer when the LPL EGR flow rate or engine speed is low.
Technical Paper

Three-Dimension Deposited Soot Distribution Measurement in Silicon Carbide Diesel Particulate Filters by Dynamic Neutron Radiography

2011-04-12
2011-01-0599
Exhaust emissions are well known to have adverse impacts on human health. Studies have demonstrated that there is an association between ambient particulate matter (PM) levels and various harmful cardiopulmonary conditions. Soot exhaust from diesel engines can be a significant contributor to airborne pollutants. A key component in PM level control for a diesel engine is a diesel particulate filter (DPF). This device traps soot while allowing other exhaust gases to pass unhindered. However, the performance of diesel particulate filters can change with increasing soot loadings and thus may require regeneration or replacement. Improved understanding of diesel particulate filters is dependent upon the knowledge of the actual soot loading and the soot distribution within the DPF. Neutron radiography (NR) has been identified as an effective means of non-destructively identifying hydrogen or carbon adsorbed in PM.
Technical Paper

Rapid Boundary Detection for Model Based Diesel Engine Calibration

2011-04-12
2011-01-0741
In recent years, engine control systems have become more and more complex because of the growing pressure to develop technical innovations due to social pressures such as global warming and the depletion of fossil fuels. On the other hand, products must be launched on the market in a timely manner and at low cost. For these reasons, calibration processes have become more sophisticated. It is possible to improve the efficiency of calibration by making good use of models, and a calibration process that incorporates models is called model based calibration (MBC). MBC is a valid means of reducing the number of measurement points to some extent by statistical engine modeling and design of experiment (DoE) methodology which places measurement points in order to maximize modeling accuracy. However, it is still necessary to spend much time carrying out boundary detection testing before DoE.
Journal Article

Combustion Improvement of Diesel Engine by Alcohol Addition - Investigation of Port Injection Method and Blended Fuel Method

2011-04-12
2011-01-0336
Alcohol fuels that can be produced from cellulose continue to become more widely used in gasoline engines. This research investigated the application of alcohol to diesel engines with the aims of improving the combustion of diesel engines and of utilizing alternative fuels. Two methods were compared, a method in which alcohol is injected into the air intake system and a method in which alcohol is blended in advance into the diesel fuel. Alcohol is an oxygenated fuel and so the amount of soot that is emitted is small. Furthermore, blended fuels have characteristics that help promote mixture formation, which can be expected to reduce the amount of soot even more, such as a low cetane number, low viscosity, low surface tension, and a low boiling point. Ethanol has a strong moisture-absorption attribute and separates easily when mixed with diesel fuel. Therefore, 1-butanol was used since it possesses a strong hydrophobic attribute and does not separate easily.
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