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Technical Paper

Piston Bowl Geometry Effects on Combustion Development in a High-Speed Light-Duty Diesel Engine

2019-09-09
2019-24-0167
In this work we studied the effects of piston bowl design on combustion in a small-bore direct-injection diesel engine. Two bowl designs were compared: a conventional, omega-shaped bowl and a stepped-lip piston bowl. Experiments were carried out in the Sandia single-cylinder optical engine facility, with a medium-load, mild-boosted operating condition featuring a pilot+main injection strategy. CFD simulations were carried out with the FRESCO platform featuring full-geometric body-fitted mesh modeling of the engine and were validated against measured in-cylinder performance as well as soot natural luminosity images. Differences in combustion development were studied using the simulation results, and sensitivities to in-cylinder flow field (swirl ratio) and injection rate parameters were also analyzed.
Technical Paper

Optimal Pressure Relief Groove Geometry for Improved NVH Performance of Variable Displacement Oil Pumps

2019-06-05
2019-01-1548
Variable Displacement Oil Pump (VDOP) is becoming the design of choice for engine friction reduction and fuel economy improvement. Unfortunately, this pump creates excessive pressure ripples, at the outlet port during oil pump shaft rotation, causing oscillating forces within the lubrication system and leading to the generation of objectionable tonal noises and vibrations. In order to minimize the level of noise, different vanes spacing and porting geometries are used. Moreover, an oil pressure relief groove can be added, at the onset of the high pressure port, to achieve this goal. This paper presents an optimization method to identify the best geometry of the oil pressure relief groove. This method integrates adaptive meshing, 3D CFD simulation, Matlab routine and Genetic Algorithm based optimization. The genetic algorithm is used to create the required design space in order to perform a multi-objective optimization using a large number of parameterized groove geometries.
Technical Paper

Target Development for Transmission and Electric Motor NVH

2019-06-05
2019-01-1554
It is a common practice to conduct NVH fingerprinting and benchmarking assessments at the powertrain level, to understand source level noise and vibration. To assess the NVH influence of engine, e-motor, and transmission, sub-system testing is often conducted in addition to full powertrain testing. These powertrain or sub-system investigations provide valuable information regarding the status of “source” level excitations relative to targets and / or competitive powertrains. In the case of transmissions and e-machines, it is particularly important to understand source level tonal content and how this will be perceived at the vehicle level. However, variation in component design results in differences in order content, which complicates the process of objectively comparing multiple products. Multiple methods are presented here for characterizing tonal content of transmission and e-machines, based on assessments conducted in a component hemi-anechoic dynamometer test cell.
Technical Paper

Augmenting Vehicle Production Audit with Objective Data and Sound Quality Metrics to Improve Customer Experience in a Changing Automotive Landscape

2019-06-05
2019-01-1531
Vehicle manufacturers face increasing challenges in auditing the build quality of their vehicles while considering increasing consumer demands regarding NVH performance. This effect is compounded with the rise in electric and hybrid vehicles. The ability to audit vehicles for a variety of noise types is becoming increasingly important; these include powertrain noise, road noise, and wind noise. An automated measurement system was developed with specific algorithms and sound quality metrics to not only audit vehicle production quality but to add objective data, pass-fail criteria, and trend analysis.
Technical Paper

Analysis of Automatic Speech Recognition Failures in the Car

2019-04-02
2019-01-0397
In this paper, an approach to analyze voice recognition data to understand how customers use voice recognition systems is explored. The analysis will help identify ASR failures and usability related issues that customers encounter while using the voice recognition system. This paper also examines the impact of these failures on the individual speech domains (media control, phone, navigation, etc.). Such information can be used to improve the current voice recognition system and direct the design of future systems. Infotainment system logs, audio recordings of the voice interactions, their transcriptions and CAN bus data were identified to be rich sources of data to analyze voice recognition usage. Infotainment logs help understand how the system interpreted or responded to customer commands and at what confidence level.
Technical Paper

An Analytical Methodology for Engine Gear Rattle and Whine Assessment and Noise Simulation

2019-04-02
2019-01-0799
In this paper, a CAE methodology based on a multiphysics approach for engine gear noise evaluation is reviewed. The method comprises the results and outputs from several different analytical domains to perform the noise risk assessment. The assessment includes the source-path analysis of the gear-induced rattling and whining noise. The vibration data from the exterior surface of the engine is extended through acoustic analysis to perform the engine noise simulation and to identify acoustic hot spots contributing to the noise. The study includes simulations under different engine loading conditions with results presented in both time and frequency domains. Various sensitivity analyses involving different gear geometries and micro-geometries are investigated as well. Finally, the simulation results from three different engines are compared vis-a-vis.
Technical Paper

CFD-Simulation and Validation of Cabin Pressure during Door Closing Motions

2019-04-02
2019-01-0815
Under the competitive pressure of automotive industry the customer’s focus is on a vehicle’s quality perception. Side door closing efforts make a considerable share of the overall impression as the doors are the first physical and haptic interface to the customer. Customer’s subjective feeling of vehicle quality demands for detailed analysis of each contributor of door closing efforts. Most contributors come from kinematic influences. Beside the losses due to mechanical subsystems like the checkarm, latch or hinge friction one of the biggest impacts originates from the pressure spike that builds up due to air being pushed into the cabin. Subject of this publication is to discuss the dependencies of closing efforts on cabin pressure and air extraction. It demonstrates an approach to simulate the development of the air pressure during door closing motions and the validation of the simulation method with the “EZ-Slam” measurement device.
Technical Paper

Duct Shape Optimization Using Multi-Objective and Geometrically Constrained Adjoint Solver

2019-04-02
2019-01-0823
In the recent years, adjoint optimization has gained popularity in the automotive industry with its growing applications. Since its inclusion in the mainstream commercial CFD solvers and its continuously added capabilities over the years, its productive usage became readily available to many engineers who were previously limited to interfacing the customized adjoint source code with CFD solvers. The purpose of this work is to demonstrate using an adjoint solver a method to optimize duct shape that meets multiple design objectives simultaneously. To overcome one of the biggest challenges in the duct design, i.e. the severe packaging constraints, the method here uses geometrically constrained adjoint to ensure that the optimum shape always fits into the user-defined packaging space. In this work, adjoint solver and surface sensitivity calculations are used to develop the optimization method.
Technical Paper

EMI Coupling Mechanisms and Mitigations in a DC-DC Converter

2019-04-02
2019-01-0609
The EMI coupling mechanisms of a DC-DC converter in electrified vehicles are investigated for both conducted and radiated EMI. The noise sources and propagation paths are identified and quantified. The results show that the magnetic coupling between noise sources to some sensitive locations, including HV/LV terminals and CAN connector, can cause excessive emissions. The coupling between different components of the EMI filters may also lead to the degradation of the filter performances. Strategies are proposed to reduce the coupling, improve the filter performance and mitigate the emissions. The performances are verified in experiment.
Technical Paper

FRED II Quasistatic Seat Testing Rearward: An Improved Method Based on the SAE H-point Manikin

2019-04-02
2019-01-1032
Various methods have been used to load a seat in the rear direction, including FMVSS 207, assorted body blocks and QST (quasistatic seat test). However, each method lacks some critical aspect of occupant loading of the seat or is too complex for routine development work. A new method is presented to determine the strength and energy transfer of a seat to an occupant in rear impacts that reflects how an occupant interacts with the seat in a rear impact. A metal-cast H-point manikin, called FRED II, was modified to support a loading bar and was pulled rearward into the seatback by a hydraulic ram. The force and displacement of the loading and the inboard and outboard seatback angle were measured. The response of the seat was recorded by video. The moment about the recliner pivot at peak force was determined by aligning the center of the recliner in side views of the seat position initially and at peak load.
Technical Paper

Seat Performance and Occupant Moving Out of the Shoulder Belt in ABTS (All-Belts-to-Seat) in Rear Impacts

2019-04-02
2019-01-1031
This study examined occupant and seat responses with ABTS (all-belts-to-seat) in rear end collisions. Some have claimed improved ABTS seat performance and retention in rear impacts than conventional seats. ABTS seats tend to have higher ultimate yield strengths than conventional yielding seats. Most ABTS seats have asymmetric seatback stiffness due to the need for additional structure on one side of the seat to support shoulder belt loads. Many designs use a single-side recliner and single stanchion that anchors the D-ring. This asymmetry results in twisting of the seatback in severe rear impacts. Seatback twist can allow the occupant to move away from the shoulder belt. Rearward pull tests on ABTS seats also demonstrates seatback twisting and in some cases large drops in load during the test. The added strength and stiffness of ABTS seats lead to designs that are vulnerable to sudden force drops from separated parts.
Technical Paper

Closures weatherstrips with variable cross sections

2018-09-03
2018-36-0152
Closures systems performance is a trade-off between NVH (Noise, Vibration and Harshness) and DCE (Door Closing Efforts) requirements. Dynamic sealing performance and sheet metal rigidity are the key contributors for a stable system. The seals actuate like a spring on the system. Higher seal load is good for NVH performance, adding more dumping to the system, but it will negatively affect DCE, as it will demand additional energy to close the system. Nominal seal load must be defined to achieve a balance between these attributes. This study is about dynamic sealing profiles with variable seal load, which provides tunable solutions to address the trade-off between NVH and DCE on the side doors or rear closures. Dynamic sealing weatherstrips are made of sponge EPDM extruded profiles with a specified load, defined by its CLD (Compression Load Deflection), which is given by the cross section design.
Technical Paper

Striker with bumper implementation to improve chucking noise issues

2018-09-03
2018-36-0127
Investing in quality as added value to products becomes a means of guaranteeing satisfaction as well as customer loyalty, making it competitive in its respective segment. In the automotive business, this has not been different, It can observed a progress in the perception and customers demand in quality in the last few years. At the same time, that the industries need to guarantee the cost and time of response to the dissatisfaction of the customers. In this project, was possible to implement a locking door concept, with an effective solution to the door vibration problem in a B platform, vehicle model in South America.
Technical Paper

Stress Analysis on the Single-Lap SPR- Adhesive Hybrid Joint

2018-04-03
2018-01-1445
Self-pierced rivet (SPR) and adhesive are two important joining technologies widely used in automobile industry, and they are often used together to form a hybrid joint. SPR and adhesives can often be used in close proximity in a component, leading to an interaction of the two joints. This interaction can influence the corrosion and noise, vibration and harshness (NVH) characteristics of the structure, as well as its strength and durability. In this paper, the stress distribution in an SPR-adhesive hybrid joint is evaluated by using the finite element method, and then compared with that in an adhesive joint. Results indicate that the stress concentrates at the edge of adhesive layer in hybrid joint and adhesive joint and around the rivet in an SPR joint. The effect of rivet is numerically investigated by either removing the rivet from the hybrid joint or changing the position of the rivet on the overlapping area.
Technical Paper

Copper Effect on the Ultrasonic Fatigue Life of A356 Aluminum Alloy Under Variable Humidity Levels

2018-04-03
2018-01-1411
Ultrasonic fatigue tests (testing frequency around 20kHz) have been conducted on A356 aluminum alloys with different copper contents and AS7GU aluminum alloy. Tests were performed in dry air and submerged in water conditions. The effect of copper content was investigated and it was concluded that copper content plays an important role influencing the humidity effect on A356 aluminum alloy ultrasonic fatigue lives. Also, for the same copper content, copper in solute solution or in precipitate have different humidity sensitivities.
Technical Paper

Virtual Temperature Controlled Seat Performance Test

2018-04-03
2018-01-1317
The demand for seating comfort is growing - in cars as well as trucks and other commercial vehicles. This is expected as the seat is the largest surface area of the vehicle that is in contact with the occupant. While it is predominantly luxury cars that have been equipped with climate controlled seats, there is now a clear trend toward this feature becoming available in mid-range and compact cars. The main purpose of climate controlled seats is to create an agreeable microclimate that keeps the driver comfortable. It also reduces the “stickiness” feeling which is reported by perspiring occupants on leather-covered seats. As part of the seat design process, a physical test is performed to record and evaluate the life cycle and the performance at ambient and extreme temperatures for the climate controlled seats as well as their components. The test calls for occupied and unoccupied seats at several ambient temperatures.
Technical Paper

FEA-Based Simulation of Exhaust Hanger Forces

2018-04-03
2018-01-1288
Exhaust systems can be a source of vibrations that transmit inside the vehicle through the exhaust hangers. These vibrations are caused by engine excitations under acceleration. During the upfront development stage, it is important to predict accurately the forces of the exhaust hangers in order to drive a robust exhaust system design and prevent objectionable noise and vibrations inside the vehicle. This paper describes an FEA-based simulation method to predict the exhaust hanger forces. It demonstrates the effect of temperature on the exhaust dynamic behavior and its importance for an accurate prediction of the exhaust hanger forces.
Technical Paper

Development of Wireless Message for Vehicle-to-Infrastructure Safety Applications

2018-04-03
2018-01-0027
This paper summarizes the development of a wireless message from infrastructure-to-vehicle (I2V) for safety applications based on Dedicated Short-Range Communications (DSRC) under a cooperative agreement between the Crash Avoidance Metrics Partners LLC (CAMP) and the Federal Highway Administration (FHWA). During the development of the Curve Speed Warning (CSW) and Reduced Speed Zone Warning with Lane Closure (RSZW/LC) safety applications [1], the Basic Information Message (BIM) was developed to wirelessly transmit infrastructure-centric information. The Traveler Information Message (TIM) structure, as described in the SAE J2735, provides a mechanism for the infrastructure to issue and display in-vehicle signage of various types of advisory and road sign information. This approach, though effective in communicating traffic advisories, is limited by the type of information that can be broadcast from infrastructures.
Journal Article

Aerodynamic Investigation of Cooling Drag of a Production Pickup Truck Part 1: Test Results

2018-04-03
2018-01-0740
The airflow that enters the front grille of a ground vehicle for the purpose of component cooling has a significant effect on aerodynamic drag. This drag component is commonly referred to as cooling drag, which denotes the difference in drag measured between open grille and closed grille conditions. When the front grille is closed, the airflow that would have entered the front grille is redirected around the body. This airflow is commonly referred to as cooling interference airflow. Consequently, cooling interference airflow can lead to differences in vehicle component drag; this component of cooling drag is known as cooling interference drag. One mechanism that has been commonly utilized to directly influence the cooling drag, by reducing the engine airflow, is active grille shutters (AGS). For certain driving conditions, the AGS system can restrict airflow from passing through the heat exchangers, which significantly reduces cooling drag.
Technical Paper

Accelerated Corrosion Testing of Automotive Evaporators and Condensers

2018-04-03
2018-01-0062
There is an ongoing effort in the industry to develop an accelerated corrosion test for automotive heat exchangers. This has become even more important as automakers are focusing on corrosion durability of 15 years in the field versus current target of 10 years. To this end an acid immersion test was developed and reported in a previous paper for condensers (1). This paper extends those results to evaporators and establishes the efficacy of the test using these results and those reported in the literature. The paper also discusses variability in corrosion test results as observed in tests such as ASTM G85:A3 Acidified Synthetic Sea Water Test (SWAAT), and its relation to field durability.
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