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Journal Article

Research into Engine Friction Reduction under Cold Conditions - Effect of Reducing Oil Leakage on Bearing Friction

Fuel efficiency improvement measures are focusing on both cold and hot conditions to help reduce CO2 emissions. Recent technological trends for improving fuel economy such as hybrid vehicles (HVs), engine start and stop systems, and variable valve systems feature expanded use of low-temperature engine operation regions. Under cold conditions (oil temperature: approximately 30°C), fuel consumption is roughly 20% greater than under hot conditions (80°C). The main cause of the increased friction under cold conditions is increased oil viscosity. This research used the motoring slipping method to measure the effect of an improved crankshaft bearing, which accounts for a high proportion of friction under cold conditions. First, the effect of clearance was investigated. Although increasing the clearance helped to decrease friction due to the oil wedge effect, greater oil leakage reduced the oil film temperature increase generated by the friction.
Journal Article

Analysis of Piston Friction in Internal Combustion Engine

The purpose of this study is to analyze the piston skirt friction reduction effect of a diamond-like carbon (DLC)-coated wrist pin. The floating liner method and elasto-hydrodynamic lubrication (EHL) simulation were used to analyze piston skirt friction. The experimental results showed that a DLC-coated wrist pin reduced cylinder liner friction, and that this reduction was particularly large at low engine speeds and large pin offset conditions. Friction was particularly reduced at around the top and bottom dead center positions (TDC and BDC). EHL simulation confirmed that a DLC-coated wrist pin affects the piston motion and reduces the contact pressure between the piston skirt and cylinder liner.
Journal Article

Analysis of Piston Friction - Effects of Cylinder Bore Temperature Distribution and Oil Temperature

Hybrid vehicles (HVs) are becoming more widely used. Since HVs supplement engine drive with motor power, the lubricant oil temperature remains at a lower level than in a conventional gasoline vehicle. This study analyzed the effect of cylinder bore temperature and lubricant oil temperature on engine friction. The results showed that, although the lubricant oil temperature was not relevant, the bore temperature had significant effect on piston friction. It was found that raising the temperature of the middle section of the cylinder bore was the most effective way of reducing piston friction.