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Technical Paper

Investigation on Ignition of a Single Lubricating Oil Droplet in Premixed Combustible Mixture at Engine-Relevant Conditions

2019-04-02
2019-01-0298
The ignition of lubricating oil droplet has been proved to be the main factor for pre-ignition and the following super-knock in turbocharged gasoline direct injection engine. In this paper, the ignition process of lubricating oil droplet in combustible ambient gaseous mixture was investigated in a rapid compression machine (RCM). The pre-ignition induction by oil droplet of the ambient gaseous mixture was analyzed under different initial droplet volume and effective temperature conditions. The oil droplet was suspended on a tungsten fiber in the combustion chamber and the ignition process was recorded by a high-speed camera through the quartz window mounted at the end of the combustion chamber. The pressure traces were also obtained by a sensor in order to get the ignition delay and analyze the combustion process in detail.
Technical Paper

Effects of Perforation Shapes on Water Transport in PEMFC Gas Diffusion Layers

2019-04-02
2019-01-0380
Water management, particularly in the gas diffusion layers (GDL), plays an important role in the performance and reliability of the proton exchange membrane fuel cells (PEMFCs). In this study, a two-phase multiple-relaxation-time (MRT) lattice Boltzmann method (LBM) is employed to simulate water transport in a reconstructed GDL and the effect of perforation shapes is investigated. The revised pseudopotential multiphase model is adopted to realize high-density ratio, good thermodynamic consistency, adjustable surface tension and high contact angle. The transport characteristics are analyzed in both vertical and horizontal transport directions. The LBM simulation provides detailed results in mesoscale and indicates that the surface tension dominates the process of water transport in the perforated GDL, which exhibits unexpectedly similarities in the vertical and horizontal transport.
Technical Paper

Effect of Thermodynamic Conditions on Spark Ignition to Compression Ignition in Ultra-Lean Mixture Using Rapid Compression Machine

2019-04-02
2019-01-0963
Compression ratio and specific heat ratio are two dominant factors influencing engine thermal efficiency. Therefore, ultra-lean burn may be one method to deal with increasingly stringent fuel consumption and emission regulations in the approaching future. To achieve high efficiency and clean combustion, innovative combustion modes have been applied on research engines including homogeneous charge compression ignition (HCCI), spark-assisted compression ignition (SACI), and gasoline direct-injection compression ignition (GDCI), etc. Compared to HCCI, SACI can extend the load range and more easily control combustion phase while it is constrained by the limit of flame propagation. For SACI with ultra-lean burn in engines, equivalence ratio (φ), rich-fuel mixture around spark plug, and supercharging are three essentials for combustion stability.
Technical Paper

Modelling and Simulation of a Magnetorheological Fluid Damper with Multi-Accumulator during Mode Shifting

2019-04-02
2019-01-0856
In a monotube magnetorheological fluid damper (MRFD), there usually exists a compensation chamber with designated initial gas pressure. This enclosed compensation chamber works as an air spring to some degree to provide force to the working piston. In this work, in order to extend the external damping force range and improve the controlling efficiency, a structure of MRFD with three additional accumulators is proposed. These additional accumulators are connected to the atmosphere through an air pump and the compensation chamber with a barometric valve. The external damping force range thus can be rapidly adjusted through mode shifting with this configuration. A mathematical model of this damper with coupled effects between the air and the magnetorheological fluid (MRF) is developed. Comparing the bench tests results with some simulation outcomes, the simulation model of this MRFD is validated.
Technical Paper

Simulation Research on Engine Speed Fluctuation Suppression Based on Engine Torque Observer by Using a Flywheel ISG

2019-04-02
2019-01-0787
This paper conducts simulation research on engine torque ripple suppression based on the engine torque observer by using a flywheel-ISG (integrated starter generator). Usually, engine torque can be suppressed by using a passive method such as by installing a flywheel or torsional damper. However, failure problems arise in hybrid system because of different mechanical characters of the engine and its co-axial ISG motor. On the prototype test bench, the flywheel of the engine has been removed and replaced by an ISG rotor, namely FISG (flywheel ISG). Besides, the crank and FISG rotor are directly connected, which means no dampers or clutches are installed. If the engine torque ripples can be suppressed by the same level as the flywheel and damper by FISG active torque compensation, the new system can be more compact and economical. Simulation efforts are made to verify its feasibility. Firstly, based on the experimental test bench, which is currently under construction.
Technical Paper

Full Protection Scheme and Energy Optimization Management of the Battery in Internal Combustion Engine Vehicles Based on Power Partitioning Model

2019-04-02
2019-01-1205
As the only energy storage component in the internal combustion engine vehicles (ICEVs), the battery is lack of comprehensive supervision and effective protection. Excessive discharge or aging cannot be detected and dealt with, which may lead to damage of the battery, even startup failure of the vehicle. In this paper, a full protection and optimization management scheme of the battery is proposed, to achieve comprehensive protection of the battery and energy optimization. Firstly, power partitioning model of the battery is established to reveal the battery characteristics in different states, which divides the battery into several function zones. Then, based on the power partitioning model, over discharge protection and graded overcurrent protection method are proposed, to achieve full protection of the battery. Thirdly, energy optimization management strategy based on generator’s multimode operation is introduced.
Technical Paper

Development of Model Predictive Control Strategy of SCR System for Heavy-Duty Diesel Engines with a One-State Control-Oriented SCR Model

2018-09-10
2018-01-1763
Urea-based selective catalytic reduction (SCR) of nitric oxides (NOx) is a key technology for heavy-duty diesel engines to achieve the increasingly stringent NOx emission standards. The aqueous urea injection control is critical for urea-SCR systems in order to achieve high NOx conversion efficiency while restricting the tailpipe ammonia (NH3) slip. For Euro VI emission regulation, an advanced control strategy is essential for SCR systems since its NOx emission limits are tighter and test procedure are more stringent compared to Euro IV and Euro V. The complex chemical kinetics of the SCR process has motivated model-based control design approaches. However, the model is too complex to allow real-time implementation. Therefore, it is very important to have a reduced order model for SCR control system.
Technical Paper

Numerical Analysis on the Potential of Reducing DPF Size Using Low Ash Lubricant Oil

2018-09-10
2018-01-1760
Diesel particulate filter (DPF) is necessary for diesel engines to meet the increasingly stringent emission regulations. Many studies have demonstrated that the lubricant derived ash has a significant effect on DPF pressure drop and engine fuel economy, and this effect becomes more and more severe with the increasing of operating hours of the DPF because the ash accumulated in the DPF cannot be removed by regeneration. It is reported that most of the DPFs operated with more ash than soot in the filter for more than three quarters of the time during its lifetime [1]. In order to mitigate this problem, the original engine manufacturers (OEM) tend to use an oversized DPF for the engine. However, it will increase the costs of the DPF and reduce the compactness of the engine aftertreatment system.
Technical Paper

An Optical Study on the Combustion of Gasoline/PODEn Blends in a Constant Volume Vessel

2018-09-10
2018-01-1748
Polyoxymethylene dimethyl ethers (PODEn) have high cetane number, high oxygen content and high volatility, therefore can be added to gasoline to optimize the performance and soot emission of Gasoline Compression Ignition (GCI) combustion. High speed imaging was used to investigate the spray and combustion process of gasoline/PODEn blends (PODEn volume fraction 0%-30%) under various ambient conditions and injection strategies in a constant volume vessel. Results showed that with an increase of PODEn proportion from 10% to 30%, liquid-phase penetration of the spray increased slightly, ignition delay decreased from 3.8 ms to 2.0 ms and flame lift off length decreased 29.4%, causing a significant increase of the flame luminance. For blends with 20% PODEn, when ambient temperature decreased from 893 K to 823 K, the ignition delay increased 1.3 ms and the flame luminance got lower.
Technical Paper

Improving Combustion and Emission Characteristics in Heavy-Duty Natural-Gas Engine by Using Pistons Enhancing Turbulence

2018-09-10
2018-01-1685
Compressed Natural Gas (CNG), because of its low cost, high H/C ratio, and high octane number, has great potential in automotive industry, especially for heavy-duty commercial vehicles. However, relative slow flame speed of natural gas leads to long combustion duration and low thermal efficiency and tends to cause knock combustion at high load, which will aggravate engine thermal load and reliability. Enhancing turbulence intensity in combustion chamber is an effective way to accelerate flame propagation speed and improve combustion performance. In this study, the flow simulations of several piston bowls with different inner-convex forms were carried out using three-dimensional computational fluid dynamics (3D-CFD) software CONVERGE. The numerical results showed the piston bowls with inner-convex could disturb the charge swirl motion and enhance turbulence of different intensity. A hexagram geometry bowl was proved to have the best function in strengthening turbulence intensity.
Technical Paper

Study of Turbulent Entrainment Quasi-Dimensional Combustion Model for HCNG Engines with Variable Ignition Timings

2018-09-10
2018-01-1687
Presently, urban transportation highly depends on the fossil fuels, but its rapid fluctuating economic issues and environmental consequences impose the variegation of energy sources. Hydrogen enriched compressed natural gas (HCNG) engines offer the potential of higher brake thermal efficiency with low emissions, which also satisfies the strict pollutant emission standards. The two-zone turbulent entrainment quasi-dimensional combustion model is developed to predict the combustion process of spark-ignited hydrogen enriched compressed natural gas-fueled engines. The fundamentals of thermodynamic process, turbulent flame propagation model and other sub-models like laminar burning velocity, adiabatic temperature and ignition lag model are introduced for the better accuracy. The experiments have been conducted for three different fuels; pure CNG, 20% HCNG, and 40% HCNG blends under MAP of 105 kPa for various excess air ratios (λ) and ignition timing (θi).
Technical Paper

Effect of Single and Double-Deck Pre-Chamber Designs to the Combustion Characteristics of Premixed CH4 /Air

2018-09-10
2018-01-1688
An experiment was carried out to investigate the effect of single and double-deck pre-chamber on the combustion characteristics of premixed CH4/air in a constant volume vessel using schlieren method. A special design was proposed for the visualization of the pre-chamber. Combustion with different initial temperatures (300 K, 400 K, 500 K) were observed at stoichiometric ratio to lean-burn limit. Although single-deck pre-chamber has advantages over double-deck pre-chamber in both initial flame development duration and main combustion duration, the latter could extend the lean-burn limit by up to 0.3 and promote the stability of ignition. It is also found that extensive distribution of active species in main chamber before ignition can accelerate speed of flame propagation enormously.
Technical Paper

Design and Analysis of Parallel Hybrid Electric Vehicles for Heavy-Duty Truck Applications in a Total Cost of Ownership Framework

2018-07-13
2018-01-5025
Due to the potential on decreasing fuel consumption and design flexibility, parallel configurations are widely used for hybrid electric vehicles (HEVs). However, the fuel economy and economic profitability of parallel HEVs for heavy-duty truck applications under Chinese driving conditions still need to be investigated. It is uneasy to improve the fuel economy of parallel HEVs with a single electric motor from control perspective only. In this article, the battery size of the architecture is optimized by using the dynamic programming (DP) approach, based on a dynamic degradation model of the LiFePO4 battery. Moreover, based on the DP results, a near-optimal control strategy of the hybrid powertrain system for online application is proposed. Finally, with two economic assumptions, the initial costs, operation costs, and payback periods are obtained in a total cost of ownership framework perspective.
Technical Paper

Experimental Study of Lean Mixture Combustion at Ultra-High Compression Ratios in a Rapid Compression Machine

2018-04-03
2018-01-1422
In order to meet increasingly stringent fuel consumption and emission regulations, more attentions are paid to improve engine efficiency. A large amount of energy-saving technologies have been applied in automotive field especially in gasoline engines. It is well known that lean burn and ultra-high compression ratio technologies are two basic and important methods to increase efficiency. In this paper, a rapid compression machine was employed to study combustion process of lean iso-octane mixture at ultra-high compression ratios (16 to 19:1). Regardless of flammability of the mixture, spark was triggered at the timing right after the end of compression, then, the flame propagation and/or auto-ignition can be recorded using high-speed photography simultaneously. The effects of equivalence ratio (φ), compression ratio (ε), dilution ratio, and effective temperature (Teff) on the combustion process was investigated.
Technical Paper

Combustion and Emission Characteristics of Polyoxymethylene Dimethyl Ethers (PODE)/ Wide Distillation Fuel (WDF) Blends in Diesel Engine

2018-04-03
2018-01-0926
Wide Distillation Fuel (WDF), with a distillation range from Initial Boiling Point of gasoline to Final Boiling Point of diesel, can be easily gained directly by blending diesel with gasoline. However, the reduced auto-ignitability of WDF could lead to higher HC emissions. Polyoxymethylene Dimethyl Ethers (PODE), with good volatility and oxygen content of up to 49%, have great potential to improve combustion and emission characteristics, especially for soot reduction. Experiments were carried out in a light-duty four-cylinder diesel engine fueled with neat diesel, gasoline/diesel blends (GD), GD/PODE blends (GDP) and the combustion and emission characteristics were carefully examined. Results showed that GDP had the lowest PM emission and diesel had the poorest one among the three fuels. Due to the addition of gasoline and the relatively poor ignitability, GD had lower combustion efficiency and higher Soluble Organic Fraction (SOF) emissions than diesel.
Technical Paper

Experimental Study and Numerical Interpretation on the Temperature Field of DPF during Active Regeneration with Hydrocarbon Injection

2018-04-03
2018-01-1257
Diesel particulate filter (DPF) is indispensable for diesel engines to meet the increasingly stringent emission regulations. Both the peak temperature and the maximum temperature gradient of the DPF during active regeneration should be well controlled in order to enhance the reliability and durability of the filter. In this paper, the temperature field of the DPF during active regeneration with hydrocarbon (HC) injection was investigated with engine bench tests and numerical simulation. For the experimental study, 24 thermocouples were inserted into the DPF channels to measure the inner temperature of the filter to capture its temperature field, and the circumferential, axial and radial distribution of the filter temperature was analyzed to understand the DPF temperature field behavior during active regeneration.
Technical Paper

Design Optimization of the Transmission System for Electric Vehicles Considering the Dynamic Efficiency of the Regenerative Brake

2018-04-03
2018-01-0819
In this paper, gear ratios of a two-speed transmission system are optimized for an electric passenger car. Quasi static system models, including the vehicle model, the motor, the battery, the transmission system, and drive cycles are established in MATLAB/Simulink at first. Specifically, since the regenerative braking capability of the motor is affected by the SoC of battery and motors torque limitation in real time, the dynamical variation of the regenerative brake efficiency is considered in this study. To obtain the optimal gear ratios, iterations are carried out through Nelder-Mead algorithm under constraints in MATLAB/Simulink. During the optimization process, the motor efficiency is observed along with the drive cycle, and the gear shift strategy is determined based on the vehicle velocity and acceleration demand. Simulation results show that the electric motor works in a relative high efficiency range during the whole drive cycle.
Journal Article

Experimental Investigation of the Mechanical Behavior of Aluminum Adhesive Joints under Mixed-Mode Loading Conditions

2018-04-03
2018-01-0105
In recent years, structural adhesives have rapidly become the preferred alternative to resistance spot welding in fabricating stronger, lighter aluminum connections. Connections inevitably undergo and must withstand complex quasi-static and/or dynamic loads during their service life. Therefore, understanding how loading conditions affect the mechanical behavior of adhesive joints is vital to their design and the advancement of structural safety. Quasi-static and dynamic tests are performed to analyze both the strength and failure modes of aluminum 6062 substrates bonded by an adhesive (Darbond EP-1506) for an array of loading directions. An Arcan test device, which enables application of mixed-mode loads ranging from pure peel (mode I) to pure shear (mode II) to the adhesive layer, is employed in quasi-static testing. A self-designed medium-speed test machine is utilized to perform dynamic testing.
Technical Paper

Numerical Investigation on the Effect of Fuel Temperature on Spray Collapse and Mixture Formation Characteristics in GDI Engines

2018-04-03
2018-01-0311
Spray atomization, spray-wall impingement, and mixture formation are key factors in affecting the particulate matter (PM) emission in gasoline direct injection (GDI) engines. Current knowledge of wall-wetting phenomenon and mixture formation are mostly based on the studies that the fuel is injected at ordinary temperature and various ambient conditions. In the real GDI engine, the fuel pipe and injector are always heated up by the pump and the engine body, especially at hot engine conditions, thus the fuel temperature is always higher than the ordinary temperature, and the relevant research is still limited. The aim of this study is to numerically investigate the spray, spray-wall impingement, and mixture formation characteristics under different fuel temperature conditions, so as to provide theoretical support in optimizing the combustion performance and further reducing the PM emission of GDI engines.
Journal Article

Development of Surrogate Model for Oxygenated Wide-Distillation Fuel with Polyoxymethylene Dimethyl Ether

2017-10-08
2017-01-2336
Polyoxymethylene Dimethyl Ether (PODEn) is a promising green additive to diesel fuel, owing to the unique chemical structure (CH3O[CH2O]nCH3, n≥2) and high cetane number. Together with the general wide-distillation fuel (WDF), which has an attractive potential to reduce the cost of production of vehicle fuel, the oxygenated WDF with PODEn can help achieve a high efficiency and low emissions of soot, NOx, HC, and CO simultaneously. In this paper, the first detailed reaction mechanism (225 species, 1082 reactions) which can describe the ignition characteristics of PODE1 and PODE3 at low temperature was developed.
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