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Technical Paper

Responses of the Q6/Q6s ATD Positioned in Booster Seats in the Far-Side Seat Location of Side Impact Passenger Car and Sled Tests

Passenger car side impact crash tests and sled tests were conducted to investigate the influence of booster seats, near-side occupant characteristics and vehicle interiors on the responses of the Q6/Q6s child ATD positioned in the rear, far-side seating location. Data from nine side impact sled tests simulating a EuroNCAP AEMD barrier test were analyzed with data obtained from 44 side impact crash tests. The crash tests included: FMVSS 214 and IIHS MDB, moving car-to-stationary car and moving car-to-moving car. A Q6 or prototype Q6s ATD was seated on the far-side, using a variety of low and high back booster seats. Head and chest responses were recorded and ATD motions were tracked with high-speed videos. The vehicle lateral accelerations resulting from MDB tests were characterized by a much earlier and more rapid rise to peak than in tests where the bullet was another car.
Technical Paper

The Effect Of Breast Anthropometry On The Hybrid III 5th Female Chest Response

Two manufacturers, Denton ATD and FTSS, currently produce the Hybrid III 5th percentile female dummy. In response to concerns raised by industry that differences in the anthropometry of the molded breasts between the two manufacturers may influence chest responses, Transport Canada conducted a comparative testing program. Thorax biofidelity tests were conducted to compare force-deflection characteristics; full-frontal, rigid-barrier tests were conducted at 40, 48 and 56 km/h to compare chest responses, and out-of-position chest on module static airbag deployment tests were conducted to compare peak chest deflections of the Denton and FTSS dummy jackets and of a prototype jacket without breasts. Differences in force-deflection characteristics were observed during biofidelity pendulum impacts of the two dummies, with much of the differences attributed to the different chest jackets.
Technical Paper

A Comparison Of Hybrid III 5th Female Dummy Chest Responses In Controlled Sled Trials

The responses of a Hybrid III 5th percentile dummy manufactured by Denton ATD were compared to a Hybrid III 5th percentile dummy manufactured by First Technology Safety Systems (FTSS). The dummies were seated on a HYGE sled set in a representative small production sedan configuration, simulating a 60 km/h offset deformable barrier (25 g pulse) and a 22 km/h crash (11 g pulse). Three shoulder retractor anchorage positions were used to place the shoulder belt at different locations on the dummy shoulder for each of the driver (left shoulder) and passenger (right shoulder) seating positions. Chest deflections measured from the rotary potentiometer are compared to deflections calculated from the accelerometers and are reported as a function of belt load and belt position. Repeatability is evaluated at low and high deflection levels.
Technical Paper

The Electronic Belt Fit Test Device – Methodology, Results, and Prospects

Correctly fitted seat belts save the lives of car passengers everyday. In attempt to reduce the risk of injuries, primarily abdominal, caused by inappropriate belt fitting, Transport Canada developed the Belt fit Test Device (BTD). The BTD is a physical hardware measuring device that tests whether the lap and torso belt are appropriately positioned with respect to the bony structures of the pelvis and rib cage of the restrained occupant. To overcome the deviations of hardware physical tests and to enable review of belt design in early design phases, the Alliance of Automobile Manufacturers funded the development of an electronic simulation and modeling tool in the form of an electronic Belt fit Test Device (eBTD). The development takes place in close co-operation with the Joint Working Group on Abdominal Injury Reduction (JWG-AIR).
Technical Paper

SID-IIS Response in Side Impact Testing

The responses of a 5th percentile female ATD in the driver and/or rear passenger positions of 56 crashes are described. The Transport Canada side impact programme consisted of LTV-to-car impacts, car-to-car impacts and IIHS barrier-to-car tests. The majority of the tests involved severe crash conditions for which the vehicles were not designed. The SID-IIs head, chest and abdominal responses were compared to determine the effects of the striking bullet geometry, the angle of impact, the impact point and the self-protective elements of the struck vehicle, including airbag technology and armrest designs. The SID-IIs head responses and deflection measures were sufficiently sensitive to discriminate between the various striking vehicles, crash configurations, airbag systems and armrest characteristics.
Technical Paper

ES-2 Dummy Biomechanical Responses

This technical paper presents the results of biomechanical testing conducted on the ES-2 dummy by the Occupant Safety Research Partnership and Transport Canada. The ES-2 is a production dummy, based on the EuroSID-1 dummy, that was modified to further improve testing capabilities as recommended by users of the EuroSID-1 dummy. Biomechanical response data were obtained by completing a series of drop, pendulum, and sled tests that are outlined in the International Organization of Standardization Technical Report 9790 that describes biofidelity requirements for the midsize adult male side impact dummy. A few of the biofidelity tests were conducted on both sides of the dummy to evaluate the symmetry of its responses. Full vehicle crash tests were conducted to verify if the changes in the EuroSID-1, resulting in the ES-2 design, did improve the dummy's testing capability. In addition to the biofidelity testing, the ES-2 dummy repeatability, reproducibility and durability are discussed.
Technical Paper

Development of Seatbelt Fit Assessment Components for the ASPECT Manikin

As part of the Automotive Seat and Package Evaluation and Comparison Tools (ASPECT) program, UMTRI researchers developed a new H-point manikin that is intended to replace the current SAE J826 manikin. The original manikin is used in many automotive applications, including as a platform for a belt-fit test device (BTD). In the current project, components and procedures were developed to measure belt fit using the ASPECT manikin. Contoured lap and torso forms were constructed using anthropometric data from an earlier UMTRI study. Prototype forms were mounted on the ASPECT manikin for testing in a laboratory fixture and in vehicles. The testing demonstrated that the ASPECT-BTD produces consistent measures of belt fit that vary in expected ways with belt geometry.
Technical Paper

Development of an Electronic Belt Fit Test Device (eBTD) for Digitally Certifying Seat Belt Fit Compliance

Vehicle seat belt efficacy relates directly to the extent that occupant anthropometric dimensions align with the seat belt geometric design. Transport Canada researched and developed a Belt Fit Test Device (BTD) to assess potential occupant injuries resulting from incongruities between seat belt design and occupant anatomical characteristics. A proposed electronic version (eBTD) will allow vehicle manufacturers to use digital human modeling programs and computer-aided design (CAD) data and tools to evaluate seat belt designs before a vehicle is produced. This software module simulates seat belt routing over CAD data representing the physical device. The simulation incorporates anchor point kinematics and measures the belt position over clavicle, sternum and lap scales.
Technical Paper

ESV '01 government of Canada status report

In the fall of 2000, the Council of Ministers agreed that Canada should retain the vision of having the safest roads in the world, and that a longer term successor plan, called Road Safety Vision 2010, carry forward the work of Canada's inaugural national road safety plan. It was further agreed that the plan include an overall national target and sub-targets. A national target that calls for 30% decreases in the average number of road users killed and seriously injured during the 2008-2010 period below comparable 1996-2001 figures is currently under consideration. Achievement of this target would reduce Canada's road fatality total to fewer than 2100 by 2010.
Technical Paper

International Harmonized Research Activities report of working group on intelligent transport systems (ITS)

The International Harmonized Research Activities Working Group on Intelligent Transport Systems was established to coordinate government research aimed at developing harmonized procedures for the evaluation of safety of in- vehicle information, control and communication systems with respect to human performance and behavior. It deals with human-machine interactions in the broadest sense of that phrase. However, it is acknowledged that even in its broadest sense human-machine interactions is only a part of ITS safety. This report describes the activities completed in the past five years, including the formulation of an overall framework for ITS safety assurance indicating the role of the ITS WG within this framework, a series of workshops on the safety test and evaluation of ITS, and definition of priority research problem statements. Recommendations are provided to address the formidable challenges facing the WG.
Technical Paper

Trailer Underride Protection - A Canadian Perspective

This paper provides details on the tests performed and the research findings of an underride guard test programme, including 10 full scale crashes using three types of deformable guards. The deformable guards tested included one meeting the minimum requirements of the NHTSA FMVSS 223 with ground clearances of either 560 or 480 mm, a second meeting the same minimum performance criteria with the addition of a device to limit the displacement of the horizontal member (ground clearance of 480 mm only) and a third being stiffer and designed to roughly maintain its 560 mm ground clearance during deformation. Crash tests were performed at speeds of 48, 56 and 65 kph.
Technical Paper

Assessment of Injury Risk to Children From Side Airbags

Static out-of-position tests were performed to identify the potential for injury as a function of position, airbag type and vehicle seat characteristics. Seat and door mounted airbags, head curtains and head tubes were evaluated. Out-of-position testing was carried out with the Hybrid III 3 year old, 6 year old and the TNO Q3 3 year old child dummies. In-position tests and a dynamic test were conducted to monitor child seat and airbag interactions and to confirm that properly restrained children would not be exposed to undue risk from a deploying side airbag. Results of the out-of-position testing suggest that current side airbag designs may cause serious and/or fatal neck and chest injuries. In-position static testing with child seats suggested a potential for intrusion into the child occupant space leading to structural damage of the car seat.
Technical Paper

School Bus Visibility: Driver's Field of View and Performance of Mirror Systems on a Conventional Long-Nosed School Bus

This report presents the results of the driver's field of view and the performance of six crossview and two sideview mirror systems on a conventional long-nosed school bus. It also contains an evaluation of the image quality of the crossview mirrors in terms of the angular length and width of their reflected images. The measurements of the field of view and the evaluation of image quality were done at two driver eye locations, one representative of the cyclopian view of a 95th percentile adult male and the other one representative of the cyclopian view of a 5th percentile adult female. Measurements were taken considering that there were no head movements. For the purposes of the study, the term “blind spot” was defined as meaning any area that could not be seen directly by the driver. The performance of the mirrors was judged in terms of their capacity to provide a complete and clear view of the blind spots.
Technical Paper

The Effect of Top Tether Strap Configurations on Child Restraint Performance

This paper reports the results of a study to determine the effects of a top tether strap on the performance of child restraint systems (CRS). Four commercially available CRSs and the CanFIX were tested. All restraints tested had a similar design T-shield type harness system to minimize harness variability. As part of the test matrix, tether webbing, tether height and tether slack were varied. The dummies used for testing were the 12-and 18-month CRABI. Head and chest acceleration, head excursion, upper and lower neck loads and resultant moments were recorded. Although the presence of slack in the tether strap degrades the performance of the CRS, a tether strap with slack present improved the response of a dummy restrained in a CRS when compared to an identical tetherless restraint. With maximum slack, the results for the restraint condition approached results from a tetherless condition while still demonstrating a slight benefit.
Technical Paper

Development of an Electronic Belt Fit Test Device

The purpose of this project was to develop and validate a computer-based version of the Belt Fit Test Device with a view towards exploring the potential of this technology to improve belt fitment for the general occupant population. The electronic BTD was initially developed and validated against two seats using the Transport Canada seat simulator. Preliminary validation indicated good correspondence between computed and measured BTD co-ordinates. The electronic BTD was then validated in ten vehicles. In total, 40 BTD scores were computed using the electronic BTD and compared with actual BTD values. In 30 of the 40 comparisons, the discrepancy between measured and computed values was less than one centimetre. In terms of test performance using the pass/fail criteria developed for the BTD, 37 of the 40 comparisons were in agreement. However, a number of refinements have been identified which could further improve the seat belt algorithm and the overall usefulness of the model.
Technical Paper

Development of the CANFIX Infant and Child Restraint/Vehicle Interface System

This paper describes the development of an interface system for attaching infant and child restraints and booster cushions to passenger vehicles. The resulting prototype, known as CANFIX is based on the ISOFIX concept which was conceived in Sweden. The CANFIX design comprises two rear attachments to be secured to two anchorage points located behind the vehicle seat bight. In forward-facing child restraints, the CANFIX system also includes the tether anchorage feature. The results of preliminary dynamic testing of three CANFIX modified restraint systems are presented in the paper with the results of tests to examine the compatibility of the CANFIX system with current vehicle seats.
Technical Paper

Investigation of Dummy Response and Restraint Configuration Factors Associated with Upper Spinal Cord Injury in a Forward-Facing Child Restraint

Dummy response and restraint configuration factors associated with a known child injury environment were investigated using a spinal-cord injury accident case, a full-scale reconstruction, and sled simulations. The work is one of several studies undertaken in association with the International Task Force on Child Restraining Systems to support the development of improved neck injury criteria and restraint systems for young children. A two-vehicle crash involving a restrained child occupant was investigated in detail and reconstructed in full-scale at the Transport Canada Motor Vehicle Test Centre using the CRABI 6-Month dummy. Vehicle damage and crush characteristics closely resembled that of the case vehicles. Dummy instrumentation included head and chest accelerometers and upper and lower neck transducers. The case occupant had been facing forward and had sustained a contusion of the spinal cord at T2 that resulted in paraplegia.
Technical Paper

Restraint System Effectiveness as a Function of Seating Position

Drawing on provincial data files maintained by Transport Canada, the injury experience of passenger vehicle occupants as a function of occupant seating position, reported restraint use and occupant age is examined. Particular attention is given to the issue of rear seat lap belt effectiveness. Estimates of restraint system effectiveness are derived using a variety of approaches. These range from direct comparisons of the relative injury/fatality rates of restrained and unrestrained occupants in reportable accidents to double-pair comparisons based on “subject” and “control” occupants in fatal accidents. Available Canadian data suggest that the use of three-point seat belts by front seated occupants and the use of lap belts by rear seated occupants substantially reduces the likelihood of serious or fatal injury.
Technical Paper

Measurement of Effectiveness of Rear-Turn-Signal Systems Accidents from an Analysis of Actual Accident Data

A study of vehicle accident data from insurance claim files was conducted to determine the relative effectiveness of red and amber turn-signal systems in reducing rear-end collisions. The effectiveness was measured in terms of the relative frequency of accidents involving these systems, with respect to a number of vehicle, environmental, and driver factors. Control for vehicle exposure was made by comparing the non-turning accidents with the turning accidents for the relevant rear-turn-signal systems. Analyses revealed that there were no statistically significant differences in rear-end accident rates between the red and amber turn-signal systems. On the basis of safety benefits, the results of the study did not appear to provide sufficient justification for changes to the present Motor Vehicle Safety Standards regarding the functional separation and colour coding of a rear-turn-signal system.