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Technical Paper

Numerical Modeling of the Contamination of Engine Oil by Fuel Combustion Byproducts

2014-10-13
2014-01-2574
This paper focuses on the fuel contribution to crankcase engine oil degradation in gasoline fueled engines in view of insoluble formation. The polymerization of degraded fuel is responsible for the formation of insoluble which is considered as a possible cause of low temperature sludge in severe vehicle operating conditions. The main objective of the study is to understand the mechanism of formation of partially oxidized compounds from fuel during the combustion process, before their accumulation in the crankcase oil. A numerical method has been established to calculate the formation of partially oxidized compounds in spark ignition engines directly, by using 3D CFD. To further enable the possibility of running a large number of simulations with a realistic turn-around time, a coupled approach of 3D CFD (with simplified chemical mechanism) and 0D Kinetics (with full chemical mechanism) is proposed here.
Technical Paper

Challenge to the Diesel Engine Lubrication with Fuel

2007-07-23
2007-01-1978
A study of diesel fuel as a lubricant for diesel engines was conducted with the aim of dramatically reducing engine friction and eliminating the need to change the lubricating oil. A prototype single-cylinder engine modified for diesel fuel lubrication was made, and it was confirmed that firing operation is possible. Piston friction during the firing operation was reduced by modifying the shape of the cylinder liner surface to improve the retention of the lubricating oil. The study produced valid findings concerning engine lubrication, not only with diesel fuel, but also with ultra-low viscosity oil.
Technical Paper

Effect of California Phase 2 Reformulated Gasoline Specifications on Exhaust Emission Reduction; Part 3

1997-10-01
972851
In order to investigate the effect of sulfur and distillation properties on exhaust emissions, emission tests were carried out using a California Low Emission Vehicle (LEV) in accordance with the 1975 Federal Test Procedure ('75 FTP). To study the fuel effect on the exhaust emissions from different systems, these test results were compared with the results obtained from our previous studies using a 92MY vehicle for California Tier 1 standards and a 94MY vehicle for California TLEV standards. (1)(2) First, the sulfur effect on three regulated exhaust emissions (HC, CO and NOx) was studied. As fuel sulfur was changed from 30 to 300 ppm, the exhaust emissions from the LEV increased about 20% in NMHC, 17% in CO and 46% in NOx. To investigate the recovery of the sulfur effect, the test fuel was changed to 30 ppm sulfur after the 300 ppm sulfur tests. The emission level did not recover to that of the initial 30 ppm sulfur during three repeats of the FTP.
Technical Paper

Joint PAJ/JAMA Project - Development of a JASO Gasoline Bench Engine Test for Measuring CCDs

1997-10-01
972837
Detergent additives in automotive gasoline fuel are mainly designed to reduce deposit formation on intake valves and fuel injectors, but it has been reported that some additives may contribute to CCD formation. Therefore, a standardized bench engine test method for CCDs needs to be developed in response to industry demands. Cooperative research between the Petroleum Association of Japan (PAJ) and the Japan Automobile Manufacturers Association, Inc. (JAMA), has led to the development of a 2.2L Honda engine dynamometer-based CCD test procedure to evaluate CCDs from fuel additives. Ten automobile manufacturers, nine petroleum companies and the Petroleum Energy Center joined the project, which underwent PAJ-JAMA round robin testing. This paper describes the CCD test development activities, which include the selection of an engine and the determination of the optimum test conditions and other test criteria.
Technical Paper

The Effects of Fuel Properties and Oxygenates on Diesel Exhaust Emissions

1995-10-01
952349
The effects of diesel fuel properties (aromatic content, cetane index and T90), cetane improver, oxygenates, high boiling point hydrocarbons and aromatics distribution on diesel exhaust emissions were studied under the Japanese 10-15 test cycle and the ECE+EUDC test cycle. The test vehicle was a TOYOTA COROLLA with a natural aspirated, 2.0L displacement, IDI diesel engine. It was demonstrated that particulate emissions are highly correlated with T90 and that NOx is affected by the aromatic content of fuel. A reduction in particulates emissions was observed in fuel with a lower cetane number by adding cetane improver, but this reduction was limited. Cetane improver had no effect on NOx emissions in the 45 # 60 cetane number range. Oxygenates reduced particulate emissions remarkably but had little effect on NOx emissions. A decrease in the soot in particulates was particularly observed.
Technical Paper

Effects of California Phase 2 Reformulated Gasoline Regulations on Exhaust Emission Reduction: Part 2

1995-10-01
952502
The 50% and 90% distillation temperature (T50 & T90), aromatics, olefins and sulfur content are regulated in California Phase2 Reformulated Gasoline. The effects of these properties on the exhaust emissions were investigated. Twelve test fuels with little interaction between T50, T90, aromatics and olefins were prepared. Exhaust emissions were measured using a TLEV according to 1975 Federal Test Procedure (75 FTP). T50 had a large effect on exhaust HC emissions. T90 also affected HC emissions. Both increasing and decreasing T50, T90 showed increasing exhaust HC emissions. These results suggest that an optimum range of T50 and T90 exist for lowering exhaust HC emissions. The effects of sulfur on exhaust emissions were also investigated. A Pt/Rh type catalyst (production type) and a Pd type catalyst (prototype) were prepared. These catalysts were put on a 94MY TLEV. Increase of sulfur lead to increase of the exhaust emissions with both catalysts.
Technical Paper

Effects of Gasoline and Gasoline Detergents on Combustion Chamber Deposit Formation

1994-10-01
941893
Engine dynamometer tests were conducted to evaluate the effect of detergent additives and gasoline components on Combustion Chamber Deposits (CCD). Additives with polyether amine (PEA) and with polyolefin amine (POA) chemicals were used. Three kinds of POA additives were used. Our results show that some kinds of additives and aromatics in gasoline increase CCD formation. Different polyolefin detergents show different tendency of CCD formation. The amount of CCD showed good relationship with the unwashed gum level of the gasoline. In general, smaller dosages produce less CCD. This means that detergents which have good IVD and PFID effectiveness at smaller dosage are better with regard to CCD. We analyzed the CCD by C13-NMR, GPC and IR method. The detergent contributes to CCD. Vehicle emissions tests were carried out to evaluate the effects of CCD on exhaust emissions.
Technical Paper

Effect of Gasoline Components on Exhaust Hydrocarbon Components

1993-10-01
932670
Vehicle emissions tests were conducted using a 1992 model year Toyota Camry for California under the 1975 Federal Test Procedure. Nine fuels of different composition were prepared. Effects of gasoline composition and sulfur content on tailpipe and engine-out emissions were investigated. Exhaust mass emission test results indicated that gasoline distillation properties and sulfur content have large effect on non-methane organic gas emissions. Furthermore, fuel, engine-out, and tailpipe hydrocarbons were speciated and the relationship between fuel and exhaust specific ozone reactivity analyzed. From these studies, it is concluded that aromatics are the largest contributor to the specific ozone reactivity of exhaust emissions and these aromatics, in emissions, are mainly unburned and partly oxidized aromatics from the fuel. Fuel MTBE correlates with exhaust olefins and oxygenates.
Technical Paper

Effects of California Phase 2 Reformulated Gasoline Specifications on Exhaust Emission Reduction

1992-10-01
922179
In response to various reformulated gasoline regulations, several studies have been conducted to evaluate the relationship between fuel properties and vehicle exhaust emissions. These studies, however, have focused on the fuel effect and have not examined the most promising advanced technology emission control systems on low emission vehicles. Toyota's reformulated gasoline research first set out to study the effect fuel compositions has on 2 different emission control systems. On both systems, non-methane hydrocarbon (NMHC) emissions were significantly affected by the 50% and 90% distillation temperature (T50 and T90). A correlation was also found exhaust olefine content and the amount of MTBE contained in the fuel. Research was also conducted on the specific ozone reactivity (SOR) of exhaust hydrocarbons. Various fuels with similar specifications but blended from different feedstocks were evaluated.
Technical Paper

Mechanism of Intake Valve Deposit Formation Part III: Effects of Gasoline Quality

1992-10-01
922265
Quality control of gasoline constituents and its effect on the Intake Valve Deposits (IVD) has become a recent issue. In this paper, the effects of gasoline and oil quality on intake valve deposits were investigated using an Intake Valve Deposit Test Bench and a Sludge Simulator. The deposit formation from the gasoline maximized at an intake valve temperature of approximately 160 °C, and the deposits formed from the engine oil were maximum at approximately 250 °C. Therefore, the contribution of the gasoline or the engine oil appears to depend on the engine conditions. The gasoline which contains MTBE or ethanol with no detergent additive slightly increases the deposition amount. The gasoline with a superior detergent significantly decreases the deposition amount even when MTBE or ethanol is blended in the gasoline. Appropriate detergent fuel additive retards the oil deterioration.
Technical Paper

Analysis of Poor Engine Response Caused by MTBE-Blended Gasoline from the Standpoint of Fuel Evaporation

1992-02-01
920800
Fifty percent distillation temperature (T50) can be used as a warm-up driveability indicator for a hydrocarbon-type gasoline. MTBE-blended gasoline, however, provides poorer driveability than a hydrocarbon-type gasoline with the same T50. The purposes of this paper are to examine the reason for poor engine driveability caused by MTBE-blended gasolines, and to propose a new driveability indicator for gasolines including MTBE-blended gasolines. The static and dynamic evaporation characteristics of MTBE-blended gasolines such as the evaporation rate and the behavior of each component during evaporation were analyzed mainly by using Gas Chromatography/Mass Spectrometry. The results of the analysis show that the MTBE concentration in the vapor, evaporated at ambient temperature (e.g. 24°C), is higher than that in the original gasoline. Accordingly, the fuel vapor with enriched MTBE flows into the combustion chamber of an engine just after the throttle valve is opened.
Technical Paper

The Influence of Fuel Qualities on White Smoke Emissions from Light-Duty Diesel Engine

1987-02-01
870341
In many countries, cetane number and distillation properties of diesel fuel have been changing, thus affecting the performance of diesel engines. This paper describes investigations made on the effect of diesel fuel quality on white smoke (one of the important emissions of diesel engines). The result of simple laboratory tests simulating high altitude conditions plus field tests using three types of disel engines supplied with various types of diesel fuels is given. It was found that white smoke appearing tendency correlated best with cetane number and the 90 percent distillation point of the fuel. The field tests performed at high altitude correlated well with the simple laboratory tests.
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