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Journal Article

Advanced Control Strategies for a Roll Simulator - A Feedback Linearization Technique Explored

This paper presents a feedback linearization control technique as applied to a Roll Simulator. The purpose of the Roll Simulator is to reproduce in-field rollovers of ROVs and study occupant kinematics in a laboratory setting. For a system with known parameters, non-linear dynamics and trajectories, the feedback linearization algorithm cancels out the non-linearities such that the closed-loop dynamics behave in a linear fashion. The control inputs are computed values that are needed to attain certain desired motions. The computed values are a form of inverse dynamics or feed-forward calculation. With increasing system eigenvalue, the controller exhibits greater response time. This, however, puts a greater demand on the translational actuator. The controller also demonstrates that it is able to compensate for and reject a disturbance in force level.
Technical Paper

Tractor-Semitrailer Stability Following a Steer Axle Tire Blowout at Speed and Comparison to Computer Simulation Models

This paper documents the vehicle response of a tractor-semitrailer following a sudden air loss (Blowout) in a steer axle tire while traveling at highway speeds. The study seeks to compare full-scale test data to predicted response from detailed heavy truck computer vehicle dynamics simulation models. Full-scale testing of a tractor-semitrailer experiencing a sudden failure of a steer axle tire was conducted. Vehicle handling parameters were recorded by on-board computers leading up to and immediately following the sudden air loss. Inertial parameters (roll, yaw, pitch, and accelerations) were measured and recorded for the tractor and semitrailer, along with lateral and longitudinal speeds. Steering wheel angle was also recorded. These data are presented and also compared to the results of computer simulation models. The first simulation model, SImulation MOdel Non-linear (SIMON), is a vehicle dynamic simulation model within the Human Vehicle Environment (HVE) software environment.
Technical Paper

Establishing Occupant Response Metrics on a Roll Simulator

This paper presents the results of an in-depth study of the measurement of occupant kinematic response on the S-E-A Roll Simulator. This roll simulator was built to provide an accurate and repeatable test procedure for the evaluation of occupant protection and restraint systems during roll events within a variety of occupant compartments. In the present work this roll simulator was utilized for minimum-energy, or threshold type, rollover events of recreational off-highway vehicles (ROVs). Input profiles for these tests were obtained through a separate study involving autonomous full vehicle tests [1]. During simulated roll events anthropomorphic test device (ATD) responses were measured using on-board high speed video, an optical three-dimensional motion capture system (OCMS) and an array of string potentiometers.
Technical Paper

Validation of a Roll Simulator for Recreational Off-Highway Vehicles

A two-degree-of-freedom Roll Simulator has been developed to study the occupant kinematics of Recreational Off-Highway Vehicles (ROVs). To validate the roll simulator, test data was collected on a population of ROVs on the market today. J-turn maneuvers were performed to find the minimum energy limits required to tip up the vehicles. Two sets of tests were performed: for the first set, 10 vehicles were tested, where the motion was limited by safety outriggers to 10-15 degrees of roll; and for the second set, three of these vehicles were re-tested with outriggers removed and the vehicle motion allowed to reach 90 degrees of roll. These quarter-turn rollover tests were performed autonomously using an Automatic Steering Controller (ASC) and a Brake and Throttle Robot (BTR). Lateral and longitudinal accelerations as well as roll rate and roll angle were recorded for all tests.
Technical Paper

Measured Vehicle Center-of-Gravity Locations - Including NHTSA's Data Through 2008 NCAP

This paper is a printed listing of public domain vehicle center-of-gravity (CG) location measurements conducted on behalf of the National Highway Traffic Safety Administration (NHTSA). This paper is an extension of the 1999 SAE paper titled “Measured Vehicle Inertia Parameters - NHTSA's Data Through November 1998” ( 1 ). The previous paper contained data for 496 vehicles. This paper includes data for 528 additional vehicles tested as part of NHTSA's New Car Assessment Program (NCAP) for year 2001 through year 2008 ( 2 , 3 , 4 , 5 , 6 , 7 , 8 , 9 ). The previous data included center-of-gravity location and mass moments-of-inertia for nearly all of the entries. The NCAP involves only the CG location measurements; so the vehicles listed in this paper do not have inertia data. This paper provides a brief discussion of the entries provided in the tabular listings as well as the accuracy of CG height measurements.
Technical Paper

Simulation Results from a Model of a Tractor Trailer Vehicle Equipped with Roll Stability Control

In 2007, a software model of a Roll Stability Control (RSC) system was developed based on test data for a Volvo tractor at NHTSA's Vehicle Research and Test Center (VRTC). This model was designed to simulate the RSC performance of a commercially available Electronic Stability Control (ESC) system. The RSC model was developed in Simulink and integrated with the available braking model (TruckSim) for the truck. The Simulink models were run in parallel with the vehicle dynamics model of a truck in TruckSim. The complete vehicle model including the RSC system model is used to simulate the behavior of the actual truck and determine the capability of the RSC system in preventing rollovers under different conditions. Several simulations were performed to study the behavior of the model developed and to compare its performance with that of an actual test vehicle equipped with RSC.
Technical Paper

Validation and Enhancement of a Heavy Truck Simulation Model with an Electronic Stability Control Model

Validation was performed on an existing heavy truck vehicle dynamics computer model with roll stability control (RSC). The first stage in this validation was to compare the response of the simulated tractor to that of the experimental tractor. By looking at the steady-state gains of the tractor, adjustments were made to the model to more closely match the experimental results. These adjustments included suspension and steering compliances, as well as auxiliary roll moment modifications. Once the validation of the truck tractor was completed for the current configuration, the existing 53-foot box trailer model was added to the vehicle model. The next stage in experimental validation for the current tractor-trailer model was to incorporate suspension compliances and modify the auxiliary roll stiffness to more closely model the experimental response of the vehicle. The final validation stage was to implement some minor modifications to the existing RSC model.
Journal Article

Integration of a Torsional Stiffness Model into an Existing Heavy Truck Vehicle Dynamics Model

Torsional stiffness properties were developed for both a 53-foot box trailer and a 28-foot flatbed control trailer based on experimental measurements. In order to study the effect of torsional stiffness on the dynamics of a heavy truck vehicle dynamics computer model, static maneuvers were conducted comparing different torsional stiffness values to the original rigid vehicle model. Stiffness properties were first developed for a truck tractor model. It was found that the incorporation of a torsional stiffness model had only a minor effect on the overall tractor response for steady-state maneuvers up to 0.4 g lateral acceleration. The effect of torsional stiffness was also studied for the trailer portion of the existing model.
Technical Paper

Vehicle Dynamics Modeling and Validation of the 2003 Ford Expedition with ESC using CarSim

The paper discusses the development of a vehicle dynamics model and model validation of the 2003 Ford Expedition in CarSim. The accuracy of results obtained from simulations depends on the realism of the model which in turn depends on the measured data used to define the model parameters. The paper describes the tests used to measure the vehicle data and also gives a detailed account of the methodology used to determine parameters for the CarSim Ford Expedition model. The vehicle model was validated by comparing simulation results with experimental testing. Bounce and Roll tests in CarSim were used to validate the suspension and steering kinematics and compliances. Field test data of the Sine with Dwell maneuver was used for the vehicle model validation. The paper also discusses the development of a functional electronic stability control system and its effect on vehicle handling response in the Sine with Dwell maneuver.
Technical Paper

Simulator Study of Heavy Truck Air Disc Brake Effectiveness During Emergency Braking

In crashes between heavy trucks and light vehicles, most of the fatalities are the occupants of the light vehicle. A reduction in heavy truck stopping distance should lead to a reduction in the number of crashes, the severity of crashes, and consequently the numbers of fatalities and injuries. This study made use of the National Advanced Driving Simulator (NADS). NADS is a full immersion driving simulator used to study driver behavior as well as driver-vehicle reactions and responses. The vehicle dynamics model of the existing heavy truck on NADS had been modified with the creation of two additional brake models. The first was a modified S-cam (larger drums and shoes) and the second was an air-actuated disc brake system. A sample of 108 CDL-licensed drivers was split evenly among the simulations using each of the three braking systems. The drivers were presented with four different emergency stopping situations.
Technical Paper

Implementation of an Electric All-Wheel Drive (eAWD) System

This paper presents the implementation and performance of an electric all-wheel drive system on a series-parallel, through-the-road hybrid electric vehicle. Conventional methods of all-wheel drive do not provide a suitable solution for this type of vehicle as the powertrain lacks a mechanical link between the front and rear axles. Moreover, this unique architecture allows the vehicle to be propelled solely by the front, or the rear, wheels during typical operation. Thus, the algorithm presented here manages wheel slip by either the front, or rear wheels when engaging to provide all-wheel drive capability. necessary testing validates the robustness of this Extensive system.
Technical Paper

Refinements of a Heavy Truck ABS Model

In 2004, a model of a 6s6m ABS controller was developed in order to support NHTSA's efforts in the study of heavy truck braking performance. This model was developed using Simulink and interfaced with TruckSim, a vehicle dynamics software package, in order to create an accurate braking simulation of a 6×4 Peterbilt straight truck. For this study, the vehicle model braking dynamics were improved and the ABS controller model was refined. Also, the controller was made adaptable to ABS configurations other than 6s6m, such as 4s4m and 4s3m. Controller models were finally validated to experimental data from the Peterbilt truck, gathered at NHTSA's Vehicle Research and Test Center (VRTC).
Technical Paper

Effects of ABS Controller Parameters on Heavy Truck Model Braking Performance

This paper covers research conducted at the National Highway Traffic Safety Administration's Vehicle Research and Test Center (VRTC) examining the performance of semitrailer anti-lock braking systems (ABS). For this study, a vehicle dynamics model was constructed for the combination of a 4×2 tractor and a 48-foot trailer, using TruckSim. ABS models for the tractor and trailer, as well as brake dynamics and surface friction models, were created in Simulink so that the effect of varying ABS controller parameters and configurations on semitrailer braking performance could be studied under extreme braking maneuvers. The longitudinal and lateral performances of this tractor-trailer model were examined for a variety of different trailer ABS controller models, including the 2s1m, 4s2m, and 4s4m configurations. Also, alternative controllers of the same configuration were studied by varying the parameters of the 2s1m controller.
Technical Paper

Closed Loop Steering System Model for the National Advanced Driving Simulator

This paper presents the details of the model for the physical steering system used on the National Advanced Driving Simulator. The system is basically a hardware-in-the-loop (steering feedback motor and controls) steering system coupled with the core vehicle dynamics of the simulator. The system's torque control uses cascaded position and velocity feedback and is controlled to provide steering feedback with variable stiffness and dynamic properties. The reference model, which calculates the desired value of the torque, is made of power steering torque, damping function torque, torque from tires, locking limit torque, and driver input torque. The model also provides a unique steering dead-band function that is important for on-center feel. A Simulink model of the hardware/software is presented and analysis of the simulator steering system is provided.
Technical Paper

Modeling and Implementation of Steering System Feedback for the National Advanced Driving Simulator

This paper presents a real-time steering system torque feedback model used in the National Advanced Driving Simulator (NADS). The vehicle model is based on real-time recursive multi-body dynamics augmented with vehicle subsystems models including tires, power train, brakes, aerodynamics and steering. The steering system feel is of paramount importance for the fidelity of the simulator. The driver has to feel the appropriate torque as he/she steers the vehicle. This paper presents a detailed mathematical model of the steering physics from low-speed stick-slip to high-speed states. On-center steering weave handling and aggressive lane change inputs are used to validate the basic mathematical predictions. This validation is objective and open loop, and was done using field experiments.
Technical Paper

Model Validation of the 1997 Jeep Cherokee for the National Advanced Driving Simulator

This paper presents an evaluation of a complete vehicle dynamics model for a 1997 Jeep Cherokee to be used for the National Advanced Driving Simulator. Vehicle handling and powertrain dynamics are evaluated and simulation results are compared with experimental field-testing. NADSdyna, the National Advanced Driving Simulator vehicle dynamics software, is used. The Jeep evaluation covers vehicle directional dynamics that include steady state, transient and frequency response, and vehicle longitudinal dynamics that include acceleration and braking.
Technical Paper

Vehicle Dynamics Modeling for the National Advanced Driving Simulator of a 1997 Jeep Cherokee

This paper discusses the development of the 1997 Jeep Cherokee model for the National Advanced Driving Simulator's planned vehicle dynamics software, NADSdyna. Recursive rigid body formalism called the Real Time Recursive Dynamics (RTRD) developed by the University of Iowa is used to model the front and rear suspension mechanisms. To complement vehicle dynamics for simulator applications, subsystems that include tires, aerodynamics, powertrain, brake, and steering are added to the rigid body dynamics model. These models provide high fidelity driving realism to simulate severe handling maneuvers in real time. The soundness of the model does not only depend on the mathematics of the model, but also on the validity of the parameters. Therefore, this paper discusses thoroughly the methodology of parameters estimation. A generic model of cruise control is included.
Technical Paper

Validation Results from Using NADSdyna Vehicle Dynamics Simulation

This paper presents an evaluation of a vehicle dynamics model intended to be used for the National Advanced Driving Simulator (NADS). Dynamic validation for high performance simulation is not merely a comparison between experimental and simulation plots. It involves strong insight of vehicle's subsystems mechanics, limitations of the mathematical formulations, and experimental predictions. Lateral, longitudinal, and ride dynamics are evaluated using field test data, and analytical diagnostics. The evaluation includes linear and non-linear range of vehicle dynamics response.