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Journal Article

Study of the Impact of High Biodiesel Blends on Engine Oil Performance

2011-08-30
2011-01-1930
In Biodiesel Fuel Research Working Group(WG) of Japan Auto-Oil Program(JATOP), some impacts of high biodiesel blends have been investigated from the viewpoints of fuel properties, stability, emissions, exhaust aftertreatment systems, cold driveability, mixing in engine oils, durability/reliability and so on. This report is designed to determine how high biodiesel blends affect oil quality through testing on 2005 regulations engines with DPFs. When blends of 10-20% rapeseed methyl ester (RME) with diesel fuel are employed with 10W-30 engine oil, the oil change interval is reduced to about a half due to a drop in oil pressure. The oil pressure drop occurs because of the reduced kinematic viscosity of engine oil, which resulting from dilution of poorly evaporated RME with engine oil and its accumulation, however, leading to increased wear of piston top rings and cylinder liners.
Technical Paper

Impact Study of High Biodiesel Blends on Exhaust Emissions to Advanced Aftertreatment Systems

2010-04-12
2010-01-1292
In Biodiesel Fuel Research Working Group(WG) of Japan Auto-Oil Program(JATOP), some impacts of high biodiesel blends have been investigated from the viewpoints of fuel properties, stability, emissions, exhaust aftertreatment systems, cold driveability, mixing in engine oils, durability/reliability and so on. In the impact on exhaust emissions, the impact of high biodiesel blends into diesel fuel on diesel emissions was evaluated. The wide variety of biodiesel blendstock, which included not only some kinds of fatty acid methyl esters(FAME) but also hydrofined biodiesel(HBD) and Fischer-Tropsch diesel fuel(FTD), were selected to evaluate. The main blend level evaluated was 5, 10 and 20% and the higher blend level over 20% was also evaluated in some tests. The main advanced technologies for exhaust aftertreatment systems were diesel particulate filter(DPF), Urea selective catalytic reduction (Urea-SCR) and the combination of DPF and NOx storage reduction catalyst(NSR).
Journal Article

Analysis of Oxidative Deterioration of Biodiesel Fuel

2008-10-06
2008-01-2502
Methyl esters of saturated/unsaturated higher aliphatic acids (FAMEs) and a FAME of waste cooking oil (WCOME) were heated at 120°C in an air gas flow. The samples were analyzed before and after heating, using six different methods including electrospray ionization mass spectrometry. As a result, the samples after heating were found to contain low molecular weight aliphatic compounds and oligomers of the FAME. Based on the chemical structure of these oxidation products, reaction schemes were proposed for the deterioration of FAMEs. In addition, two unsaturated FAMEs containing 2,6-di-t-butyl-p-cresol (BHT) were similarly heated and analyzed to examine the effect of BHT on the oxidation of these FAME.
Technical Paper

Fuel Effects on Particulate Emissions from D.I. Engines - Precise Analyses and Evaluation of Diesel Fuel

2000-10-16
2000-01-2882
Precise analytical methods for characterizing diesel fuel yielding the lowest particulate emissions were developed. The methods consist of preparative-scale high pressure liquid chromatography (HPLC), field ionization mass spectrometry (FIMS), analytical-scale HPLC, and carbon-13 nuclear magnetic resonance spectrometry (13C-NMR). A diesel fuel was first separated into an aliphatic fraction and an aromatic fraction by semipreparative-scale HPLC. Then, the aliphatic fraction was analyzed by FIMS and the spectrum was compared with that of the whole fuel. The aromatic fraction was analyzed by analytical-scale HPLC to obtain the chromatogram of the aromatic hydrocarbons with a high S/N. In addition to these analyses, the fuel was analyzed by 13C-NMR to obtain the concentration of the carbon atoms of the straight chain, branched chain and aromatic-ring in hydrocarbons.
Technical Paper

Effect of California Phase 2 Reformulated Gasoline Specifications on Exhaust Emission Reduction; Part 3

1997-10-01
972851
In order to investigate the effect of sulfur and distillation properties on exhaust emissions, emission tests were carried out using a California Low Emission Vehicle (LEV) in accordance with the 1975 Federal Test Procedure ('75 FTP). To study the fuel effect on the exhaust emissions from different systems, these test results were compared with the results obtained from our previous studies using a 92MY vehicle for California Tier 1 standards and a 94MY vehicle for California TLEV standards. (1)(2) First, the sulfur effect on three regulated exhaust emissions (HC, CO and NOx) was studied. As fuel sulfur was changed from 30 to 300 ppm, the exhaust emissions from the LEV increased about 20% in NMHC, 17% in CO and 46% in NOx. To investigate the recovery of the sulfur effect, the test fuel was changed to 30 ppm sulfur after the 300 ppm sulfur tests. The emission level did not recover to that of the initial 30 ppm sulfur during three repeats of the FTP.
Technical Paper

Fuel Effects on Particulate Emissions from D.I. Engine - Relationship among Diesel Fuel, Exhaust Gas and Particulates

1997-05-01
971605
The compositions of hydrocarbons in diesel fuel, exhaust gas and particulates were analyzed and the relationships among them were determined. It was found that the compositions of the hydrocarbons in the exhaust gas were almost the same as that of the fuel, and that the hydrocarbons in the particulates corresponded to their heavy fractions. When the engine condition was fixed, both the soluble organic fraction (SOF) and insoluble fraction ( ISF) showed positive correlation coefficients versus HC×R310, where HC denotes the hydrocarbon emission and R310 denotes the backend fraction, as measured by the fraction of fuel boiling above 310°C. On the other hand, when the engine condition was varied, ISF had negative correlation coefficients versus HC×R310, while SOF showed positive correlation coefficients.
Technical Paper

Fuel Effects on Particulate Emissions from D. I. Engine - Chemical Analysis and Characterization of Diesel Fuel

1995-10-01
952351
The properties of diesel fuels were investigated in terms of particulate emissions to clarify the specification of such a diesel fuel for minimizing particulate emissions. Diesel fuels were analyzed using thin layer chromatography (TLC), and gas chromatography/mass spectrometry (GC/MS). These analysis revealed the entire composition of hydrocarbons in diesel fuels according to molecular formula. The entire composition of hydrocarbons in diesel fuels could be expressd on a three-dimensional graph: the X-axis as carbon number, the Y-axis as H/C ratio and the Z-axis as the amount of hydrocarbons of identical molecular formula. By using the graph, the properties reported so far were investigated. Also, simplified images of the fuel sprayed into a cylinder and its flame were derived from the observational results previously reported.
Technical Paper

Effects of California Phase 2 Reformulated Gasoline Regulations on Exhaust Emission Reduction: Part 2

1995-10-01
952502
The 50% and 90% distillation temperature (T50 & T90), aromatics, olefins and sulfur content are regulated in California Phase2 Reformulated Gasoline. The effects of these properties on the exhaust emissions were investigated. Twelve test fuels with little interaction between T50, T90, aromatics and olefins were prepared. Exhaust emissions were measured using a TLEV according to 1975 Federal Test Procedure (75 FTP). T50 had a large effect on exhaust HC emissions. T90 also affected HC emissions. Both increasing and decreasing T50, T90 showed increasing exhaust HC emissions. These results suggest that an optimum range of T50 and T90 exist for lowering exhaust HC emissions. The effects of sulfur on exhaust emissions were also investigated. A Pt/Rh type catalyst (production type) and a Pd type catalyst (prototype) were prepared. These catalysts were put on a 94MY TLEV. Increase of sulfur lead to increase of the exhaust emissions with both catalysts.
Technical Paper

Effects of Gasoline and Gasoline Detergents on Combustion Chamber Deposit Formation

1994-10-01
941893
Engine dynamometer tests were conducted to evaluate the effect of detergent additives and gasoline components on Combustion Chamber Deposits (CCD). Additives with polyether amine (PEA) and with polyolefin amine (POA) chemicals were used. Three kinds of POA additives were used. Our results show that some kinds of additives and aromatics in gasoline increase CCD formation. Different polyolefin detergents show different tendency of CCD formation. The amount of CCD showed good relationship with the unwashed gum level of the gasoline. In general, smaller dosages produce less CCD. This means that detergents which have good IVD and PFID effectiveness at smaller dosage are better with regard to CCD. We analyzed the CCD by C13-NMR, GPC and IR method. The detergent contributes to CCD. Vehicle emissions tests were carried out to evaluate the effects of CCD on exhaust emissions.
Technical Paper

Effect of Gasoline Engine Oil Components on Intake Valve Deposit

1993-10-01
932792
This paper describes lubricant technology which helps to prevent intake valve deposit (IVD) formation for use with conventional gasolines without detergents, as well as the IVD evaluation method used in testing. The FED 3462 method was modified to establish a new panel coking test method, with excellent correlation with the engine stand IVD test, for the quantitative evaluation of IVD. Tests have shown that IVD increases when the volatility of base oils becomes higher due to condensation and polymerization of engine oil additives. Furthermore, viscosity index improvers, metallic detergents and ashless dispersants have considerable effect on IVD formation. Based on various experiments, the authors have established a formulation technology for engine oils to lower IVD, which they incorporated in two newly formulated SG oils with lower IVD than conventional 5W-30 SG oil.
Technical Paper

Effect of Gasoline Components on Exhaust Hydrocarbon Components

1993-10-01
932670
Vehicle emissions tests were conducted using a 1992 model year Toyota Camry for California under the 1975 Federal Test Procedure. Nine fuels of different composition were prepared. Effects of gasoline composition and sulfur content on tailpipe and engine-out emissions were investigated. Exhaust mass emission test results indicated that gasoline distillation properties and sulfur content have large effect on non-methane organic gas emissions. Furthermore, fuel, engine-out, and tailpipe hydrocarbons were speciated and the relationship between fuel and exhaust specific ozone reactivity analyzed. From these studies, it is concluded that aromatics are the largest contributor to the specific ozone reactivity of exhaust emissions and these aromatics, in emissions, are mainly unburned and partly oxidized aromatics from the fuel. Fuel MTBE correlates with exhaust olefins and oxygenates.
Technical Paper

Effects of California Phase 2 Reformulated Gasoline Specifications on Exhaust Emission Reduction

1992-10-01
922179
In response to various reformulated gasoline regulations, several studies have been conducted to evaluate the relationship between fuel properties and vehicle exhaust emissions. These studies, however, have focused on the fuel effect and have not examined the most promising advanced technology emission control systems on low emission vehicles. Toyota's reformulated gasoline research first set out to study the effect fuel compositions has on 2 different emission control systems. On both systems, non-methane hydrocarbon (NMHC) emissions were significantly affected by the 50% and 90% distillation temperature (T50 and T90). A correlation was also found exhaust olefine content and the amount of MTBE contained in the fuel. Research was also conducted on the specific ozone reactivity (SOR) of exhaust hydrocarbons. Various fuels with similar specifications but blended from different feedstocks were evaluated.
Technical Paper

Mechanism of Intake Valve Deposit Formation Part III: Effects of Gasoline Quality

1992-10-01
922265
Quality control of gasoline constituents and its effect on the Intake Valve Deposits (IVD) has become a recent issue. In this paper, the effects of gasoline and oil quality on intake valve deposits were investigated using an Intake Valve Deposit Test Bench and a Sludge Simulator. The deposit formation from the gasoline maximized at an intake valve temperature of approximately 160 °C, and the deposits formed from the engine oil were maximum at approximately 250 °C. Therefore, the contribution of the gasoline or the engine oil appears to depend on the engine conditions. The gasoline which contains MTBE or ethanol with no detergent additive slightly increases the deposition amount. The gasoline with a superior detergent significantly decreases the deposition amount even when MTBE or ethanol is blended in the gasoline. Appropriate detergent fuel additive retards the oil deterioration.
Technical Paper

Analysis of Poor Engine Response Caused by MTBE-Blended Gasoline from the Standpoint of Fuel Evaporation

1992-02-01
920800
Fifty percent distillation temperature (T50) can be used as a warm-up driveability indicator for a hydrocarbon-type gasoline. MTBE-blended gasoline, however, provides poorer driveability than a hydrocarbon-type gasoline with the same T50. The purposes of this paper are to examine the reason for poor engine driveability caused by MTBE-blended gasolines, and to propose a new driveability indicator for gasolines including MTBE-blended gasolines. The static and dynamic evaporation characteristics of MTBE-blended gasolines such as the evaporation rate and the behavior of each component during evaporation were analyzed mainly by using Gas Chromatography/Mass Spectrometry. The results of the analysis show that the MTBE concentration in the vapor, evaporated at ambient temperature (e.g. 24°C), is higher than that in the original gasoline. Accordingly, the fuel vapor with enriched MTBE flows into the combustion chamber of an engine just after the throttle valve is opened.
Technical Paper

The Influence of Fuel Qualities on White Smoke Emissions from Light-Duty Diesel Engine

1987-02-01
870341
In many countries, cetane number and distillation properties of diesel fuel have been changing, thus affecting the performance of diesel engines. This paper describes investigations made on the effect of diesel fuel quality on white smoke (one of the important emissions of diesel engines). The result of simple laboratory tests simulating high altitude conditions plus field tests using three types of disel engines supplied with various types of diesel fuels is given. It was found that white smoke appearing tendency correlated best with cetane number and the 90 percent distillation point of the fuel. The field tests performed at high altitude correlated well with the simple laboratory tests.
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