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Technical Paper

Development of an On-Board Type Oil Deterioration Sensor

1993-10-01
932840
According to the principle of pH measurement, an on-board type engine oil deterioration sensor has been developed. The developed sensor is composed of a Pb and oxidized stainless steel electrodes. The sensor signal shows a good linear relationship to the quasi-pH value of the oil. Especially in the region where the oil deterioration proceeds, the remaining basic additives in the oil is easily estimated from the sensor signal.
Technical Paper

A Simulation Test Method for Deterioration of FKM Compounds Engine Crankshaft Oil Seals

1992-10-01
922373
A laboratory scale simulation test method was developed to evaluate deterioration of radial lip seals of fluoroelastomer (FKM) compounds for engine crankshafts. The investigation of the collected radial lip seals of FKM compounds from the field with service up to 450,000km indicated that the only symptom of deterioration is a decrease of lip interference. This deterioration was not duplicated under conventional test conditions using an oil seal test machine because sludge build up at the seal lip caused oil leakage. However, revised test conditions make it possible to duplicate the deterioration experienced in the field. An immersion test using a radial lip seal assembled with the mating shaft was newly developed. This test method was found to be useful to evaluate deterioration of radial lip seals using FKM compounds. Oil additives affect the deterioration of lip seal materials significantly. Therefore, immersion tests of four different oils were conducted to evaluate this effect.
Technical Paper

Formulation Technology for Low Phosphorus Gasoline Engine Oils

1992-10-01
922301
The effect of phosphorus concentration in gasoline engine oils on the valve train wear was experimentally investigated by using the JASO M328-91 3A valve train wear (3A-VTW) test method. The phosphorus concentration is determined proportionally to the amount of zinc dithiophosphate (ZDDP), which is formulated as both antiwear agent and antioxidant. Lower concentrations of ZDDP generally bring about larger wear in the valve train. However, it was found from the experiments that valve train wear remained low despite a decrease of phosphorus concentration when secondary ZDDPs with short alkyl chain together with appropriate ashless dispersants were selected. Since adsorptivity of secondary ZDDPs with short alkyl chain lengths onto rubbing metal surfaces is higher than that of primary types, the secondary types give excellent antiwear characteristics.
Technical Paper

Elastohydrodynamic Lubrication of a Connecting Rod Journal Bearing in Consideration of Shapes of the Bearing

1992-02-01
920485
Lubrication of a connecting rod bearing is analyzed by the theory of elastohydrodynamic lubrication (EHL). The hydrodynamic of a connecting rod bearing was calculated in consideration of not only the effects of bearing elastic deformation but also those of bearing shapes. Journal center loci were measured to confirm the accuracy of calculated results. The governing equations of EHL are the Reynolds equation, the clearance gap equaution and the load equation. The effects of the shapes of a connecting rod bearing were included in the clearance gap equaution. The calculated results agree well with the measured results. Results of this study show that lubrication of a connecting rod journal bearing is significantly influenced by bearing elastic deformation and shapes of a connecting rod bearing.
Technical Paper

Analysis of Poor Engine Response Caused by MTBE-Blended Gasoline from the Standpoint of Fuel Evaporation

1992-02-01
920800
Fifty percent distillation temperature (T50) can be used as a warm-up driveability indicator for a hydrocarbon-type gasoline. MTBE-blended gasoline, however, provides poorer driveability than a hydrocarbon-type gasoline with the same T50. The purposes of this paper are to examine the reason for poor engine driveability caused by MTBE-blended gasolines, and to propose a new driveability indicator for gasolines including MTBE-blended gasolines. The static and dynamic evaporation characteristics of MTBE-blended gasolines such as the evaporation rate and the behavior of each component during evaporation were analyzed mainly by using Gas Chromatography/Mass Spectrometry. The results of the analysis show that the MTBE concentration in the vapor, evaporated at ambient temperature (e.g. 24°C), is higher than that in the original gasoline. Accordingly, the fuel vapor with enriched MTBE flows into the combustion chamber of an engine just after the throttle valve is opened.
Technical Paper

Analyzing the Influence of Gasoline Characteristics on Transient Engine Performance

1991-10-01
912392
It has been reported that the middle range of gasoline distillation temperatures strongly affects vehicle driveability and exhaust hydrocarbon (HC) emissions, and that MTBE(CH3-O-C4H9)- blended gasoline causes poor driveability during warm-up. The present paper is concerned with the results of subsequent detailed research on gasoline characteristics, exhaust emissions and driveability. In this paper, first it is demonstrated by using four models of passenger cars having different types of exhaust gas treatment system that decreased 50% distillation temperature (T50) reduces exhaust HC emission. This result indicates lowering T50 in the market will contribute to improving air quality. Secondly gasoline behavior in the intake manifold is investigated by using an engine on the dynamometer in order to clarify the mechanisms of HC emission increase and poor engine response which are caused by high T50.
Technical Paper

Analysis of Oil Consumption by Observing Oil Behavior Around Piston Ring Using a Glass Cylinder Engine

1989-09-01
892107
The reduction of engine oil consumption rate is one of the important concerns for automotive engineers. However, it has been difficult to solve this subject, since the oil consumption mechanism has not yet been elucidated. In this study, to clarify the oil loss mechanism via the piston rings, a transparent glass cylinder engine was used to observe oil behavior between cylinder wall and piston surface. For photographic observation, a high speed camera, a still camera. and a TV camera were used. Since the new photographic system by using TV camera with a synchro - flash and a synchro-memory was applied, it was also possible to observe the oil behavior in detail. Moreover, a new visual method by which colored oil was injected from the various points on the piston surface and traced was developed for easy analysis of oil movement around the piston ring.
Technical Paper

Study of Transient Oil Consumption of Automotive Engine

1989-09-01
892110
The oil consumption phenomena during transient engine operating condition is analyzed. The investigation of the oil consumption by means of the real-time oil consumption meter shows that higher intake manifold vacuum during engine-brake condition causes a larger amount of transient oil consumption. The reverse blowby gas flow into the combustion chamber from the crankcase is generated by the high vacuum under engine-brake condition. It is found that this reverse gas flow carries the oil into the chamber from the third land of the piston through the ring end gap of the compression rings. The oil on the piston skirt leaks into the third land through the clearance between the oil ring and the cylinder bore. The weakened bore-to-ring contact pressure by the piston slap motion increases the amount of the leakage oil. New ring sets and pistons are developed based on the results of this study.
Technical Paper

Analysis of Synchronous Belt Vibration in Automotive Valve Train

1988-02-01
880077
The synchronous belt employed in the valve train of automotive engines is operated under fluctuating load. Two types of the belt vibration are observed. One is the well-known lateral vibration. The other is the vibration in the belt running direction which may cause the resonant vibration of the camshaft rotation and may affect the belt life. The purpose of this paper is to describe an analysis of the latter vibration. This vibration was analyzed using the model composed of the inertia moment of the camshaft system and the nonlinear elasticity of the belt in the running direction. The predicted resonant frequency and amplitude were in good agreement with the measured ones. The influence of each factor of the model on the vibration was also investigated. The stiffness in the belt running direction that is determined by the tooth distortion When the belt engages with the pUlley should be increased to reduce the amplitudes of the resonant Vibration.
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