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Technical Paper

Development of an Analytical Method for Rear Differential Gear Whine Noise utilizing Principal Component Contribution by OTPA and CAE

2019-06-05
2019-01-1555
Due to the global warming concern, CO2 emission regulations have been reinforced in most countries and electrification of automobiles has accelerated. Since the engine noise will be largely reduced, the improvements of gear whine noise becomes more important. But gear whine noise mechanism is complicated by involving many parts and transmitting paths to the cabin. Operational Transfer Path Analysis (OTPA) is one of the TPA methods to determine the main path and contributing part using only the operational data. However, in cases which many reference points are set on the same frame or body, the contribution becomes similar by high correlation among the reference data set and finding out the main transfer part becomes difficult. The contribution of principal component (PC) which is obtained from the correlated reference signals, instead of calculating the contribution from each reference point by modifying the OTPA process, has been utilized.
Technical Paper

Thermal Management of a Hybrid Vehicle Using a Heat Pump

2019-04-02
2019-01-0502
This paper presents the thermal management of a hybrid vehicle (HV) by using a heat pump system in cold weather. The advantage of an HV is a high efficiency of the vehicle system since an electric motor and an engine are coupled and optimally controlled. However, in the conventional HV, we see the fuel economy degradation in cold weather because delivering heat to the passenger cabin by using an engine results in a low efficiency of the vehicle system. To improve the fuel economy degradation, in this study, a heat pump is used and combined with an engine for the thermal management. The heat pump with an electrically driven compressor pumps heat from ambient into a water-cooled condenser. The heat which is generated by the engine and the heat pump is delivered to the engine and the passenger cabin because the engine needs to warm up quickly to reduce the emission and the cabin needs heat for thermal comfort.
Technical Paper

Fatigue Life Prediction Method for Self-Piercing Rivets Considering Crack Propagation

2019-04-02
2019-01-0531
This paper describes a numerical prediction method for fatigue strength of Self Piercing Rivets (SPRs) using fracture mechanics. Recently, high strength steels and non-ferrous metals have been adopted to light weight automotive bodies. Various types of joining are proposed for multi-material bodies. It is important to predict the fatigue life of these joints using numerical simulation. However, the fatigue strength of these joints is related to sheet thickness, base materials, and loading conditions. Therefore, a large number of coupon tests are necessary to determine the S-N curve for the fatigue life prediction of joints in the automotive body. To reduce the amount of coupon testing, numerical simulation will be an efficient method in obtaining the S-N curve of these joints. The fatigue fracture process consists of two stages, crack initiation and crack growth. There are many studies about crack growth estimation methods using stress intensity factor.
Technical Paper

A Target Cascading Method Using Model Based Simulation in Early Stage of Vehicle Development

2019-04-02
2019-01-0836
In the early stages of vehicle development, it is important for decision makers to understand a feasible constraint region that satisfies all system level requirements. The purpose of this paper is to propose a target cascading method to solve for a feasible design region which satisfies all constraints of the system based on model based simulation. In this method, the feasible design region is explored by using both global optimization methods and active learning techniques. In optimization problems, the inverse problem for understanding feasibility for specific designs is defined and solved. To determine the objective functions of the inverse problem, an index representing the achievement level of constraints from system requirements is introduced. To predict feasible regions in the specific design space, a surrogate model of minimized values of the index is trained by using a kriging model.
Technical Paper

Development of CFD Inverse Analysis Technology Targeting Heat or Concentration Performance Using the Adjoint Method and Its Application to Actual Components

2018-04-03
2018-01-1033
To resolve two major problems of conventional CFD-based shape optimization technology: (1) dependence of the outcome on the selection of design parameters, and (2) high computational costs, two types of innovative inverse analysis technologies based on a mathematical theory called the Adjoint Method were developed in previous studies for maximizing an arbitrary hydrodynamic performance aspect as the cost function: surface geometry deformation sensitivity analysis to identify the locations to be modified, and topology optimization to generate an optimal shape. Furthermore, these technologies were extended to transient flows by the application of the transient Adjoint Method theory. However, there are many cases around flow path shapes in vehicles where performance with respect to heat or concentration, such as the total amount of heat transfer or the flow rate of a specific gas component, is very important.
Technical Paper

Rubber Suspension Bushing Model Identified by General Design Parameters for Initial Design Phase

2018-04-03
2018-01-0693
This paper proposes a rubber suspension bushing model considering amplitude dependence as a useful tool at the initial design phase. Experiments were carried out to verify several dynamic characteristics of rubber bushings under vibration up to a frequency of 100 Hz, which is an important frequency range when designing ride comfort performance. When dynamic characteristic theory and the geometrical properties of the force-displacement characteristic curve were considered using these dynamic characteristics as assumptions, an equation was derived that is capable of calculating the dynamic stiffness under an arbitrary amplitude by identifying only two general design parameters (dynamic stiffness and loss factor) under a reference amplitude. The rubber suspension bushing model was then constructed by transforming this equation. Two verifications were carried out to confirm that the model is capable of reproducing measured bushing characteristics.
Technical Paper

Development of New Hybrid Transaxle for Mid - Size Vehicle

2018-04-03
2018-01-0429
The new P710 hybrid transaxle for a mid-size 2.5-liter class vehicle was developed based on the Toyota New Global Architecture (TNGA) design philosophy to achieve a range of desired performance objects. A smaller and lighter transaxle with low mechanical loss was realized by incorporating a new gear train structure and a downsized motor. The noise of the P710 transaxle was also reduced by adopting a new damper structure.
Technical Paper

New 2.0L I4 Gasoline Direct Injection Engine with Toyota New Global Architecture Concept

2018-04-03
2018-01-0370
Toyota Motor Corporation has developed a new 2.0L Inline 4- Cylinder (I4) Gasoline Direct Injection Engine, the second Naturally Aspirated (NA) engine of the Toyota New Global Architecture (TNGA) engine series, to meet our customers’ expectations for drivability, performance, and fuel economy. The high speed combustion technologies adopted previously in our 2.5 L NA conventional and Hybrid Vehicle (HV) engines for the 2018 Toyota Camry are necessary for high engine power and thermal efficiency. To adopt our high speed combustion technology on engines with different displacements, the turbulence intensity has been defined as the target index of combustion speed. The basic engine structure has been revised by using Computational Fluid Dynamics (CFD) analysis to achieve the combustion target.
Technical Paper

Optimizing Transmission Loss for Lightweight Body Structures

2017-06-05
2017-01-1812
In an effort to reduce mass, future automotive bodies will feature lower gage steel or lighter weight materials such as aluminum. An unfortunate side effect of lighter weight bodies is a reduction in sound transmission loss (TL). For barrier based systems, as the total system mass (including the sheet metal, decoupler, and barrier) goes down the transmission loss is reduced. If the reduced surface density from the sheet metal is added to the barrier, however, performance can be restored (though, of course, this eliminates the mass savings). In fact, if all of the saved mass from the sheet metal is added to the barrier, the TL performance may be improved over the original system. This is because the optimum performance for a barrier based system is achieved when the sheet metal and the barrier have equal surface densities. That is not the case for standard steel constructions where the surface density of the sheet metal is higher than the barrier.
Technical Paper

Low Frequency Airborne Panel Contribution Analysis and Vehicle Body Sensitivity to Exhaust Nnoise

2017-06-05
2017-01-1865
The tendency for car engines to reduce the cylinder number and increase the specific torque at low rpm has led to significantly higher levels of low frequency pulsation from the exhaust tailpipe. This is a challenge for exhaust system design, and equally for body design and vehicle integration. The low frequency panel noise contributions were identified using pressure transmissibility and operational sound pressure on the exterior. For this the body was divided into patches. For all patches the pressure transmissibility across the body panels into the interior was measured as well as the sound field over the entire surface of the vehicle body. The panel contributions, the pressure distribution and transmissibility distribution information were combined with acoustic modal analysis in the cabin, providing a better understanding of the airborne transfer.
Technical Paper

Toyota New TNGA High-Efficiency Eight-Speed Automatic Transmission Direct Shift-8AT for FWD Vehicles

2017-03-28
2017-01-1093
The new eight-speed automatic transmission direct shift-8AT (UA80) is the first automatic transmission to be developed based on the Toyota New Global Architecture (TNGA) design philosophy. Commonizing or optimizing the main components of the UA80 enables compatibility with a wide torque range, including both inline 4-cylinder and V6 engines, while shortening development terms and minimizing investment. Additionally, it has superior packaging performance by optimizing the transmission size and arrangement achieving a low gravity center. It contributes to Vehicle’s attractiveness by improving driving performance and NVH. At the same time, it drastically improves fuel economy and quietness.
Technical Paper

Synchrotron X-Ray Visualization and Simulation for Operating Fuel Cell Diffusion Layers

2017-03-28
2017-01-1188
The key challenge in designing a high power density fuel cell is to reduce oxygen transport loss due to liquid water. However, liquid water transport from catalyst layers to channels under operating conditions is not completely understood. Toyota developed a high resolution space and time liquid water visualization technique using synchrotron x-ray (Spring-8) radiography. In addition, a simulation method was created based on computational fluid dynamics (CFD) to identify the cell performance relationship to water distribution. The relationship among gas diffusion layer (GDL) parameters, water distribution, and fuel cell performance was clarified by combining the techniques Toyota developed.
Journal Article

An Application of a Model-Prediction-Based Reference Modification Algorithm to Engine Air Path Control

2017-03-28
2017-01-0586
In real-world automotive control, there are many constraints to be considered. In order to explicitly treat the constraints, we introduce a model-prediction-based algorithm called a reference governor (RG). The RG generates modified references so that predicted future variables in a closed-loop system satisfy their constraints. One merit of introducing the RG is that effort required in control development and calibration would be reduced. In the preceding research work by Nakada et al., only a single reference case was considered. However, it is difficult to extend the previous work to more complicated systems with multiple references such as the air path control of a diesel engine due to interference between the boosting and exhaust gas recirculation (EGR) systems. Moreover, in the air path control, multiple constraints need to be considered to ensure hardware limits. Hence, it is quite beneficial to cultivate RG methodologies to deal with multiple references and constraints.
Journal Article

A CFD Analysis Method for Prediction of Vehicle Exterior Wind Noise

2017-03-28
2017-01-1539
High frequency wind noise caused by turbulent flow around the front pillars of a vehicle is an important factor for customer perception of ride comfort. In order to reduce undesirable interior wind noise during vehicle development process, a calculation and visualization method for exterior wind noise with an acceptable computational cost and adequate accuracy is required. In this paper an index for prediction of the strength of exterior wind noise, referred to as Exterior Noise Power (ENP), is developed based on an assumption that the acoustic power of exterior wind noise can be approximated by the far field acoustic power radiated from vehicle surface. Using the well-known Curle’s equation, ENP can be represented as a surface integral of an acoustic intensity distribution, referred to as Exterior Noise Power Distribution (ENPD). ENPD is estimated from turbulent surface pressure fluctuation and mean convective velocity in the vicinity of the vehicle surface.
Journal Article

Development of a New Ceramic Substrate with Gas Flow Control Functionality

2017-03-28
2017-01-0919
Emission regulations in many countries and regions around the world are becoming stricter in reaction to the increasing awareness of environment protections, and it has now become necessary to improve the performance of catalytic converters to achieve these goals. A catalytic converter is composed of a catalytically active material coated onto a ceramic honeycomb-structured substrate. Honeycomb substrates play the role of ensuring intimate contact between the exhaust gas and the catalyst within the substrate’s flow channels. In recent years, high-load test cycles have been introduced which require increased robustness to maintain low emissions during the wide range of load changes. Therefore, it is extremely important to increase the probability of contact between the exhaust gas and catalyst. To achieve this contact, several measures were considered such as increasing active sites or geometrical surface areas by utilizing substrates with higher cell densities or larger volumes.
Journal Article

Development of Multi Stage Hybrid System for New Lexus Coupe

2017-03-28
2017-01-1173
Lexus launched the new hybrid luxury coupe LC500h in 2017 to help enhance its brand image and competitiveness for the new generation of Lexus. During the development of the LC500h, major improvements were made to the hybrid system by adopting the newly-developed Multi Stage Hybrid System, which combines a multi stage shift device with the transmission from the previous hybrid system to maximize the potential of the electrically-controlled continuously variable transmission. Optimum engine and electrical component specifications were designed for the new vehicle and transmission. As a result, the LC500h achieves a 0-to-60 mph acceleration time of 4.7 seconds, with a combined fuel economy of 30.0 mpg while satisfying SULEV emissions requirements. Two controls were constructed to help resolve the issues that arose due to adding the shift device.
Journal Article

Development of New IGBT to Reduce Electrical Power Losses and Size of Power Control Unit for Hybrid Vehicles

2017-03-28
2017-01-1244
One way to improve the fuel efficiency of HVs is to reduce the losses and size of the Power Control Unit (PCU). To achieve this, it is important to reduce the losses of power devices (such as IGBTs and FWDs) used in the PCU since their losses account for about 20% of the total loss of an HV. Furthermore, another issue when reducing the size of power devices is ensuring the thermal feasibility of the downsized devices. To achieve the objectives of the 4th generation PCU, the following development targets were set for the IGBTs: reduce power losses by 19.8% and size by 30% compared to the 3rd generation. Power losses were reduced by the development of a new Super Body Layer (SBL) structure, which improved the trade-off relationship between switching and steady-state loss. This trade-off relationship was improved by optimizing the key SBL concentration parameter.
Technical Paper

Development of CFD Method for Spray Shape Estimation

2016-10-17
2016-01-2198
Computational fluid dynamic (CFD) is widely used to develop engine combustion. Especially the in-cylinder spray calculation is important in order to resolve the issues of direct injection gasoline engines (e.g., particulate matter (PM) and oil dilution caused by fuel wetting on the cylinder walls). Conventional spray calculation methods require fitting based on measurements of spray characteristics such as penetration and droplet diameter (i.e., the Sauter mean diameter (SMD)). Particularly in the case of slit nozzle shapes that widen from the inlet to the outlet to form a fan-shaped spray, fitting the shape of spray is a complex procedure because the flow inside the nozzle is not uniform. In response, a new calculation method has been developed that eliminates the need for spray shape fitting by combining calculations of the Eulerian multiphase and the Lagrangian multiphase.
Technical Paper

Internal Thrust Force Analysis of CVT Push Belt

2016-10-17
2016-01-2353
A CVT belt is composed of multiple elements and layered rings. Each of these component parts generates loss, including relative slippage caused by the geometrical relationship between the elements and innermost ring layer. An effective way of increasing CVT efficiency is to reduce this slippage. However, since the relative slippage also controls whether the rings transmit constant torque at all times, reducing the slippage will also have an effect on the torque transmission performance of the rings. Therefore, to improve CVT efficiency by reducing the relative slippage, it is first necessary to analyze the changes to torque transmission. However, this slippage is a phenomenon of the inner portion of the belt and it is extremely difficult to identify the internal thrust force when actual load is applied. This paper describes experiments carried out to analyze the changes in each torque transmission ratio when the relative slippage between the elements and innermost ring layer changes.
Journal Article

Low-viscosity Gear Oil Technology to Improve Wear at Tapered Roller Bearings in Differential Gear Unit

2016-10-17
2016-01-2204
Torque loss reduction at differential gear unit is important to improve the fuel economy of automobiles. One effective way is to decrease the viscosity of lubricants as it results in less churning loss. However, this option creates a higher potential for thin oil films, which could damage the mechanical parts. At tapered roller bearings, in particular, wear at the large end face of rollers and its counterpart, known as bearing bottom wear is one of major failure modes. To understand the wear mechanism, wear at the rolling contact surface of rollers and its counterpart, known as bearing side wear, was also observed to confirm the wear impact on the tapered roller bearings. Because gear oils are also required to avoid seizure under extreme pressure, the combination of a phosphorus anti-wear agent and a sulfurous extreme pressure agent are formulated.
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