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Technical Paper

Freeze Protection of Onboard Urea Co-Fueling System

The urea co-fueling approach to refilling a urea storage container onboard a vehicle is based on the design of a two-fluid dispensing nozzle. With a single refueling operation the nozzle enables an independent delivery of two fluids, diesel fuel and urea, into two separate containers. The person refueling the vehicle needs no new skills or knowledge. But most importantly, the co-fueling method eliminates a separate and a critical action of keeping up with timely refills of the urea as the condition for emissions compliance for the vehicle. However, freezing of aqueous solution of urea below -11.5°C puts additional demands on the design of the two-fluid nozzle and the vehicle fill pipe receptacle, so that a reliable co-fueling process is assured at these cold weather conditions. The paper describes the methods that prevent formation of ice in the co-fueling fill pipe, which would enable refilling of urea during continuous use of the vehicle at temperatures below urea freezing point.