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Technical Paper

An Efficient Path Planning Methodology Based on the Starting Region Selection

2020-04-14
2020-01-0118
Automated parking is an efficient way to solve parking difficulties and path planning is of great concern for parking maneuvers [1]. Meanwhile, the starting region of path planning greatly affects the parking process and efficiency. The present research of the starting region are mostly determined based on a single algorithm, which limits the flexibility and efficiency of planning feasible paths. This paper, taking parallel parking and vertical parking for example, proposes a method to calculate the starting region and select the most suitable path planning algorithm for parking, which can improve the parking efficiency and reduce the complexity. The collision situations of each path planning algorithm are analyzed under collision-free conditions based on parallel and vertical parking. The starting region for each algorithm can then be calculated under collision-free conditions.
Technical Paper

Mechanical Response of Laterally-Constrained Prismatic Battery Cells under Local Loading

2020-04-14
2020-01-0200
The crash safety of lithium-ion batteries has received great attention in recent years because of their growing popularity in electric vehicles. However, the safety issues of prismatic batteries have not been thoroughly studied; in particular, the mechanical responses of prismatic battery cells with lateral constraints under varied loading conditions still remain unclear. In this study, indentation tests are conducted to study the mechanical response of prismatic battery cells. Fixtures providing lateral constraint which simulates the real packing situation in battery module are designed. Firstly, the effects of lateral constraints on coupled mechanical and electrical responses of prismatic battery cells are analyzed and discussed. Secondly, dynamic indentation tests of prismatic cells with lateral constraints are carried out. The response of the stacked batteries under local loading is revealed.
Technical Paper

Effect of Oil Viscosity and Driving Mode on Oil Dilution and Transient Emissions Including Particle Number in Plug-In Hybrid Electric Vehicle

2020-04-14
2020-01-0362
Plug-in electric vehicle (PHEV) has a promising prospect to reduce greenhouse gas (GHG) emission and optimize engine operating in high-efficiency region. According to the maximum electric power and all-electric range, PHEVs are divided into two categories, including “all-electric PHEV” and “blended PHEV” and the latter provides a potential for more rational energy distribution because engine participates in vehicle driving during aggressive acceleration not just by motor. However, the frequent use of engine may result in severe emissions especially in low state of charge (SOC) and ahead of catalyst light-off. This study quantitatively investigates the impact of oil viscosity and driving mode (hybrid/conventional) on oil dilution and emissions including particle number (PN).
Technical Paper

Fault-Tolerant Control of Regenerative Braking System on In-Wheel Motors Driven Electric Vehicles

2020-04-14
2020-01-0994
A novel fault tolerant brake strategy for In-wheel motor driven electric vehicles based on integral sliding mode control and optimal online allocation is proposed in this paper. The braking force distribution and redistribution, which is achieved in online control allocation segment, aim at maximizing energy efficiency of the vehicle and isolating faulty actuators simultaneously. The In-wheel motor can generate both driving torque and braking torque according to different vehicle dynamic demands. In braking procedure, In-wheel motors generate electric braking torque to achieve energy regeneration. The strategy is designed to make sure that the stability of vehicle can be guaranteed which means vehicle can follow desired trajectory even if one of the driven motor has functional failure.
Technical Paper

Dynamic Load Identification for Battery Pack Bolt Based on Machine Learning

2020-04-14
2020-01-0865
Batteries are exposed to dynamic load during vehicle driving. It is significant to clarify the load input of the battery system during vehicle driving for battery pack structural design and optimization. Currently, bolt connection is mostly applied for battery pack constraint to vehicle, as well as for module assembly inside the pack. However, accurate bolt load is always difficult to obtain, while directly force measurement is expensive and time consuming in engineering. In this paper, a precise data driven model based on Elman neural network is established to identify the dynamic bolt loads of the battery pack, using tested acceleration data near bolts. The dynamic bolt force data is measured at the same time with the acceleration data during vehicle running in different driving conditions, utilizing customized bolt force sensors.
Technical Paper

Cooperative Ramp Merging Control for Connected and Automated Vehicles

2020-02-24
2020-01-5020
Traffic congestions are increasingly severe in urban areas, especially at the merging areas of the ramps and the arterial roads. Because of the complex conflict relationship of the vehicles in ramps and arterial roads in terms of time-spatial constraints, it is challenging to coordinate the motion of these vehicles, which may easily cause congestions at the merging areas. The connected and automated vehicles (CAVs) provides potential opportunities to solve this problem. A centralized merging control method for CAVs is proposed in this paper, which can organize the traffic movements in merging areas efficiently and safely. In this method, the merging control model is built to formulate the vehicle coordination problem in merging areas, which is then transformed to the discrete nonlinear optimization form. A simulation model is built to verify the proposed method.
Technical Paper

Fuel Cell Vehicles: An Opportunity for China's Greenhouse Gas Reduction

2019-12-19
2019-01-2263
Fuel cell vehicle and battery electric vehicle are two environmentally benign vehicle technology types possibly meeting the zero-emission regulations in the future. The premise is they can achieve parity with conventional vehicle both environmentally and economically. Besides, it is necessary to distinguish which technology is more suitable in China's current and future context. This paper compares their cost-effectiveness for reducing greenhouse gas emissions, examining the life-cycle greenhouse gas emissions of conventional gasoline vehicle, battery electric vehicle and fuel cell vehicle in China's energy context under three different scenarios. The results indicate that under the 500km drive range, fuel cell vehicles are less competitive than battery electric vehicles currently. Fuel cell vehicles generate much more greenhouse gas emissions than battery vehicles and conventional gasoline vehicles.
Technical Paper

Active Damping Control of Torsional Vibration in a Diesel Hybrid Powertrain

2019-12-19
2019-01-2342
This paper has designed a real time control algorithm to use ISG motor actively compensate the torque ripple produced by the engine, to reduce torsional vibration. This paper consists of 3 parts. In the first section, this paper has introduced the research object and its modification for experiments. Then the development of control strategy is presented. The engine dynamic model is built, and real-time control with a feedforward unit and a feedback unit is derived. Encoder and cylinder pressure is used for engine torque estimator. Then the ISG motor output the counter-waveform to make the overall output smooth. In order to verify the effectiveness of the control strategy, the final section has established a test bench, where two experiments are carried out. One of the experimental conditions is to set the engine at a constant operating point, while the other is to crank the engine from 0 rpm to idle speed with ISG motor.
Technical Paper

Optimal Speed Profile for Minimum Vibration during Engine Start Using Pontryagin’s Minimum Principle Approach

2019-11-04
2019-01-5026
An imperceptible engine start is critical to the acceptance of hybrid vehicles. This paper focusses on an optimal control problem that tries to reduce vibration during engine start. Efforts are made to obtain the optimal speed trajectory that could cause minimum vibration during engine start. In the first section, the target diesel powertrain is introduced. A four cylinder diesel engine is coaxially paralleled with an ISG motor. The ISG motor serves as the engine starter and engine flywheel. Its dynamic model is established using crank-link dynamics. Secondly, an index is brought out to evaluate the severity of vibration. The cylinder pressure variation is the main cause of engine torque ripple, which in turn results in engine speed fluctuation. The square of the angular acceleration is chosen as the index of vibration. The index shows a positive relation of cylinder pressure in terms of amplitude.
Technical Paper

A Topological Map-Based Path Coordination Strategy for Autonomous Parking

2019-04-02
2019-01-0691
This paper proposed a path coordination strategy for autonomous parking based on independently designed parking lot topological map. The strategy merges two types of paths at the three stages of path planning, to determinate mode switching timing between low-speed automated driving and automated parking. Firstly, based on the principle that parking spaces should be parallel or vertical to a corresponding path, a topological parking lot map is designed by using the point cloud data collected by LiDAR sensor. This map is consist of road node coordinates, adjacent matrix and parking space information. Secondly, the direction and lateral distance of the parking space to the last node of global path are used to decide parking type and direction at parking planning stage. Finally, the parking space node is used to connect global path and parking path at path coordination stage.
Technical Paper

Attitude Control of the Vehicle with Six In-Wheel Drive and Adaptive Hydro Pneumatic Suspensions

2019-04-02
2019-01-0456
The ability of actively adjusting attitude provides a great advantage for those vehicles used in special environments such as off-road environment with extreme terrains and obstacles. It can improve vehicles’ stability and performance. This paper proposes an attitude control system for realizing the active attitude adjustment and vehicle motion control in the same time. The study is based on a vehicle with six wheel independent drive and six independent suspensions (6WIDIS), which is a kind of unmanned vehicle with six in-wheel drives and six independent hydro pneumatic suspensions. With the hydro- pneumatic suspensions, the vehicle’s attitude can be actively adjusted. This paper develops a centralized- distributed control strategy with attitude information obtained by multi-sensor fusion, which can coordinate the complex relationship among the six wheels and suspensions. The attitude control system consists of three parts.
Technical Paper

Costs, Benefits and Range: Application of Lightweight Technology in Electric Vehicles

2019-04-02
2019-01-0724
The lightweight technology takes an important role in electric vehicle(EV) energy conservation domain, as lighter vehicle means less energy consumed under same condition. In this paper, the typical energy requirement in an NEDC cycle is investigated, and the relationship between lightweight rate and energy consumption reduction effectiveness is given. The benefit of lightweight to EV come from the less battery cost because of less energy requirement. For EVs, with less battery cost, a certain lightweight rate can be obtained with less total cost. On the other hand, if lightweight rate is very high, the battery cost won't be able to cover the lightweight cost. Besides, the relationship between driving range and battery capacity is discussed in this paper. It is found that there is a limitation of EV driving range, which is determined by the battery energy density.
Technical Paper

Full Protection Scheme and Energy Optimization Management of the Battery in Internal Combustion Engine Vehicles Based on Power Partitioning Model

2019-04-02
2019-01-1205
As the only energy storage component in the internal combustion engine vehicles (ICEVs), the battery is lack of comprehensive supervision and effective protection. Excessive discharge or aging cannot be detected and dealt with, which may lead to damage of the battery, even startup failure of the vehicle. In this paper, a full protection and optimization management scheme of the battery is proposed, to achieve comprehensive protection of the battery and energy optimization. Firstly, power partitioning model of the battery is established to reveal the battery characteristics in different states, which divides the battery into several function zones. Then, based on the power partitioning model, over discharge protection and graded overcurrent protection method are proposed, to achieve full protection of the battery. Thirdly, energy optimization management strategy based on generator’s multimode operation is introduced.
Journal Article

Energy Harvesting in Tire: State-of-the-Art and Challenges

2018-04-03
2018-01-1119
Although energy harvesting systems are extensively used in different fields, studies on the application of energy harvesters embedded in tires for vehicle control are rare and mostly focus on solving power supply problems of tire pressure sensors. Sensors are traditionally powered by an embedded battery, which must be replaced periodically because of its limited energy storage. Heightened interest in vehicle safety is expected to drive increased design and manufacture of in-tire sensors, which in turn, translates to rising demand for power generation in tires. These challenges emphasize the need to investigate the substitution of batteries and in-tire energy harvesting systems. Current in-tire energy harvesting methods involve piezoelectric, electromagnetic, and electrostatic power generation, whose energy sources include tire vibrations, deformations, and rotations. Piezoelectric harvesters are generally compact but operate for short durations.
Technical Paper

An Innovative Design of In-Tire Energy Harvester for the Power Supply of Tire Sensors

2018-04-03
2018-01-1115
With the development of intelligent vehicle and active vehicle safety systems, the demand of sensors is increasing, especially in-tire sensors. Tire parameters are essential for vehicle dynamic control, including tire pressure, tire temperature, slip angle, longitudinal force, etc.. The diversification and growth of in-tire sensors require adequate power supply. Traditionally, embedded batteries are used to power sensors in tire, however, they must be replaced periodically because of the limited energy storage. The power limitation of the batteries would reduce the real-time data transmission frequency and deteriorate the vehicle safety. Heightened interest focuses on generating power through energy harvesting systems in replace of the batteries. Current in-tire energy harvesting devices include piezoelectric, electromagnetic, electrostatic and electromechanical mechanism, whose energy sources include tire deformations, vibrations and rotations.
Technical Paper

Structural Designs for Electric Vehicle Battery Pack against Ground Impact

2018-04-03
2018-01-1438
Ground impact caused by road debris can result in very severe fire accident of Electric Vehicles (EV). In order to study the ground impact accidents, a Finite Element model of the battery pack structure is carefully set up according to the practical designs of EVs. Based on this model, the sequence of the deformation process is studied, and the contribution of each component is clarified. Subsequently, four designs, including three enhanced shield plates and one enhanced housing box, are investigated. Results show that the BRAS (Blast Resistant Adaptive Sandwich) shield plate is the most effective structure to decrease the deformation of the battery cells. Compared with the baseline case, which adopts a 6.35-mm-thick aluminum sheet as the shield plate, the BRAS can reduce the shortening of cells by more than 50%. Another type of sandwich structure, the NavTruss, can also improve the safety of battery pack, but not as effectively as the BRAS.
Technical Paper

Emergency Steering Evasion Control by Combining the Yaw Moment with Steering Assistance

2018-04-03
2018-01-0818
The coordinated control of stability and steering systems in collision avoidance steering evasion has been widely studied in vehicle active safety area, but the studies are mainly aimed at autonomous vehicle without driver or conventional combustion engine vehicle. This paper focuses on the control of hybrid vehicle integrated with rear hub in emergency steering evasion situation, and considering the driver’s characteristics. First, the mathematics model of vehicle dynamics and driver has been given. Second, based on the planned steering evasion path, the model predictive control method is presented for achieving higher evasion path tracking accuracy under driver’s steering input. The prediction model includes an adaptive preview distance driver model and a vehicle dynamics model to predict the driver input and the vehicle trajectory.
Technical Paper

Recycling-Based Reduction of Energy Consumption and Carbon Emission of China’s Electric Vehicles: Overview and Policy Analysis

2018-04-03
2018-01-0659
Electric vehicles maintain the fastest development in China and undertake the responsibility of optimizing energy consumption and carbon emission in the transportation field. However, from the entire life cycle point of view, although electric vehicles have a certain degree of energy consumption and carbon emission reduction in the use phase, they cause extra energy consumption and carbon emission in the manufacturing phase, which weakens the due environmental benefits to some extent. The recycling of electric vehicles can effectively address the issue and indirectly reduce the energy consumption and carbon emission in the manufacturing phase. China is setting up the recycling system and strengthening regulation force to achieve proper energy consumption and carbon emission reduction benefits of electric vehicles. Under the current electric vehicle recycling technologies, China can reduce about 34% of carbon emission in electric vehicle manufacturing phase.
Technical Paper

Piecewise Affine-Based Shared Steering Torque Control Scheme for Cooperative Path-Tracking: A Game-Theoretic Approach

2018-04-03
2018-01-0606
The new concept of “human-machine shared control” provides an amazing thinking to enhance driving safety, which has been attracted a great deal of research effort in recent years. However, little attention has been paid to the nonlinearity of the shared control system brought by the tire, which significantly influences the control performance under extreme driving conditions. This paper presents a novel shared steering torque control scheme to model the human-machine steering torque interaction near the vehicle’s handling limit, where both driver and driver assistance system (DAS) are exerting steering torque to maneuver the vehicle. A six-order driver-vehicle dynamic system is presented to elaborate the relationship between steering torque input and vehicle lateral motion response. Particularly, we use a piecewise affine (PWA) method to approximate the tire nonlinearity.
Journal Article

Characterization of Metal Foil in Anisotropic Fracture Behavior with Dynamic Tests

2018-04-03
2018-01-0108
Metal foil is a widely used material in the automobile industry, which not only is the honeycomb barrier material but is also used as current collectors in Li-ion batteries. Plenty of studies proved that the mechanical property of the metal foil is quite different from that of the metal sheet because of the size effect on microscopic scale, as the metal foil shows a larger fracture stress and a lower ductility than the metal sheet. Meanwhile, the fracture behavior and accurate constitutive model of the metal foil with the consideration of the strain rate effect are widely concerned in further studies of battery safety and the honeycomb. This article conducted experiments on 8011H18 aluminum foil, aiming to explore the quasi-static and dynamic tension testing method and the anisotropic mechanical behavior of the very thin foil. Two metal foil dog-bone specimens and three types of notched specimens were tested with a strain rate ranging from 2 × 10−4/s to 40/s and various stress states.
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