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Technical Paper

Responses of the Q6/Q6s ATD Positioned in Booster Seats in the Far-Side Seat Location of Side Impact Passenger Car and Sled Tests

Passenger car side impact crash tests and sled tests were conducted to investigate the influence of booster seats, near-side occupant characteristics and vehicle interiors on the responses of the Q6/Q6s child ATD positioned in the rear, far-side seating location. Data from nine side impact sled tests simulating a EuroNCAP AEMD barrier test were analyzed with data obtained from 44 side impact crash tests. The crash tests included: FMVSS 214 and IIHS MDB, moving car-to-stationary car and moving car-to-moving car. A Q6 or prototype Q6s ATD was seated on the far-side, using a variety of low and high back booster seats. Head and chest responses were recorded and ATD motions were tracked with high-speed videos. The vehicle lateral accelerations resulting from MDB tests were characterized by a much earlier and more rapid rise to peak than in tests where the bullet was another car.
Technical Paper

The Effect Of Breast Anthropometry On The Hybrid III 5th Female Chest Response

Two manufacturers, Denton ATD and FTSS, currently produce the Hybrid III 5th percentile female dummy. In response to concerns raised by industry that differences in the anthropometry of the molded breasts between the two manufacturers may influence chest responses, Transport Canada conducted a comparative testing program. Thorax biofidelity tests were conducted to compare force-deflection characteristics; full-frontal, rigid-barrier tests were conducted at 40, 48 and 56 km/h to compare chest responses, and out-of-position chest on module static airbag deployment tests were conducted to compare peak chest deflections of the Denton and FTSS dummy jackets and of a prototype jacket without breasts. Differences in force-deflection characteristics were observed during biofidelity pendulum impacts of the two dummies, with much of the differences attributed to the different chest jackets.
Technical Paper

The Electronic Belt Fit Test Device – Methodology, Results, and Prospects

Correctly fitted seat belts save the lives of car passengers everyday. In attempt to reduce the risk of injuries, primarily abdominal, caused by inappropriate belt fitting, Transport Canada developed the Belt fit Test Device (BTD). The BTD is a physical hardware measuring device that tests whether the lap and torso belt are appropriately positioned with respect to the bony structures of the pelvis and rib cage of the restrained occupant. To overcome the deviations of hardware physical tests and to enable review of belt design in early design phases, the Alliance of Automobile Manufacturers funded the development of an electronic simulation and modeling tool in the form of an electronic Belt fit Test Device (eBTD). The development takes place in close co-operation with the Joint Working Group on Abdominal Injury Reduction (JWG-AIR).
Technical Paper

SID-IIS Response in Side Impact Testing

The responses of a 5th percentile female ATD in the driver and/or rear passenger positions of 56 crashes are described. The Transport Canada side impact programme consisted of LTV-to-car impacts, car-to-car impacts and IIHS barrier-to-car tests. The majority of the tests involved severe crash conditions for which the vehicles were not designed. The SID-IIs head, chest and abdominal responses were compared to determine the effects of the striking bullet geometry, the angle of impact, the impact point and the self-protective elements of the struck vehicle, including airbag technology and armrest designs. The SID-IIs head responses and deflection measures were sufficiently sensitive to discriminate between the various striking vehicles, crash configurations, airbag systems and armrest characteristics.
Technical Paper

Development of an Electronic Belt Fit Test Device (eBTD) for Digitally Certifying Seat Belt Fit Compliance

Vehicle seat belt efficacy relates directly to the extent that occupant anthropometric dimensions align with the seat belt geometric design. Transport Canada researched and developed a Belt Fit Test Device (BTD) to assess potential occupant injuries resulting from incongruities between seat belt design and occupant anatomical characteristics. A proposed electronic version (eBTD) will allow vehicle manufacturers to use digital human modeling programs and computer-aided design (CAD) data and tools to evaluate seat belt designs before a vehicle is produced. This software module simulates seat belt routing over CAD data representing the physical device. The simulation incorporates anchor point kinematics and measures the belt position over clavicle, sternum and lap scales.
Technical Paper

ESV '01 government of Canada status report

In the fall of 2000, the Council of Ministers agreed that Canada should retain the vision of having the safest roads in the world, and that a longer term successor plan, called Road Safety Vision 2010, carry forward the work of Canada's inaugural national road safety plan. It was further agreed that the plan include an overall national target and sub-targets. A national target that calls for 30% decreases in the average number of road users killed and seriously injured during the 2008-2010 period below comparable 1996-2001 figures is currently under consideration. Achievement of this target would reduce Canada's road fatality total to fewer than 2100 by 2010.
Technical Paper

The electronic belt-fit test device (eBTD): A method for certifying safe seat belt fit

The belt-fit test device (BTD) measures and assesses static seat belt geometry of automobile seat belts. It was conceived and developed by Transport Canada throughout the 1970s, 1980s and 1990s to address abdominal and upper body injuries that resulted from a mismatch between seat belt geometry and occupants' anthropometric characteristics. When positioned on an automobile seat, the BTD indicates whether the lap and shoulder belts fall within specified bounds that have been established to minimize the risk of serious injuries to soft tissue and organs from belt intrusion. Recently, work has focused on the development of an electronic version of the BTD using computer-human modeling techniques and computer-aided design (CAD). Tecmath AG, creators of the RAMSIS™ 3D human modeling system, are currently developing an electronic BTD (or eBTD).
Technical Paper

Assessment of Injury Risk to Children From Side Airbags

Static out-of-position tests were performed to identify the potential for injury as a function of position, airbag type and vehicle seat characteristics. Seat and door mounted airbags, head curtains and head tubes were evaluated. Out-of-position testing was carried out with the Hybrid III 3 year old, 6 year old and the TNO Q3 3 year old child dummies. In-position tests and a dynamic test were conducted to monitor child seat and airbag interactions and to confirm that properly restrained children would not be exposed to undue risk from a deploying side airbag. Results of the out-of-position testing suggest that current side airbag designs may cause serious and/or fatal neck and chest injuries. In-position static testing with child seats suggested a potential for intrusion into the child occupant space leading to structural damage of the car seat.
Technical Paper

The Effect of Top Tether Strap Configurations on Child Restraint Performance

This paper reports the results of a study to determine the effects of a top tether strap on the performance of child restraint systems (CRS). Four commercially available CRSs and the CanFIX were tested. All restraints tested had a similar design T-shield type harness system to minimize harness variability. As part of the test matrix, tether webbing, tether height and tether slack were varied. The dummies used for testing were the 12-and 18-month CRABI. Head and chest acceleration, head excursion, upper and lower neck loads and resultant moments were recorded. Although the presence of slack in the tether strap degrades the performance of the CRS, a tether strap with slack present improved the response of a dummy restrained in a CRS when compared to an identical tetherless restraint. With maximum slack, the results for the restraint condition approached results from a tetherless condition while still demonstrating a slight benefit.
Technical Paper

Development of an Electronic Belt Fit Test Device

The purpose of this project was to develop and validate a computer-based version of the Belt Fit Test Device with a view towards exploring the potential of this technology to improve belt fitment for the general occupant population. The electronic BTD was initially developed and validated against two seats using the Transport Canada seat simulator. Preliminary validation indicated good correspondence between computed and measured BTD co-ordinates. The electronic BTD was then validated in ten vehicles. In total, 40 BTD scores were computed using the electronic BTD and compared with actual BTD values. In 30 of the 40 comparisons, the discrepancy between measured and computed values was less than one centimetre. In terms of test performance using the pass/fail criteria developed for the BTD, 37 of the 40 comparisons were in agreement. However, a number of refinements have been identified which could further improve the seat belt algorithm and the overall usefulness of the model.
Technical Paper

Air Bag Deployments Involving Restrained Occupants

As a consequence of various federal and provincial initiatives to promote the use of seat belts in Canada, the wearing rate of seat belts among front outboard passenger car occupants is now estimated at 90 percent. Accordingly, the vast majority of air bag deployments in Canada involve restrained occupants. In order to gain a better understanding of the field performance of air bag systems, Transport Canada recently initiated an m-depth study of motor vehicle collisions involving air bag deployments. To date, investigations have been completed on 242 such collisions. While the preliminary data suggest that supplementary air bag systems provide considerable added protection against serious head injuries in moderate and high severity frontal crashes, they also suggest that, in low severity crashes, deployment of an air bag system may expose belted occupants to unnecessary injury risk from the air bag itself.
Technical Paper

Development of the CANFIX Infant and Child Restraint/Vehicle Interface System

This paper describes the development of an interface system for attaching infant and child restraints and booster cushions to passenger vehicles. The resulting prototype, known as CANFIX is based on the ISOFIX concept which was conceived in Sweden. The CANFIX design comprises two rear attachments to be secured to two anchorage points located behind the vehicle seat bight. In forward-facing child restraints, the CANFIX system also includes the tether anchorage feature. The results of preliminary dynamic testing of three CANFIX modified restraint systems are presented in the paper with the results of tests to examine the compatibility of the CANFIX system with current vehicle seats.
Technical Paper

Investigation of Dummy Response and Restraint Configuration Factors Associated with Upper Spinal Cord Injury in a Forward-Facing Child Restraint

Dummy response and restraint configuration factors associated with a known child injury environment were investigated using a spinal-cord injury accident case, a full-scale reconstruction, and sled simulations. The work is one of several studies undertaken in association with the International Task Force on Child Restraining Systems to support the development of improved neck injury criteria and restraint systems for young children. A two-vehicle crash involving a restrained child occupant was investigated in detail and reconstructed in full-scale at the Transport Canada Motor Vehicle Test Centre using the CRABI 6-Month dummy. Vehicle damage and crush characteristics closely resembled that of the case vehicles. Dummy instrumentation included head and chest accelerometers and upper and lower neck transducers. The case occupant had been facing forward and had sustained a contusion of the spinal cord at T2 that resulted in paraplegia.
Technical Paper

Development and Further Refinement of the Belt Deployment Test Device

A Seat Belt Fit Test Device was developed to enable the measurement of belt fit of any vehicle seat/belt restraint system. A summary of the early development of this device is presented here with the results of more recent work. Belt fit measurements for human subjects is compared to measurements obtained with the Belt Fit Test Device. Recommendations are made for further validation testing. Finally, the regulatory potential of the belt test device is considered in terms of present Canadian Motor Vehicle Safety Regulations.
Technical Paper

Restraint System Effectiveness as a Function of Seating Position

Drawing on provincial data files maintained by Transport Canada, the injury experience of passenger vehicle occupants as a function of occupant seating position, reported restraint use and occupant age is examined. Particular attention is given to the issue of rear seat lap belt effectiveness. Estimates of restraint system effectiveness are derived using a variety of approaches. These range from direct comparisons of the relative injury/fatality rates of restrained and unrestrained occupants in reportable accidents to double-pair comparisons based on “subject” and “control” occupants in fatal accidents. Available Canadian data suggest that the use of three-point seat belts by front seated occupants and the use of lap belts by rear seated occupants substantially reduces the likelihood of serious or fatal injury.