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Technical Paper

Piston Bowl Geometry Effects on Combustion Development in a High-Speed Light-Duty Diesel Engine

2019-09-09
2019-24-0167
In this work we studied the effects of piston bowl design on combustion in a small-bore direct-injection diesel engine. Two bowl designs were compared: a conventional, omega-shaped bowl and a stepped-lip piston bowl. Experiments were carried out in the Sandia single-cylinder optical engine facility, with a medium-load, mild-boosted operating condition featuring a pilot+main injection strategy. CFD simulations were carried out with the FRESCO platform featuring full-geometric body-fitted mesh modeling of the engine and were validated against measured in-cylinder performance as well as soot natural luminosity images. Differences in combustion development were studied using the simulation results, and sensitivities to in-cylinder flow field (swirl ratio) and injection rate parameters were also analyzed.
Technical Paper

Surge Prediction in a Single Sequential Turbocharger (SST) Compressor Using Computational Fluid Dynamics

2019-06-05
2019-01-1490
The Single Sequential Turbocharger (SST) used in Ford’s 6.7L Scorpion Diesel is analyzed using Computational Fluid Dynamics (CFD) to draw conclusions about the compressor stability at low mass flows. The SST compressor concept consists of a double-sided wheel which flows in parallel fed by two separate inlets (front and rear), followed by a single vane-less diffuser, and a volute. CFD simulations for the full stage are performed at low mass flow rates Both, front and rear, sides have ported shroud casing-treatment (CT) in the inlet region. An objective of the analysis is to determine which side of the SST unit compressor (front or rear on the double-sided wheel) suffers flow break down first as the mass flow is reduced, and its impact on the overall stability of the SST compressor. Another objective is to better understand the interactions between the compressor inlet flow and the flow through the casing-treatment.
Technical Paper

Machine Learning Algorithm for the Prediction of Idle Combustion Uniformity

2019-06-05
2019-01-1551
Combustion stability is a key contributor to engine shake at idle speed and can impact the overall perception of vehicle quality. The sub-firing harmonics of the combustion torque are used as a metric to assess idle shake and are, typically, measured at different levels of engine break mean effective pressure (BMEP). Due to the nature of the combustion phenomena at idle, it is clear that predicting the cycle-to-cycle and cylinder-to-cylinder combustion pressure variations, required to assess the combustion uniformity, cannot be achieved with the state of the art simulation technology. Inspired by the advancement in the field of machine learning and artificial intelligence and by the availability of a large amount of measured combustion test data, this paper explores the performance of various machine learning algorithms in predicting the idle combustion uniformity.
Technical Paper

Modeling and Validation of a Transmission E-Pump for Application in Hybrid Vehicles

2019-04-02
2019-01-0349
The Electric Pump (E-Pump) is a critical component in the hybrid transmission system. The E-Pump provides flow to maintain a stable line pressure when the engine is in an off state. The main applications of the E-Pump are Park Pawl engagement and disengagement, engine start-stop operation and shadow shifting. A Systems Engineering Approach was followed to develop a medium fidelity plant model for the E-Pump. The developed model was initially tested and validated in the Model in-the loop (MIL) environment. After initial validation, the model was integrated into the overall vehicle model which was then tested on the Software in-the loop (SIL) and Hardware in-the loop (HIL) environments. The model was validated across different platforms and several operating conditions. The basic applications of the E-Pump such as park pawl actuation, engine starting and shadow shifting were validated.
Technical Paper

Quantifying the Effect of Initialization Errors for Enabling Accurate Online Drivetrain Simulations

2019-04-02
2019-01-0347
Simulations conducted on-board in a vehicle control module can offer valuable information to control strategies. Continued improvements to on-board computing hardware make online simulations of complex dynamic systems such as drivetrains within reach. This capability enables predictions of the system response to various control actions and disturbances. Implementation of online simulations requires model initialization that is consistent with the physical drivetrain state. However, sensor signals and estimated variables are susceptible to errors, compromising the accuracy of the initialization and any future state predictions as the simulation proceeds through the numerical integration process. This paper describes a drivetrain modeling and analysis method that accounts for initialization errors, thereby enabling accurate simulations of system behaviors.
Technical Paper

Investigation of the Acoustic Surface Power on a Cooling Fan Using the Mesh Morpher Optimizer

2019-04-02
2019-01-0833
A cooling fan is an essential device of the engine cooling system which is used to remove the heat generated inside the engine from the system. An essential element for successful fan designs is to evaluate the pressure over the fan blade since it can generate annoying noices, which have a negative impact on the fan’s performance and on the environment. Reducing the acoustic surface power will assist in building improved designs that comply with standards and regulations in achieving a more quiet environment. The usage of computational fluid dynamics (CFD), with support of mesh morphing, can provide simulation study for optimizing the shape of a fan blade to reduce the aeroacoustic effects. The investigation process will assist in examining and analyzing the acoustic performance of the prototype, impact of different parameters, and make a solid judgement about the model performance for improvement and optimization.
Technical Paper

Duct Shape Optimization Using Multi-Objective and Geometrically Constrained Adjoint Solver

2019-04-02
2019-01-0823
In the recent years, adjoint optimization has gained popularity in the automotive industry with its growing applications. Since its inclusion in the mainstream commercial CFD solvers and its continuously added capabilities over the years, its productive usage became readily available to many engineers who were previously limited to interfacing the customized adjoint source code with CFD solvers. The purpose of this work is to demonstrate using an adjoint solver a method to optimize duct shape that meets multiple design objectives simultaneously. To overcome one of the biggest challenges in the duct design, i.e. the severe packaging constraints, the method here uses geometrically constrained adjoint to ensure that the optimum shape always fits into the user-defined packaging space. In this work, adjoint solver and surface sensitivity calculations are used to develop the optimization method.
Technical Paper

An Assessment of the Impact of Exhaust Turbine Redesign, for Narrow VGT Operating Range, on the Performance of Diesel Engines with Assisted Turbocharger

2019-04-02
2019-01-0326
Electrically assisted turbochargers are a promising technology for improving boost response of turbocharged engines. These systems include a turbocharger shaft mounted electric motor/generator. In the assist mode, electrical energy is applied to the turbocharger shaft via the motor function, while in the regenerative mode energy can be extracted from the shaft via the generator function, hence these systems are also referred to as regenerative electrically assisted turbochargers (REAT). REAT allows simultaneous improvement of boost response and fuel economy of boosted engines. This is achieved by optimally scheduling the electrical assist and regeneration actions. REAT also allows the exhaust turbine to operate within a narrow range of optimal vane positions relative to the unassisted variable geometry turbocharger (VGT). The ability to operate within a narrow range of VGT vane positions allows an opportunity for a more optimal turbine design for a REAT system.
Journal Article

CFD Simulation of Oil Jets for Piston Cooling Applications Comparing the Level Set and the Volume of Fluid Method

2019-04-02
2019-01-0155
A new CFD simulation model and methodology for oil jet piston cooling has been developed using the modern level set approach. In contrast to the widely used volume of fluid (VOF) method, the level set approach explicitly tracks the interface surface between oil and air, using an additional field equation. The method has been extensively tested on two- and three-dimensional examples using results from literature for comparison. Furthermore, several applications of oil jet piston cooling on Ford engines have been investigated and demonstrated. For example, three-dimensional simulations of piston cooling nozzle jets on a diesel engine have been calculated and compared to test-rig measurements. Laminar jets, as well as jets with droplets and fully atomized jets, have been simulated using realistic material properties, surface tension, and gravity.
Technical Paper

Modeling Static Load Distribution and Friction of Ball Bearings and BNAs: Towards Understanding the “Stick-Slip” of Rack EPAS

2019-04-02
2019-01-1240
Electric power assisted steering (EPAS) systems are widely adopted in modern vehicles to reduce the steering effort of drivers. In rack EPAS, assist torque is applied by a motor and transmitted through two key mechanical components: ball bearing and ball nut assembly (BNA) to turn the front wheels. Large combined load and manufacturing errors not only make it hard to accurately calculate the load distribution in the ball bearing and BNA for the purpose of sizing, but also make the friction behavior of EPAS gear complicated. Rack EPAS gear is well known to suffer from “stick-slip” (i.e., sticky feel sensed by the driver), which affects the user experience. “Stick-slip” is an extreme case of friction variation mainly coming from ball bearing and BNA. Finite Element Analysis (FEA) in commercial software like ANSYS is usually conducted to study the load distribution and friction of ball bearing and BNA.
Technical Paper

Estimation of the Relative Roles of Belt-Wearing Rate, Crash Speed Change, and Several Occupant Variables in Frontal Impacts for Two Levels of Injury

2019-04-02
2019-01-1219
Driver injury probabilities in real-world frontal crashes were statistically modeled to estimate the relative roles of five variables of topical interest. One variable pertained to behavior (belt-wearing rate), one pertained to crash circumstances (speed change), and three pertained to occupant demographics (sex, age, and body mass index). The attendant analysis was composed of two parts: (1) baseline statistical modeling to help recover the past, and (2) sensitivity analyses to help consider the future. In Part 1, risk functions were generated from statistical analysis of real-world data pertaining to 1998-2014 model-year light passenger cars/trucks in 11-1 o’clock, full-engagement frontal crashes documented in the National Automotive Sampling System (NASS, 1997-2014). The selected data yielded a weighted estimate of 1,269,178 crash-involved drivers.
Technical Paper

Variable Cam Timing (VCT) Knock Root Cause Analysis and Failure Mode Prevention

2019-01-18
2019-01-5003
Knock in the Camshaft Torque Actuated (CTA) in the Variable Cam Timing (VCT) engine can be a NVH issue and a source of customer complaint. The knock noise usually occurs during hot idle when the VCT phaser is in the locked position and the locking pin is engaged. During a V8 engine development at Ford, the VCT knock noise was observed during hot idle run. In this paper investigation leading to the identification of the root cause through both test and the CAE simulation is presented. The key knock contributors involving torque and its rate of change in addition to the backlash level are discussed. A CAE metric to assess knock occurrence potential for this NVH failure mode is presented. Finally a new design feature in terms of locking pinhole positioning to mitigate or eliminate the knock is discussed.
Technical Paper

Bowl Geometry Effects on Turbulent Flow Structure in a Direct Injection Diesel Engine

2018-09-10
2018-01-1794
Diesel piston bowl geometry can affect turbulent mixing and therefore it impacts heat-release rates, thermal efficiency, and soot emissions. The focus of this work is on the effects of bowl geometry and injection timing on turbulent flow structure. This computational study compares engine behavior with two pistons representing competing approaches to combustion chamber design: a conventional, re-entrant piston bowl and a stepped-lip piston bowl. Three-dimensional computational fluid dynamics (CFD) simulations are performed for a part-load, conventional diesel combustion operating point with a pilot-main injection strategy under non-combusting conditions. Two injection timings are simulated based on experimental findings: an injection timing for which the stepped-lip piston enables significant efficiency and emissions benefits, and an injection timing with diminished benefits compared to the conventional, re-entrant piston.
Technical Paper

Effective Suppression of Surge Instabilities in Turbocharger Compression Systems through a Close-Coupled Compressor Inlet Restriction

2018-09-10
2018-01-1714
The current work demonstrates effective suppression of compression system surge instabilities by installing a variable cross-sectional flow area restriction within the inlet duct of a turbocharger centrifugal compressor operating on a bench-top facility. This restriction couples with the compressor, similar to stages in a multi-stage turbomachine, where the effective pressure ratio is the product of those for the restriction and compressor. During experiments at constant compressor rotational speed, the compressor is stable over the negatively sloped portion of the pressure ratio vs. flow rate characteristics, so the restriction is eliminated within this operating region to preserve compressor performance. At low flow rates, the slope of the compressor alone characteristics reaches a positive value, and the unrestricted compression system enters mild surge. Further reduction of flow rate with the unrestricted compressor inlet results in a sudden transition to deep surge instabilities.
Technical Paper

A NVH CAE approach performed on a vehicle closures pumping issue

2018-09-03
2018-36-0287
The use of finite element modeling (FEM) tools is part of the most of the current product development projects of the automotive industry companies, replacing an important part of the physical tests with lower costs, higher speed and with increasing accuracy by each day. In addition to this, computer-aided engineering (CAE) tools can be either used after the product is released, at any moment of the product life, in many different situation as a new feature release, to validate a more cost-efficient design proposal or to help on solving some manufacturing problem or even a vehicular field issue. Different from the phase where the product is still under development, when standard virtual test procedures are performed in order to validate the vehicle project, in this case, where engineers expertise plays a very important role, before to proceed with any standard test it is fundamental to understand the physics of the phenomena that is causing the unexpected behavior.
Technical Paper

Copper Effect on the Ultrasonic Fatigue Life of A356 Aluminum Alloy Under Variable Humidity Levels

2018-04-03
2018-01-1411
Ultrasonic fatigue tests (testing frequency around 20kHz) have been conducted on A356 aluminum alloys with different copper contents and AS7GU aluminum alloy. Tests were performed in dry air and submerged in water conditions. The effect of copper content was investigated and it was concluded that copper content plays an important role influencing the humidity effect on A356 aluminum alloy ultrasonic fatigue lives. Also, for the same copper content, copper in solute solution or in precipitate have different humidity sensitivities.
Technical Paper

Development of a Thermal Fatigue Test Bench for Cylinder Head Materials

2018-04-03
2018-01-1410
An innovative specimen design and test system for thermal fatigue (TF) analysis is developed to compare the fatigue behavior of different cylinder head materials under realistic cyclic thermal loadings. Finite element analyses were performed to optimize the specimen geometry and thermal cycles. The reduced section of the TF specimen is heated locally by a high frequency induction heater and cooled by compressed air. The mechanical strain is then induced internally by the non-uniform thermal gradient generated within the specimen to closely simulate what valve bridges in cylinder heads experience in real operation. The resulting fatigue life is a function not only of the inherent fatigue resistance of the alloys, but also of other relevant properties such as thermal conductivity, modulus of elasticity, and coefficient of thermal expansion. This test is an essential tool for comparing different alloys for thermal fatigue applications.
Technical Paper

Ion Current Measurement of Diluted Combustion Using a Multi-Electrode Spark Plug

2018-04-03
2018-01-1134
Close-loop feedback combustion control is essential for improving the internal combustion engines to meet the rigorous fuel efficiency demands and emission legislations. A vital part is the combustion sensing technology that diagnoses in-cylinder combustion information promptly, such as using cylinder pressure sensor and ion current measurement. The promptness and fidelity of the diagnostic are particularly important to the potential success of using intra-cycle control for abnormal cycles such as super knocking and misfiring. Many research studies have demonstrated the use of ion-current sensing as feedback signal to control the spark ignition gasoline engines, with the spark gap shared for both ignition and ion-current detection. During the spark glow phase, the sparking current may affect the combustion ion current signal. Moreover, the electrode gap size is optimized for sparking rather than measurement of ion current.
Technical Paper

Acetabulum Injury Investigation of Proposed US-NCAP in OI Mode

2018-04-03
2018-01-0538
In December 2015, the National Highway Traffic Safety Administration (NHTSA) published a Request for Comments on proposed changes to the New Car Assessment Program (NCAP). One potential change is the addition of a frontal oblique impact (OI) crash test using the Test Device for Human Occupant Restraint (THOR). The resultant acetabulum force, which is a unique and specifically defined in the THOR dummy, will be considered as a new injury metric. In this study, the results of ten OI tests conducted by NHTSA on current production mid-sized vehicles were investigated. Specifically, the test data was used to study the lower extremity kinematics for the driver and front passenger THOR dummies. It was found that the acetabulum force patterns varied between the driver and passenger and between the left leg and the right leg of the occupants. The maximum acetabulum force can occur either on the left side or right side of a driver or a front passenger in an OI event.
Technical Paper

Investigation of Flow Conditions and Tumble near the Spark Plug in a DI Optical Engine at Ignition

2018-04-03
2018-01-0208
Tumble motion plays a significant role in modern spark-ignition engines in that it promotes mixing of air/fuel for homogeneous combustion and increases the flame propagation speed for higher thermal efficiency and lower combustion variability. Cycle-by-cycle variations in the flow near the spark plug introduce variability to the initial flame kernel development, stretching, and convection, and this variability is carried over to the entire combustion process. The design of current direct-injection spark-ignition engines aims to have a tumble flow in the vicinity of the spark plug at the time of ignition. This work investigates how the flow condition changes in the vicinity of the spark plug throughout the late compression stroke via high-speed imaging of a long ignition discharge arc channel and its stretching, and via flow field measurement by particle imaging velocimetry.
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