Refine Your Search

Search Results

Viewing 1 to 3 of 3
Technical Paper

Effect of Gasoline Components on Exhaust Hydrocarbon Components

Vehicle emissions tests were conducted using a 1992 model year Toyota Camry for California under the 1975 Federal Test Procedure. Nine fuels of different composition were prepared. Effects of gasoline composition and sulfur content on tailpipe and engine-out emissions were investigated. Exhaust mass emission test results indicated that gasoline distillation properties and sulfur content have large effect on non-methane organic gas emissions. Furthermore, fuel, engine-out, and tailpipe hydrocarbons were speciated and the relationship between fuel and exhaust specific ozone reactivity analyzed. From these studies, it is concluded that aromatics are the largest contributor to the specific ozone reactivity of exhaust emissions and these aromatics, in emissions, are mainly unburned and partly oxidized aromatics from the fuel. Fuel MTBE correlates with exhaust olefins and oxygenates.
Technical Paper

Effects of California Phase 2 Reformulated Gasoline Specifications on Exhaust Emission Reduction

In response to various reformulated gasoline regulations, several studies have been conducted to evaluate the relationship between fuel properties and vehicle exhaust emissions. These studies, however, have focused on the fuel effect and have not examined the most promising advanced technology emission control systems on low emission vehicles. Toyota's reformulated gasoline research first set out to study the effect fuel compositions has on 2 different emission control systems. On both systems, non-methane hydrocarbon (NMHC) emissions were significantly affected by the 50% and 90% distillation temperature (T50 and T90). A correlation was also found exhaust olefine content and the amount of MTBE contained in the fuel. Research was also conducted on the specific ozone reactivity (SOR) of exhaust hydrocarbons. Various fuels with similar specifications but blended from different feedstocks were evaluated.
Technical Paper

Analysis of Poor Engine Response Caused by MTBE-Blended Gasoline from the Standpoint of Fuel Evaporation

Fifty percent distillation temperature (T50) can be used as a warm-up driveability indicator for a hydrocarbon-type gasoline. MTBE-blended gasoline, however, provides poorer driveability than a hydrocarbon-type gasoline with the same T50. The purposes of this paper are to examine the reason for poor engine driveability caused by MTBE-blended gasolines, and to propose a new driveability indicator for gasolines including MTBE-blended gasolines. The static and dynamic evaporation characteristics of MTBE-blended gasolines such as the evaporation rate and the behavior of each component during evaporation were analyzed mainly by using Gas Chromatography/Mass Spectrometry. The results of the analysis show that the MTBE concentration in the vapor, evaporated at ambient temperature (e.g. 24°C), is higher than that in the original gasoline. Accordingly, the fuel vapor with enriched MTBE flows into the combustion chamber of an engine just after the throttle valve is opened.