Effect of California Phase 2 Reformulated Gasoline Specifications on Exhaust Emission Reduction; Part 3
In order to investigate the effect of sulfur and distillation properties on exhaust emissions, emission tests were carried out using a California Low Emission Vehicle (LEV) in accordance with the 1975 Federal Test Procedure ('75 FTP). To study the fuel effect on the exhaust emissions from different systems, these test results were compared with the results obtained from our previous studies using a 92MY vehicle for California Tier 1 standards and a 94MY vehicle for California TLEV standards. (1)(2) First, the sulfur effect on three regulated exhaust emissions (HC, CO and NOx) was studied. As fuel sulfur was changed from 30 to 300 ppm, the exhaust emissions from the LEV increased about 20% in NMHC, 17% in CO and 46% in NOx. To investigate the recovery of the sulfur effect, the test fuel was changed to 30 ppm sulfur after the 300 ppm sulfur tests. The emission level did not recover to that of the initial 30 ppm sulfur during three repeats of the FTP.