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Technical Paper

Developing a Real-World, Second-by-Second Driving Cycle Database through Public Vehicle Trip Surveys

2019-07-08
2019-01-5074
Real-world second-by-second vehicle driving cycle data is very important for vehicle research and development. A project solely dedicated to generating such information would be tremendously costly and time consuming. Alternatively, we developed such a database by utilizing two publicly available passenger vehicle travel surveys: 2004-2006 Puget Sound Regional Council (PSRC) Travel Survey and 2011 Atlanta Regional Commission (ARC) Travel Survey. The surveys complement each other - the former is in low time resolution but covers driver operation for over one year whereas the latter is in high time resolution but represents only one-week-long driving operation. After analyzing the PSRC survey, we chose 382 vehicles, each of which continuously operated for one year, and matched their trips to all the ARC trips. The matching is carried out based on trip distance first, then on average speed, and finally on duration.
Technical Paper

Optimal Pressure Relief Groove Geometry for Improved NVH Performance of Variable Displacement Oil Pumps

2019-06-05
2019-01-1548
Variable Displacement Oil Pump (VDOP) is becoming the design of choice for engine friction reduction and fuel economy improvement. Unfortunately, this pump creates excessive pressure ripples, at the outlet port during oil pump shaft rotation, causing oscillating forces within the lubrication system and leading to the generation of objectionable tonal noises and vibrations. In order to minimize the level of noise, different vanes spacing and porting geometries are used. Moreover, an oil pressure relief groove can be added, at the onset of the high pressure port, to achieve this goal. This paper presents an optimization method to identify the best geometry of the oil pressure relief groove. This method integrates adaptive meshing, 3D CFD simulation, Matlab routine and Genetic Algorithm based optimization. The genetic algorithm is used to create the required design space in order to perform a multi-objective optimization using a large number of parameterized groove geometries.
Technical Paper

A Particle Swarm Optimization-Based Method for Fast Parametrization of Transmission Plant Models

2019-04-02
2019-01-0344
Transmission system models require a high level of fidelity and details in order to capture the transient behaviors in drivability and fuel economy simulations. Due to model fidelity, manufacturing tolerances, frictional losses and other noise sources, parametrization and tuning of a large number of parameters in the plant model is very challenging and time consuming. In this paper, we used particle swarm optimization as the key algorithm to fast correlate the open-loop performance of an automatic transmission system plant model to vehicle launch and coast down test data using vehicle control inputs. During normal operations, the model correlated well with test data. For error states, due to the lack of model fidelity, the model cannot reproduce the same error state quantitatively, but provided a valuable methodology for qualitatively identifying error states at the early stages.
Technical Paper

An Assessment of the Impact of Exhaust Turbine Redesign, for Narrow VGT Operating Range, on the Performance of Diesel Engines with Assisted Turbocharger

2019-04-02
2019-01-0326
Electrically assisted turbochargers are a promising technology for improving boost response of turbocharged engines. These systems include a turbocharger shaft mounted electric motor/generator. In the assist mode, electrical energy is applied to the turbocharger shaft via the motor function, while in the regenerative mode energy can be extracted from the shaft via the generator function, hence these systems are also referred to as regenerative electrically assisted turbochargers (REAT). REAT allows simultaneous improvement of boost response and fuel economy of boosted engines. This is achieved by optimally scheduling the electrical assist and regeneration actions. REAT also allows the exhaust turbine to operate within a narrow range of optimal vane positions relative to the unassisted variable geometry turbocharger (VGT). The ability to operate within a narrow range of VGT vane positions allows an opportunity for a more optimal turbine design for a REAT system.
Technical Paper

Regeneration Strategies for Gasoline Particulate Filters

2019-04-02
2019-01-0969
Gasoline particulate filters (GPFs) are extremely effective at reducing tailpipe emissions of particulate mass and particulate number. Especially in the European and Chinese markets, where a particulate number standard is legislated, we see gasoline particulate filters being deployed in production on gasoline direct injected engines. Due to the high temperature in gasoline exhaust, most applications are expected to be passively regenerating without the help of an active regeneration strategy. However, for the few cases where a customer drive cycle has consistently low speed over a long time frame, an active regeneration strategy may be required. This involves increasing the exhaust temperature at the GPF up to around 600 degC so that soot can be combusted. We compare two different ways of achieving these temperatures, namely spark retard and air fuel ratio modulation. The former generates heat in the engine, the latter generates heat in one or more catalysts in the exhaust system.
Technical Paper

Using Artificial Ash to Improve GPF Performance at Zero Mileage

2019-04-02
2019-01-0974
Gasoline particulate filters (GPF) with high filtration efficiency (>80%) at zero mileage are in growing demand to meet increasingly tight vehicle emission standards for particulate matter being implemented in US, EU, China and elsewhere. Current efforts to achieve high filter performance mainly focus on fine-tuning the filter structure, such as the pore size distribution and porosity of the bare substrate, or the washcoat loading and location of catalyzed substrates. However, high filtration efficiency may have a cost in high backpressure that negatively affects engine power. On the other hand, it has been recognized in a few reports that very low amounts of ash deposits (from non-combustible residue in the exhaust) can significantly increase filtration efficiency with only a mild backpressure increase.
Technical Paper

Topology Driven Design of Under-Hood Automotive Components for Optimal Weight and NVH Attributes

2019-04-02
2019-01-0834
Weight is a major factor during the development of Automotive Powertrains due to stringent fuel economy requirements. Light weighting constitutes a challenge to the engineering community when trying to deliver quieter powertrains. For this reason, the NVH (Noise Vibration Harshness) CAE engineers are adopting advanced vibro-acoustic simulation methods combined with topology optimization methods to drive the design of the under hood components for Noise Vibration and Harshness. Vibro-acoustic computational methods can be complex and require significant computation effort. Computation of Equivalent Radiated Power (referred to as ERP) is a simplified method to assess maximum dynamic radiation of components for specific excitations in frequency response analysis which in turn affects radiated sound. Topology Optimization is a mathematical technique used to find the best material distribution for structural systems in order to deliver a specific objective under clearly defined constraints.
Technical Paper

Duct Shape Optimization Using Multi-Objective and Geometrically Constrained Adjoint Solver

2019-04-02
2019-01-0823
In the recent years, adjoint optimization has gained popularity in the automotive industry with its growing applications. Since its inclusion in the mainstream commercial CFD solvers and its continuously added capabilities over the years, its productive usage became readily available to many engineers who were previously limited to interfacing the customized adjoint source code with CFD solvers. The purpose of this work is to demonstrate using an adjoint solver a method to optimize duct shape that meets multiple design objectives simultaneously. To overcome one of the biggest challenges in the duct design, i.e. the severe packaging constraints, the method here uses geometrically constrained adjoint to ensure that the optimum shape always fits into the user-defined packaging space. In this work, adjoint solver and surface sensitivity calculations are used to develop the optimization method.
Technical Paper

Enhanced Gate Driver with Variable Turn On and Turn Off Speeds

2019-04-02
2019-01-0608
Insulated Gate Bipolar Transistors (IGBT) are widely used for the vehicle traction inverter. Switching characteristics of these devices contribute to the inverter total loss and inverter efficiency is affected by the energy loss during each switching event. Traditional gate driver circuits are usually designed to meet the worst-case scenario and result is high switching loss of the IGBTs. Gate driver turn on and turn off resistances are selected accordingly for the worst-case scenario and their purpose is to protect the device from overshoot voltage that can cause the avalanche breakdown of the device. The gate charge and discharge circuit is usually composed of one or two resistors and the loss during turn-on and turn-off time is not optimized for all of the vehicle-operating conditions. Since microprocessor (μP) monitors the dc-bus voltage, output current and torque command, it can also determine if the device switching speed needs to be changed under different operating conditions.
Technical Paper

Efficiency Evaluation of Lower Viscosity ATF in a Planetary Automatic Transmission for Improved Fuel Economy

2019-04-02
2019-01-1296
With continued industry focus on reducing parasitic transmission and driveline losses, detailed studies are required to quantify potential enablers to improve vehicle fuel economy. Investigations were undertaken to understand the influence of lower viscosity Automatic Transmission Fluids (ATF) on transmission efficiency as compared with conventional fluids. The objectives of this study were to quantify the losses of lower viscosity ATF as compared with conventional ATF, and to understand the influence of ATF properties including viscosities, base oil types, and additive packages on fuel efficiency. The transmission efficiency investigations were conducted on a test bench following a vehicle-based break-in of the transmission using a prescribed drive cycle on a chassis dynamometer. At low temperature, the lower viscosity ATF showed a clear advantage over the conventional ATF in both spin loss and loaded efficiency evaluations.
Technical Paper

Application of Empirical Asperity Contact Model to High Fidelity Wet Clutch System Simulations

2019-04-02
2019-01-1301
Wet clutches are complex hydrodynamic devices used in both conventional and electrified drivetrain systems. They couple or de-couple powertrain components for applications such as automatic shifting, engine disconnect and torque vectoring. Clutch engagement behaviors vary greatly, depending on design parameters and operating conditions. Because of their direct impact on vehicle drivability and fuel economy, a predictive CAE model is desired for enabling analytical design verification processes. During engagement, a wet clutch transmits torque through viscous shear and asperity contact. A conventional Coulomb’s model, which is routinely utilized in shift simulations, is inadequate to capture non-linear hydrodynamic effects for higher fidelity analysis. Extensive research has been conducted over the years to derive hydrodynamic torque transfer models based on 1D squeeze film or 3D CFD. They are typically coupled with an elastic asperity contact model for mechanical torque transfer.
Journal Article

Improved Analytically Derived CO2 Prediction of Medium Duty Chassis-Certified Vehicles

2019-04-02
2019-01-0311
Medium duty vehicles come in many design variations, which makes testing them all for CO2 impractical. As a result there are multiple ways of reporting CO2 emissions. Actual tests may be performed, data substitution may be used, or CO2 values may be estimated using an analytical correction. The correction accounts for variations in road load force coefficients (f0, f1, f2), weight, and axle ratio. The EPA Analytically Derived CO2 equation (EPA ADC) was defined using a limited set of historical data. The prediction error is shown to be ±130 g/mile and the sensitivities to design variables are found to be incorrect. Since the absolute CO2 is between 500 and 1,000 g/mi, the equation has limited usefulness. Previous work on light duty vehicles has demonstrated a linear relationship between vehicle fuel consumption, powertrain properties and total vehicle work. This relationship improves the accuracy and avoids co-linearity and non-orthogonality of the input variables.
Technical Paper

The Effect of Friction Modifiers and DI Package on Friction Reduction Potential of Next Generation Engine Oils: Part II Aged Oils

2019-04-02
2019-01-0303
Engine oil plays an important role in improving fuel economy of vehicles by reducing frictional losses in an engine. Our previous investigation explored the friction reduction potential of next generation engine oils by looking into the effects of friction modifiers and dispersant Inhibitor packages when engine oil was fresh. However, engine oil starts aging the moment engine start firing because of high temperature and interactions with combustion gases. Therefore, it is more relevant to investigate friction characteristics of aged oils. In this investigation, oils were aged for 5000 miles in taxi cab application.
Journal Article

Smart DPF Regenerations - A Case Study of a Connected Powertrain Function

2019-04-02
2019-01-0316
The availability of connectivity and autonomy enabled resources, within the automotive sector, has primarily been considered for driver assist technologies and for extending the levels of vehicle autonomy. It is not a stretch to imagine that the additional information, available from connectivity and autonomy, may also be useful in further improving powertrain functions. Critical powertrain subsystems that must operate with limited or uncertain knowledge of their environment stand to benefit from such new information sources. Unfortunately, the adoption of this new information resource has been slow within the powertrain community and has typically been limited to the obvious problem choices such as battery charge management for electric vehicles and efforts related to fuel economy benefits from adaptive/coordinated cruise control. In this paper we discuss the application of connectivity resources in the management of an aftertreatment sub-system, the Diesel Particulate Filter (DPF).
Technical Paper

Impacts of WLTP Test Procedure on Fuel Consumption Estimation of Common Electrified Powertrains

2019-04-02
2019-01-0306
The new European test procedure, called the worldwide harmonized light vehicle test procedure (WLTP), deviates in some details from the current NEDC-based test which will have an impact on the determination of the official EU fuel consumption values for the new vehicles. The adaptation to the WLTP faces automakers with new challenges for meeting the stringent EU fuel consumption and CO2 emissions standards. This paper investigates the main changes that the new test implies to a mid-size sedan electrified vehicle design and quantifies their impact on the vehicles fuel economy. Three common electrified powertrain architectures including series, parallel P2, and powersplit are studied. A Pontryagin’s Minimum Principle (PMP) optimization-based energy management control strategy is developed to evaluate the energy consumption of the electrified vehicles in both charge-depleting (CD) and charge-sustaining (CS) modes.
Technical Paper

CVT Ratio Scheduling Optimization with Consideration of Engine and Transmission Efficiency

2019-04-02
2019-01-0773
This paper proposes a transmission ratio scheduling and control methodology for a vehicle with a Continuous Variable Transmission (CVT) and a downsized gasoline engine. The methodology is designed to deliver the optimal vehicle fuel economy within drivability and performance constraints. Traditionally, the Optimum Operating Line (OOL) generated from an engine brake specific fuel consumption map is considered to be the best option for ratio scheduling, as it defines the points at which engine efficiency is maximized. But the OOL does not consider transmission efficiency, which may be a source of significant losses. To develop a CVT ratio schedule that offers the best fuel economy for the complete powertrain, an empirical approach was used to minimize fuel consumption by considering engine efficiency, CVT efficiency, and requested vehicle power. A backward-looking model was used to simulate a standard driving cycle (FTP-75) and develop a new powertrain-optimal operating line (P-OOL).
Technical Paper

Variable Cam Timing (VCT) Knock Root Cause Analysis and Failure Mode Prevention

2019-01-18
2019-01-5003
Knock in the Camshaft Torque Actuated (CTA) in the Variable Cam Timing (VCT) engine can be a NVH issue and a source of customer complaint. The knock noise usually occurs during hot idle when the VCT phaser is in the locked position and the locking pin is engaged. During a V8 engine development at Ford, the VCT knock noise was observed during hot idle run. In this paper investigation leading to the identification of the root cause through both test and the CAE simulation is presented. The key knock contributors involving torque and its rate of change in addition to the backlash level are discussed. A CAE metric to assess knock occurrence potential for this NVH failure mode is presented. Finally a new design feature in terms of locking pinhole positioning to mitigate or eliminate the knock is discussed.
Technical Paper

Copper Effect on the Ultrasonic Fatigue Life of A356 Aluminum Alloy Under Variable Humidity Levels

2018-04-03
2018-01-1411
Ultrasonic fatigue tests (testing frequency around 20kHz) have been conducted on A356 aluminum alloys with different copper contents and AS7GU aluminum alloy. Tests were performed in dry air and submerged in water conditions. The effect of copper content was investigated and it was concluded that copper content plays an important role influencing the humidity effect on A356 aluminum alloy ultrasonic fatigue lives. Also, for the same copper content, copper in solute solution or in precipitate have different humidity sensitivities.
Technical Paper

Ion Current Measurement of Diluted Combustion Using a Multi-Electrode Spark Plug

2018-04-03
2018-01-1134
Close-loop feedback combustion control is essential for improving the internal combustion engines to meet the rigorous fuel efficiency demands and emission legislations. A vital part is the combustion sensing technology that diagnoses in-cylinder combustion information promptly, such as using cylinder pressure sensor and ion current measurement. The promptness and fidelity of the diagnostic are particularly important to the potential success of using intra-cycle control for abnormal cycles such as super knocking and misfiring. Many research studies have demonstrated the use of ion-current sensing as feedback signal to control the spark ignition gasoline engines, with the spark gap shared for both ignition and ion-current detection. During the spark glow phase, the sparking current may affect the combustion ion current signal. Moreover, the electrode gap size is optimized for sparking rather than measurement of ion current.
Technical Paper

On the Robustness of Adaptive Nonlinear Model Predictive Cruise Control

2018-04-03
2018-01-1360
In order to improve the vehicle’s fuel economy while in cruise, the Model Predictive Control (MPC) technology has been adopted utilizing the road grade preview information and allowance of the vehicle speed variation. In this paper, a focus is on robustness study of delivered fuel economy benefit of Adaptive Nonlinear Model Predictive Controller (ANLMPC) reported earlier in the literature to several noise factors, e.g. vehicle weight, fuel type etc. Further, the vehicle position is obtained via GPS with finite precision and source of road grade preview might be inaccurate. The effect of inaccurate information of the road grade preview on the fuel economy benefits is studied and a remedy to it is established.
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