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Technical Paper

Development of an On-Board Type Oil Deterioration Sensor

1993-10-01
932840
According to the principle of pH measurement, an on-board type engine oil deterioration sensor has been developed. The developed sensor is composed of a Pb and oxidized stainless steel electrodes. The sensor signal shows a good linear relationship to the quasi-pH value of the oil. Especially in the region where the oil deterioration proceeds, the remaining basic additives in the oil is easily estimated from the sensor signal.
Technical Paper

A Simulation Test Method for Deterioration of FKM Compounds Engine Crankshaft Oil Seals

1992-10-01
922373
A laboratory scale simulation test method was developed to evaluate deterioration of radial lip seals of fluoroelastomer (FKM) compounds for engine crankshafts. The investigation of the collected radial lip seals of FKM compounds from the field with service up to 450,000km indicated that the only symptom of deterioration is a decrease of lip interference. This deterioration was not duplicated under conventional test conditions using an oil seal test machine because sludge build up at the seal lip caused oil leakage. However, revised test conditions make it possible to duplicate the deterioration experienced in the field. An immersion test using a radial lip seal assembled with the mating shaft was newly developed. This test method was found to be useful to evaluate deterioration of radial lip seals using FKM compounds. Oil additives affect the deterioration of lip seal materials significantly. Therefore, immersion tests of four different oils were conducted to evaluate this effect.
Technical Paper

Formulation Technology for Low Phosphorus Gasoline Engine Oils

1992-10-01
922301
The effect of phosphorus concentration in gasoline engine oils on the valve train wear was experimentally investigated by using the JASO M328-91 3A valve train wear (3A-VTW) test method. The phosphorus concentration is determined proportionally to the amount of zinc dithiophosphate (ZDDP), which is formulated as both antiwear agent and antioxidant. Lower concentrations of ZDDP generally bring about larger wear in the valve train. However, it was found from the experiments that valve train wear remained low despite a decrease of phosphorus concentration when secondary ZDDPs with short alkyl chain together with appropriate ashless dispersants were selected. Since adsorptivity of secondary ZDDPs with short alkyl chain lengths onto rubbing metal surfaces is higher than that of primary types, the secondary types give excellent antiwear characteristics.
Technical Paper

Analysis of Poor Engine Response Caused by MTBE-Blended Gasoline from the Standpoint of Fuel Evaporation

1992-02-01
920800
Fifty percent distillation temperature (T50) can be used as a warm-up driveability indicator for a hydrocarbon-type gasoline. MTBE-blended gasoline, however, provides poorer driveability than a hydrocarbon-type gasoline with the same T50. The purposes of this paper are to examine the reason for poor engine driveability caused by MTBE-blended gasolines, and to propose a new driveability indicator for gasolines including MTBE-blended gasolines. The static and dynamic evaporation characteristics of MTBE-blended gasolines such as the evaporation rate and the behavior of each component during evaporation were analyzed mainly by using Gas Chromatography/Mass Spectrometry. The results of the analysis show that the MTBE concentration in the vapor, evaporated at ambient temperature (e.g. 24°C), is higher than that in the original gasoline. Accordingly, the fuel vapor with enriched MTBE flows into the combustion chamber of an engine just after the throttle valve is opened.
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